Hardware

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Hardware

  1. 1. Hardware Overview of the CPU and its parts, memory, binary codes, peripheral devices, other system components
  2. 2. Schematic model of a computer system
  3. 3. COMPUTATION CYCLE <ul><li>I-cycle </li></ul><ul><li>E-cycle </li></ul>
  4. 4. CPU <ul><li>ALU </li></ul><ul><li>control unit </li></ul><ul><li>registers </li></ul><ul><li>data buses </li></ul><ul><li>Moore’s law: transistor density doubles every 18 months (today >100 M/chip) </li></ul>
  5. 5. HOW ARE THEY INTERCONNECTED? <ul><li>Through the system bus </li></ul>
  6. 6. Memory <ul><li>Main memory </li></ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EDO RAM (Extended Data Out RAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRAM (Dynamic RAM – faster) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM – even faster) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM </li></ul><ul><li>PROM (WORM) </li></ul><ul><li>EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>PCMCIA cards (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) </li></ul><ul><li>Flash memory – non-volatile chip – memory sticks </li></ul>
  7. 7. Memory types
  8. 8. Cache memory Easily accessible fast memory for frequently used data; located near the CPU
  9. 9. BINARY NUMBERS vs. BINARY CODES <ul><li>Binary numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Standard binary codes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASCII (American Std. Code for Information Interchange) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Abbreviations & numbers of bytes they represent
  11. 11. SPEED OF COMPUTERS <ul><li>CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using ALL instructions in the CPU (many PC’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using only the necessary instructions in the CPU (faster than CISC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VLIW (Very Long Instruction Word) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including more words per instructions. (faster than RISC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel processing (more processors) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Classes of computer systems
  13. 13. Types of storage devices <ul><li>Magnetic disks (random access) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hard discs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flexible disks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory sticks (random) </li></ul><ul><li>Optical disks (random) </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic tapes (sequential) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hard disks <ul><li>track/surface/cylinder concept </li></ul><ul><li>read-write head column </li></ul><ul><li>head-surface clearance </li></ul><ul><li>removable hard disks </li></ul><ul><li>data access times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seek time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rotation time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transfer time </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Hard disks (cont’d) <ul><li>physical sizes of hard disks </li></ul><ul><li>storage capacities of hard disks </li></ul><ul><li>will a disk twice the size store twice the data? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Flexible disks <ul><li>Sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Storage capacities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HD diskettes – 1.44 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ZIP disks – 100, 250, 750 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory sticks – >512 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formatting </li></ul><ul><li>Access times for some types of disks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large DASD 1-10 msec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>winchester 10-20 msec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>floppy 175-300 msec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>optical 100-500 msec </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Other disk technologies <ul><li>Floptical disks (optical seek/magnetic store) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>write & erase! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cache disk (not a disk – it is a fast memory) </li></ul><ul><li>RAID (Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks) </li></ul><ul><li>Expandable storage devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk cartridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ZIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory sticks </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Other disk technologies (cont’d) <ul><li>Optical disks, CD’s (3-650 MB) </li></ul><ul><li>WORM optical disks </li></ul><ul><li>MO (Magneto-Optical) disks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic/CDROM technologies combined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write & erase!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DVD (17 gig: a larger capacity CD-ROM) </li></ul><ul><li>Indexed organization of disks for storage and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>SAN (Storage Area Networks) – networked storage devices </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tapes <ul><li>Sequential access </li></ul><ul><li>Method of storage and parity </li></ul><ul><li>Tape cartridges Purpose and utility of tape storage </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking and density </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: about 10 GB </li></ul>
  20. 20. Some features of some secondary storage devices
  21. 21. Input devices <ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Bar code scanner </li></ul><ul><li>RFID receivers </li></ul><ul><li>Voice recognition </li></ul><ul><li>MICR reader </li></ul><ul><li>OCR </li></ul><ul><li>Pen input </li></ul><ul><li>Touch screen </li></ul><ul><li>Iris scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic card scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Image scanners </li></ul><ul><li>ATM (I/O) </li></ul>
  22. 22. MICR on checks
  23. 23. Output devices <ul><li>Monitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LCD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul><ul><li>Plotters </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MP3 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Standards which ensure seamless operation & interfacing <ul><li>Musical instruments digital standards </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia standards </li></ul><ul><li>Plug and play standards </li></ul><ul><li>Small Computer System Interface standards (SCSI) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) standards </li></ul>
  25. 25. End Hardware

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