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  1. 1. Computer System Components Presentation Instructions <ul><li>Use the Navigation Buttons at the bottom of this window to move through the presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the “Home” Button to go to the Menu if you want to jump to a specific section. </li></ul>END
  2. 2. Main Menu <ul><li>Basic Computer Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Block Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers in Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Volatile Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Computing “Power” </li></ul><ul><li>Related Links </li></ul>END
  3. 3. Menu - Basic Computer Tasks <ul><li>Input data or instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Store information in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Process data </li></ul><ul><li>Output data or results </li></ul>END
  4. 4. Menu - Block Diagram <ul><li>Block Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>System Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Processor </li></ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>CD/DVD Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion Card Slots </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics Card </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Ports </li></ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul>END
  5. 5. Menu - Numbers in Computers <ul><li>Binary Notation </li></ul><ul><li>ASCII </li></ul><ul><li>Units of Memory Size </li></ul>END
  6. 6. Menu - Non-Volatile Storage <ul><li>Magnetic Non-Volatile Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Solid-State Drive (SSD) </li></ul><ul><li>Compact Disc (CD) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) </li></ul><ul><li>Disk Formatting </li></ul>END
  7. 7. Menu - Operating Systems <ul><li>Operating System (OS) </li></ul><ul><li>System Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Platform Transfer </li></ul>END
  8. 8. Menu - Computing “Power” <ul><li>FLOPS and Processor Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Processor Efficiency and Data Width </li></ul><ul><li>Available RAM and RAM Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Available Hard Drive and Access Time </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics Card </li></ul><ul><li>Ports and Expandability </li></ul>END
  9. 9. Computer System Components Stuff that make them work END Slide 1 of 34
  10. 10. Basic Computer Tasks <ul><li>Input data or instructions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data or instructions are input to the computer by way of an input source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input devices include: keyboard, mouse, scanner, microphone, disk drive, and modem. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 2 of 34
  11. 11. <ul><li>Store information in memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data or instructions are stored in memory until the computer is ready to process them. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 3 of 34
  12. 12. <ul><li>Process data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The computer's processor processes the data or instructions by either manipulating the data or performing tasks based on the instructions. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 4 of 34
  13. 13. <ul><li>Output data or results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The computer outputs the results of its operations to an output device. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output devices include: monitor, printer, speaker, disk drive, and modem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note that devices such as disk drives and modems are both Input and Output devices. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 5 of 34
  14. 14. Simplified Block Diagram END Slide 6 of 34
  15. 15. <ul><li>System Controller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Talks” to the various System Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the flow of Data and Instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data “buses” of various widths & speeds </li></ul></ul>END Slide 7 of 34
  16. 16. <ul><li>Processor - “Brain” of the Computer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executes Instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performs Math and Logic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-Chip “Backside” Memory Cache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Localized Short-Term Storage of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saves Processing Time </li></ul></ul></ul>END Slide 8 of 34
  17. 17. <ul><li>RAM (Random Access Memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program and data storage for working data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read/Write - May be read from, erased, or written to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile (Temporary) - Data is lost when power goes off. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 9 of 34
  18. 18. <ul><li>Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program and data storage for saved data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read/Write - May be read from, erased, or written to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Volatile (“Permanent”) - Data is retained when power goes off. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 10 of 34
  19. 19. <ul><li>CD/DVD Drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data stored on Removable Optical Discs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read/Write capabilities depend on Drive and Disc Type. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Volatile (“Permanent”) - Data is retained when power goes off. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 11 of 34
  20. 20. <ul><li>Expansion Card Slots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow additional circuit cards (PCI) for specialized capabilities. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 12 of 34
  21. 21. <ul><li>Graphics Card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional circuit card dedicated to handling graphics capabilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has its own on-board memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger graphics memory increases speed and resolution of screen images. </li></ul></ul></ul>END Slide 13 of 34
  22. 22. <ul><li>Peripheral Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Connections to External Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various Types of External Bus Formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USB, Ethernet, Firewire-IEEE 1394, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>END Slide 14 of 34
  23. 23. <ul><li>Modem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device for converting computer data transmissions to (MOdulate) and from (DEModulate) a signal which is suitable for long distance transmission. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Modem for telephone line connection is commonly housed within the computer cabinet, although an external Modem is also possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A DSL Modem is required for DSL connections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Cable Modem is Required for Cable Internet connections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite internet connections require a Satellite Modem. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 15 of 34
  24. 24. Binary Notation <ul><li>The Binary number system is used in computers because it is compatible with the two states of electronic switching circuits - &quot;ON&quot; and &quot;OFF&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>One &quot;Bit&quot; is a Binary Digit having two possible values - 0 and 1. </li></ul><ul><li>One &quot;Byte&quot; = 8 Bits which can be used to store 1 alphanumeric character </li></ul><ul><li>One Byte can represent one of 2^8 or 256 possible values. </li></ul>END Slide 16 of 34
  25. 25. ASCII Code American Standard Code for Information Interchange <ul><li>&quot;ASCII&quot; is a standard binary code in which different combinations of bits are used to represent different letters, numbers, symbols, and control characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Each character requires one byte. </li></ul><ul><li>ASCII Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>01000001 = A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>01000010 = B </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>01100001 = a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>01100010 = b </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>00110001 = 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>00110010 = 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>00100100 = $ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>00001101 = Carriage Return </li></ul></ul></ul>END Slide 17 of 34
  26. 26. Units of Memory Size <ul><li>Kilobyte (K) = 2^10 = 1,024 bytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Slightly more than 1,000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Megabyte (M) = 2^20 = 1,048,576 bytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Slightly more than a million or approx. 1,000 K) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gigabyte (G) = 2^30 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Slightly more than a billion, or approx. 1,000 M) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terabyte (T) = 2^40 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Slightly more than a trillion, or approx. 1,000 G) </li></ul></ul>END Slide 18 of 34
  27. 27. Magnetic - &quot;Non-volatile” Storage <ul><li>Floppy Disk (400K - 1.44M) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>portable media, very low capacity, very slow, outdated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher Density Disks & Cartridges (>2.6G) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>portable media, moderate speed & capacity, outdated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: Zip (100, 250, 750MB), Jaz, Syquest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard Drive (> 500G) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal (non-portable) or External (portable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High speed, high capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tape Drive (>200G - used for backup) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>portable media, used mainly for backup, not widely used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow non-random access, high capacity </li></ul></ul>END Slide 19 of 34
  28. 28. Flash Memory Solid-State - &quot;Non-volatile” <ul><li>Flash Memory Cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacities > 1GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Small and Portable, Moderate to High Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in Digital Cameras & Handheld Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally Require Card Reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Flash Drives” and “Memory Sticks” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacities > 2GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Small and Portable, Moderate to High Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly Plug Directly into USB Port </li></ul></ul>END Slide 20 of 34
  29. 29. Solid-State Drive (SSD) Solid-State - &quot;Non-volatile” <ul><li>Use either Flash Memory or Battery-backed RAM </li></ul><ul><li>May be used as replacement for standard “Mechanical” Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Capacities > 100GB </li></ul><ul><li>Very Fast - Faster than standard Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>More Resistant to Shock than standard Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Currently More Expensive than standard Hard Drive </li></ul>END Slide 21 of 34
  30. 30. Compact Disc (CD) Optical - “Non-volatile” <ul><ul><li>Up to 700 MB data - (80 min. audio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive Speeds - 1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 24x,52x, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various Formats - ISO-9660, Joliet, Mac HFS, PhotoCD, Audio, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard CD-ROM = Read Only - Recorded at factory. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-R = Recordable - But cannot be erased / rewritten. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW = Rewritable - Can be erased / rewritten. </li></ul>END Slide 22 of 34
  31. 31. Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) Optical - “Non-volatile” <ul><li>Physically the size of a CD. </li></ul><ul><li>Denser, Multi-layer technology. </li></ul><ul><li>High storage capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Often used for Video. </li></ul><ul><li>DVD-R, +R (recordable), -RW, +RW (rewritable) </li></ul><ul><li>DVD: Single-sided single-layer > 4.7 GB </li></ul><ul><li>DVD DL: Single-sided dual layer > 8.5 GB </li></ul><ul><li>HD DVD (outdated): Single-sided dual layer > 30 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Blu-ray Disc: Single-sided dual layer > 50 GB </li></ul>(also called “Digital Video Disc”) END Slide 23 of 34
  32. 32. Disk Formatting <ul><li>Erases the entire disk. </li></ul><ul><li>Records index marks which determine where and how data will be stored on the disk (sets up tracks and sectors). </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Layout - Generally determined by computer operating system's disk access method. </li></ul>END Slide 24 of 34
  33. 33. Operating System (OS) <ul><li>A Control Program which manages the software and hardware resources and establishes a consistent application interface. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally determines the look and feel of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the file manipulation and transfer protocols. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually loaded to RAM (booted) from the hard drive upon startup. It may also be loaded from a &quot;Bootable&quot; System CD or DVD instead. </li></ul>END Slide 25 of 34
  34. 34. System Compatibility <ul><li>Different platforms have different operating systems which are generally not compatible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(MS-DOS, Mac OS, Unix) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The same platform may have different operating systems available for it which may not be compatible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac >> MacOS 8.6, MacOS 9.1, MacOS X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PC >> DOS, Win 98, NT, ME, XP, Vista </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newer Macs with Intel Processor have ability to run MacOS, Linux, and Windows. </li></ul>END Slide 26 of 34
  35. 35. Cross-Platform Transfer <ul><li>Some computer platforms have the ability to read data from disks formatted on other platforms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Macs can read PC formatted disks). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To utilize data from another platform, an application must be available which is capable of interpreting that data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(PowerPoint on a Mac can read PC PowerPoint files and vice-versa) </li></ul></ul>END Slide 27 of 34
  36. 36. Computing &quot;Power” What Determines a Computer's &quot;Power&quot;? <ul><li>FLOPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;flops&quot; (floating-point operations per second) along with a standard benchmark is a method of comparing computer performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Gigaflop = One Billion Floating-point Ops/Sec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processor Speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the processor's clock rate, the more operations it can perform per second. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rates measured in &quot;Megahertz&quot; (MHz) or “Gigahertz” (GHz). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 GHz = One Billion Clock Cycles per Second. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Microprocessors run at over 2 GHz. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 28 of 34
  37. 37. <ul><li>Processor Efficiency and Data Width </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A more efficient processor gets more done per clock cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Backside Cache provides high speed short-term data storage on the Processor chip. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A wider and faster data path (bus) means more data can be moved from one place to another in a given amount of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current microprocessors = 32, 64 or 128 bits wide. </li></ul></ul></ul>END Slide 29 of 34
  38. 38. <ul><li>Available RAM and RAM Speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More RAM provides more available storage space for opened applications and documents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data can be moved to and from (solid-state) RAM faster than to other (mechanical) storage devices such as hard drives. So with more RAM, more data is quickly accessible while the computer is working. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 30 of 34
  39. 39. <ul><li>Available Hard Drive and Access Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A higher-capacity hard drive provides more &quot;non-volatile&quot; storage space for applications and data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drives with shorter access times and faster transfer rates make data available quicker - which is important for smooth running digital video and other multimedia applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Solid-State Drive (SSD) may be used in place of a standard mechanical Hard Drive to improve speed and resistance to vibration. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 31 of 34
  40. 40. <ul><li>Graphics Card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Graphics Card improves the computer's graphics capabilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated processing of graphics enhances the speed and resolution of display for video and animation applications. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 32 of 34
  41. 41. <ul><li>Ports and expandability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A variety of expansion ports and additional card slots allow for the connection of various additional equipment options and expanded networking capabilities. </li></ul></ul>END Slide 33 of 34
  42. 42. Related Links For more info check out: <ul><li>How Stuff Works Site - Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://computer. howstuffworks .com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en. wikipedia .org </li></ul></ul>END Slide 34 of 34