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  • PGA-pins cover entire surface (same side as chip Inverted PGA has pins of opposite surface from chip
  • Storing is only if needed Clock speed-number of cycles in one second Gigahertz-1 billion cycles in one second
  • Parallel processing-the main processor controls the secondary processors, so that each secondary processor is only doing part of the work.
  • ASCII-American standard for information interchange-most widely used coding system EBCDIC-extended binary coded decimal interchange code- used primarily on supercomputers and high end servers
  • SDRAM is much faster than DRAM since it is in sync with the computer clock DDR SDRAM is even faster because they transfer data twice each clock cycle. Rambus DRAM-Faster than SDRAM, because it uses a pipelining technique
  • L1-generally very small but fast L2-Slower than L1, but more memory originally stored memory, but on newer computers funcitons as a trasfer cache.
  • Daisy chain- hooking up a series of USB devices in a row one after another (series) USB hub-a device that allows several devices to be hooked to it, then it hooks up to a single USB port
  • Tablet PCs look a lot like a large PDA
  • ch4Lukianovich

    1. 1. The Components of the System Unit Jeremy Lukianovich Chapter 4
    2. 2. The system unit <ul><li>The system unit is the case that contains the electronic components that make up a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The mother board is the main circuit board that all of the electronic components are in some way connected to. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Computer Chip <ul><li>The computer chip is a small piece of etched semi-conducting materiel, such as silicone. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of attachments </li></ul><ul><li>1) DIP-dual inline package (two rows of metal feet) </li></ul><ul><li>2) PGA-Pin grid array (large number of pins covering the surface of the chip) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Processor-(CPU) <ul><li>The Control unit- directs and coordinates activities in the computer </li></ul><ul><li>The arithmetic logic unit- performs comparisons, arithmetic, and logic operations </li></ul><ul><li>Machine cycle- the repeated 4 steps to all computer actions (1-fetching, 2-decoding, 3-executing, 4-storing) </li></ul><ul><li>Registers-Small storage locations in the processor. This is a high speed temporary storage area. </li></ul><ul><li>The system clock- controls timing of all computer operations </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Processor installation and upgrades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chip for Chip-Replace existing chip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Piggy back-stack new one on top of old chip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daughterboard upgrade-new chip on adapter card that plugs into motherboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat sinks and heat pipes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ceramic or metal finned components that help dissipate heat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Coprocessors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a secondary chip that aids the main processor, thereby increasing the performance of the computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel processing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using multiple computer processors to increase the speed of the processor. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Data Representation <ul><li>Computers use digital representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1=on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0=off </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A single digit is a bit </li></ul><ul><li>8 bits equal a byte </li></ul><ul><li>Two coding systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASCII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EBCDIC </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Memory <ul><li>RAM (Random access memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary memory type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read from and written by programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If power loss RAM is lost, unless stored </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DRAM (Dynamic RAM) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be reenergized or will lose memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several types </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SRAM (Static RAM) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most stable but expensive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More RAM the faster the computer will be </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Cache </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Cache </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores frequently used data - speeds up computer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 types </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L1-built into processor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L2-advanced transfer cache </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L3-separate cache, must have L2 to work </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disk Cache (see chapter 7 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM (Read only memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores permanent data and instructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often contains startup instructions due to its adaptability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CMOS (Complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technologically advanced materiel that produces high speeds with low power draws. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory access times </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The time it takes a computer to do an operation, this can be as little as 10 nano-seconds </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Expansion Slots and Adapter cards <ul><li>Expansion slots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slot on computer that can hold a circuit board that in some way increases the performance of the computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sound cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modem cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PC cards and Flash memory cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PC cards-a thin device that plugs into a computer and adds memory, storage, sounds, modem, communications, fax, or other abilities to the computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory cards-a card that allows a user to add data from a mobile device (such as a PDA) to a laptop. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Ports and connectors <ul><li>Serial ports-a port that connects two devices and transmits 1 bite at a time, good for devices that do no require high transfer rates. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel ports-a port connects devices but transmits data at a higher rate than a serial port </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>USB ports-universal serial bus port </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can connect up to 127 peripherals together on one port. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daisy chain them </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USB hub </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot plugging (plugging in a device without first shutting the computer down. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Special purpose ports <ul><li>Firewire port </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to USB </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster than USB </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MIDI port (musical instrument digital interface) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to connect a instrument to a computer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SCSI (small computer system interface </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attach such devices as disk drives and printers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daisy chain up to 7 to 15 devices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IrDA (infrared data ssociation) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer data via infrared light waves, completely wireless </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio waves to transmit information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to IrDA but you don’t need to line up the devies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Buses <ul><li>Buses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The channels within a computer chip which the bits take to travel from one point to another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bus width dictates how many bits a computer may transmit and one time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster the bus speed the faster the programs will run. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>System Buses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the mother board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connects processor to main memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Expansion buses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Channels outside the main processor that transmit data into and out of the processor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISA (industry standard bus)-slowest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local- high speed bus that connects things such as disk drives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerated Graphics port-improves speed which 3D graphics move </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USB and Firewire </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PC Card bus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Bays <ul><li>Opening in system where you can insert additional equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Drive bays- rectangular openings which usually house disk or CD drives. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Power Supplies <ul><li>Battery powered-primarily laptops </li></ul><ul><li>AC adaptor-allows the DC powered computer to be plugged into a AC power supply (wall socket) </li></ul><ul><li>A cooling fan is generally mounted near the power input </li></ul>
    15. 15. Mobile Computers and Devices <ul><li>Laptops-small computers that have folding screens, very portable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain many miniaturized components which generally raises the price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tablet PC-entire computer in the shape of a tablet. </li></ul><ul><li>PDA-handheld computing device, generally contain a phone book, basic word processing, and little else. </li></ul>