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  1. 1. Personal Server: Pervasive Computing and Beyond
  2. 2. Existing Mobile Technology <ul><li>Cell Phones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small User Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Input/Output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Processing capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Data Assistants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powered Down Most of The Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little Connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited User Interface </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Existing Mobile Technology <ul><li>Notebook Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Uptime due to Batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumbersome Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PC Comparable Input and Output </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Personal Server Prototype <ul><li>User Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to a jog dial and 2 buttons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Input and Output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No significant built in input or output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses devices from the surrounding environment to keep the device itself very small </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables carrying large amounts of data easily via FLASH based technologies such as Compact Flash and MicroDrives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses processing and networking capabilities from environment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Personal Server Prototype (cont.) <ul><li>Always On </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only limited connectivity by devices in the surrounding environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size, Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same size as a deck of cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighs only 135 grams, comparable to a wallet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much more processing capability than other mobile devices by using processing power from devices in surrounding environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built in Processor </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Implementation <ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FLASH memory of 32MB and a 64MB DRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 16MB required for Linux based OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact Flash Slot for memory of up to 1GB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>StrongARM SA1110 processor with maximum speed at 206Mhz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augmented Processing Capabilities through using devices in the environment </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Implementation (cont.) <ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth, capable of a 723kbps maximum data rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a direct connection to emerging sensor networks or wearable systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CompactFlash slot enables FLASH based technologies such as 802.11 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Input/Output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>StrongARM 1111 companion chip handles Bluetooth and CF slot input/output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most user input and output done via Bluetooth on devices in environment </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Implementation (cont.) <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a 920mAhr Li-ion battery similar to those in current cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor consumes only 650mW running at 206Mhz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Voltage Management allows the processor to self-regulate its processing speed and conserve considerable amount of energy while still operating instead of going into a non-active mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses between 1 and 700 mW depending on system usage. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Future Work . . . <ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An out-of-band discovery signal to reduce power consumption and alleviate discovery traffic pollution on the radio spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in discovery and setup time which currently takes 21 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privacy & Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive Discovery to reduce personal information being broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User Awareness of public displays or computers being used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further power reduction through closed loop power monitoring or mobile agents </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Future Work . . . . (cont.) <ul><li>Adaptive UI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically detect the type and size of display and adjust accordingly without being programmed for each one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically detect the security and accessibility of the display and adapt the available content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usage Models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible use as a central control unit for devices surrounding it like a remote control, watch, health monitoring device, wireless headsets, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be used in conjunction with other prototypes or ideas such as the EasyLiving Project </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Future Work . . . . . (cont.) <ul><li>Distributed File Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing Bayou or Coda style distributed file systems to protect the data on the Personal Server if it is lost, stolen, or damaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These would also facilitate automatic synchronization and migration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration capabilities including a non obtrusive renewable recharging capability is required. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example, if the personal server was embedded into a shoe, a special shoe rack for night time recharging </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusions <ul><li>Emerging Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence and abundance of wireless and mobile technologies will help facilitate the Personal Server Prototype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further development of decreasing chip size, increasing chip processing power, and increasing battery lifetimes will increase the Personal Server’s potential as a true personal computer replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People need to become comfortable with mobile technology and its ability to replace the existing computer paradigm </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusions (cont.) <ul><li>Suggestions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundance of private display booths in public places like a telephone booth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some type of user authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow the Personal Server to work similar to iButton as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second CF slot for both memory and future expansion </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusions (cont..) <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When multiple devices present in environment, lack of user discretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to Bluetooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User input on whether or not to connect to devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible LCD display for device selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full power drain? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Q&A <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>