Eco Roofs Portland Oregon: Questions and Answers


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Eco Roofs Portland Oregon: Questions and Answers

  1. 1. Portland’s EcoroofQ& Program is a cooperative A effort of the Bureau of Environmental Services and the Office of Sustainableuestions n s we r s Development. The program promotes ecoroofs by researching ecoroof technologies and providing information and technical assistance to community members.
  2. 2. WHAT IS AN ECOROOF? A n ecoroof is a lightweight, low-maintenance vegetated roof system used in place of a conventional roof. The City of Portland is encouraging the use of ecoroofs as part of its efforts to promote sustainable development. This means using practices that respect natural systems and limit impacts on the environment. Sustainable development practices promote environmental, economic, and social health today, while also protecting and sustaining the well-being of future generations. Ecoroof opportunities come in all sizes: Large commercial buildings, residential homes and garages, or as small as a toolshed or kiosk. C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S2
  3. 3. Ecoroofs are a proven technology q What are the benefits of Ecoroofs ? • Provides an attractive alternative to and have a conventional roof. been used Based on documented experience and studies, an • Lasts twice as long as a conventional in Europe ecoroof offers several important benefits not found roof, saving replacement costs in conventional roofing: and materials for over 40 • Captures and evaporates from 10 to100 percent • Creates a market for recycled materials, years. They of the precipitation that falls on it. This reduces such as compost, mulch, soil and other the volume and speed of stormwater runoff are now ecoroof components. leaving the site, helping prevent sewer over- gaining flows and protect receiving rivers and streams. • Creates jobs in multiple industries. recognition • Lowers the temperature of stormwater runoff, • Is an approved stormwater management technique under Portland’s Stormwater in the US which helps maintain the cool stream tempera- tures needed by fish. Management Manual requirements for for the new development and redevelopment. • Improves outdoor air quality by decreasing air environmental, temperatures and reducing smog. • Can earn floor area bonuses for pro- posed buildings in Portland’s Central City economic, • Increases vegetation and wildlife habitat on Plan District. Increasing the building and social urban sites that typically have neither. space that would otherwise be allowed. benefits they • Provides insulation and lowers cooling costs for the building. provide. C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S3
  4. 4. r Where can an Ecoroof be used ? s What does an Ecoroof cost ? • Ecoroofs can be located on flat or pitched roof It is important to note that there is a wide range of structures at a slope up to 40 percent (or 5 in 12 costs, depending on many factors. Installation of an pitch). They can be used on most types of com- ecoroof costs from $10 to $25 per square foot (sf). mercial, multifamily, and industrial structures, This includes materials, labor, and structural as well as single-family homes and garages. upgrades. A conventional roof installation ranges • Ecoroofs can be used for new construction or to from $3 to $20 per sf. As the ecoroof market devel- re-roof an existing building. ops, costs may decrease. Ecoroof Conventional Roof (cost per square foot) (cost per square foot) New construction (including $10 to $15 $3 to $9 structural support) Re-roofing $15 to $25 $5 to $20 Source: Bureau of Environmental Services estimates based on City of Portland demonstration projects, and information obtained from roof contractors. Although ecoroofs initially cost more than conven- tional roofs, they are competitive on a life-cycle basis because of reduced maintenance and replacement costs (see question #5). C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S4
  5. 5. t What Are the Components of an Ecoroof ? Ecoroof configurations vary, but typically include the elements shown in the diagram and described on pages 4-8. ECOROOF diagram (figure 1) section view - not to scale F - Vegetation (succulents, such as sedum; herbs; grasses G - Gravel Ballast (optional) Parapet Flashing (edge of Separation structure Mulch or materials building) (optional) to prevent wind and rain erosion A - Structural roof support B - Waterproof membrane C - Root barrier (if needed) D - Drainage H - Drain E - Growth medium (soil) 2-6 inches C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S5
  6. 6. A - STRUCTURAL ROOF SUPPORT B - WATERPROOF MEMBRANE (IMPERMEABLE LINER) For Re-Roofing Waterproof membranes are made of various materi- The structural roof support must be sufficient to hold als, such as modified asphalts (bitumens), synthetic the additional weight of the ecoroof. Check with an rubber (EPDM), hypolan (CPSE), and reinforced PVC. architect, structural engineer, or roof consultant to Some of the materials come in sheets or rolls and determine the condition of the existing building some are in liquid form. They have different structure and what might be needed to support an strengths and functional characteristics. Many of ecoroof. This might include additional decking, roof these products require root inhibitors (refer to C) and trusses, joists, columns, and/or foundations. other materials to protect the membrane. Numerous Generally, the building structure must be adequate to companies manufacture waterproofing materials hold an additional 10 to 25 pounds per square foot appropriate for ecoroofs. (psf) saturated weight, depending on the vegetation and growth medium that will be used. (This is in C - ROOT BARRIER (IF NEEDED) addition to snow load requirements.) An existing rock Root barriers are made of dense materials that inhibit ballast roof may be structurally sufficient to hold a root penetration. 10-12 psf ecoroof. (Ballast typically weighs 10-12 psf.) The need for a root barrier depends on the water- For New Construction proof membrane selected. Modified asphalts usually The project architects and structural engineers can require a root barrier, while synthetic rubber (EPDM) address the structural requirements of an ecoroof dur- and reinforced PVC generally do not. Check with the ing the design process. Greater flexibility and options manufacturer to determine if a root barrier is are available for new buildings than for re-roofing. required for a particular product. The procedures for the remaining components (B through I) are the same for both re-roofing and new construction. C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S6
  7. 7. D - DRAINAGE LAYER (IF NEEDED) There are numerous ways to provide drainage. Ecoroofs are an evolving industry, with new mate- Products range from manufactured perforated plas- rials and approaches continually being developed. tic sheets to a thin layer of gravel. Some ecoroof In Europe, for example, recycled clay roof tile is designs do not require any drainage layer other being used as a growing medium and a modular than the growth medium itself, depending on roof design has recently been developed by a US firm. slope and size (for example, pitched roofs and small flat roofs). E - GROWTH MEDIUM (SOIL) The growth medium is generally 2 to 6 inches thick and well drained. It weighs from 10 to 25 pounds per square foot when saturated. A simple mix of 1/3 topsoil, 1/3 compost, and 1/3 perlite may be suf- ficient for many applications. Some companies have their own growth medium specifications. Other components could include: • Digested fiber • Expanded clay or shale These soils are • Pumice prone to wind • Coir erosion when exposed. It spring blooms is important late summer color to ensure good plant coverage and/or mulch. C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S7
  8. 8. New modular units with soil and vegetation F - VEGETATION have been Ecoroof vegetation should have the Installation developed and following attributes: Four methods (or combinations of are now • Drought-tolerant, requiring little or no them) are generally used to install the irrigation after establishment vegetation: vegetation mats, plugs/pot- available. • A growth pattern that allows the plant to ted plants, sprigs, and seeds. thoroughly cover the soil 1 Vegetation mats are sod-like, • Self-sustaining, without the need for fertilizers, pre-germinated mats that achieve immediate full pesticides, or herbicides plant coverage. They provide immediate erosion • Able to withstand heat, cold, and high winds control, do not need mulch, and minimize weed intrusion. They also need minimal maintenance • Very low-maintenance, needing little or no during the establishment period and little ongo- mowing or trimming ing watering and weeding. • Perennial or self-sowing 2 Plugs or potted plants may provide more design • Fire resistant flexibility than mats. However, they take longer A mix of sedum/succulent plant communities is to achieve full coverage, are more prone to recommended because they possess many of these erosion, need more watering during establish- attributes. Herbs, forbs, grasses, and other low ment, require mulching and more weeding. groundcovers can also be used to provide addition- 3 Sprigs are hand broadcast. They require al benefits and aesthetics; however, these plants more weeding, erosion control, and watering may need more watering and maintenance to than mats. survive and keep their appearance. 4 Seeds can be either hand broadcast or hydraseeded. Like sprigs, they require more weeding, erosion control, and watering than mats. For plugs, sprigs, and seeds, it is extremely important to protect the growth medium from erosion (e.g., using mulch, netting, or gravel) until it is fully covered by vegetation. C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S8
  9. 9. Spraying seed mix for new ecoroof G - GRAVEL BALLAST (IF NEEDED) Gravel ballast is sometimes placed along the perimeter of the roof and at air vents or other vertical elements. The need for ballast depends on operational and structural design issues. It is sometimes used to provide maintenance access, especially to vertical elements requiring periodic maintenance. In many cases, very little, if any, ballast is needed. • In some situations, a header or separation board may be placed between the gravel bal- last and adjacent elements (such as soil or drains). I - IRRIGATION • If a root barrier (C) is used, it must extend under Irrigation is likely to be needed during the estab- the gravel ballast and growth medium, and up lishment period and possibly during drought condi- the side of the vertical elements. tions, regardless of the planting method used. This can be accomplished either through hand watering, a manually operated low-tech irrigation system H - DRAIN (such as spray heads or soaker hoses), or an auto- As with a conventional roof, an ecoroof must safely mated irrigation system. To minimize water needs, drain runoff from the roof. It may be desirable to early autumn is the best planting season. The goal drain the runoff to a rainwater harvesting system is to minimize the need for irrigation by paying such as (rainbarrels or cisterns), or other stormwa- close attention to plant selection, soil and various ter facilities such as planters and swales. roof characteristics. C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S9
  10. 10. The typical lifespan for an u What Are the Operations, Maintenance, ecoroof is and Replacement Needs? Similar to conventional roofs, ecoroofs require some and access paths of gravel or other inert about degree of care to maintain optimum function. materials provided. In cases where access 40 years. is needed only occasionally, paths may VEGETATION/GROWTH MEDIUM not be required because the vegetation can tolerate Periodic inspection (at least twice a year) is needed some foot traffic. for any type of roof to ensure drain inlets are not blocked. For ecoroofs it is also important to check LEAKAGE the health and coverage of the vegetation; some An ecoroof is considered less likely to leak than a replacement or filling may periodically be needed. conventional roof. If a leak does occur, it has been Depending on the design, some plants may “brown speculated that it may be more difficult to pin point out” or almost disappear from sight; however, they the leak on an ecoroof than a traditional roof. are still viable and will revive in the rainy season. However, because ecoroofs are thin, they can be Depending on the planting method, weeding and removed and replaced in mats or sections. mulching may be needed during the establishment REPLACEMENT period and periodically thereafter over the life According to various sources the typical lifespan for of the ecoroof. an ecoroof is about 40 years, significantly longer FIRE SAFETY than a conventional roof. This is because the mem- Sedum and other succulents are naturally fire branes are of good quality and the plants and resistant, almost eliminating fire concerns. Other types growth medium protect the membrane of vegetation could be of concern and need from weathering. Replacing an ecoroof involves: to be watered, mowed, and/or maintained to prevent • Removing and stockpiling the vegetation, growth fire. Depending on the seasonal rains in Portland, it is medium, irrigation pipes, and drainage layers. (It best to mow a dry grass roof before July 4th. may be possible to simply move these materials to one side, rather than removing them entirely.) ACCESS Most buildings require roof access for operations and • Removing and replacing the waterproof membrane. maintenance. Access is needed for mechanical units, • Reinstalling the stockpiled growth medium, window washing, elevator repair and other activities. vegetation, and other components. These should be identified during the design phase, C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S10
  11. 11. v Where Can You See Examples of Ecoroofs? The City of Portland has helped install ecoroofs as demonstration projects including one at the Environmental Services treatment plant. Property: To arrange a tour, contact: • Hamilton West Apartments Building Ecoroof Program (Environmental Services) (SW 12th and Clay) 503-823-7267 or 503-823-7740 • Buckman Terrace Apartments Ecoroof Program (Environmental Services) (NE 16th and Sandy) 503-823-7267 or 503-823-7740 • Jean Vollum Natural Capital Center Ecotrust: 503-227-6225 (NW 10th and Flanders) • Whitaker Pond Shelter Education (Environmental Services) (NE 47th and Columbia Slough) 503-823-7185 • Columbia Boulevard Treatment Plant Main Desk: 503-823-2400 • Multnomah County Building Open to public 8:30 am - 5:00 pm Check with 501 SE Hawthorne Blvd security on the main floor. • B&O Building Pat Lamb - 503-233-6600 SE Washington Street and 2nd Avenue • Hawthorne Hostle Viewable from sidewalk 3031 SE Hawthorne Blvd • People’s Food Co-op Viewable from sidewalk 3039 SE 21st Avenue C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S11
  12. 12. w What Permits Are Needed? For Re-Roofing • Green building approaches (Office of • A building may need upgraded structural support Sustainable Development): call 503-823-7222 or for an ecoroof, although many existing buildings are structurally sound enough. In either case, a • Building code and permitting information signed document from a structural engineer is required in order to receive a building permit (Office of Planning and Development Review): from Portland’s Office of Planning and or call Development Review (OPDR). 503-823-7310 (for building code information) or 503-823-PLAN (for zoning information) • An ecoroof may require alteration of downspouts or other piping, requiring a plumbing permit from OPDR. DESIGN AND INSTALLATION ASSISTANCE Some vendors, design consultants, and installation For New Construction contractors known to the City at the time of this • For new development and redevelopment proj- ects, an ecoroof permit is obtained through the printing are listed here. These providers offer a standard application process. variety of services. Some may be limited to provid- ing information about their specific products (such • The ecoroof and other stormwater management as impermeable liners), while others may be able elements must be reviewed by the Bureau of Environmental Services to verify the ecoroof is to manage the entire project, including design, constructed to meet the City’s Stormwater specifications, arranging for installation, and plant Management Manual requirements or for Floor procurement. The list is for informational purposes Area Bonus approval. only and does not constitute a rec- x Where Can You Get More ommendation by Information and Assistance? the Bureau of Environmental • Ecoroof Program (Bureau of Environmental Services or Services): 503-823-7267 or 503-823-7740 City of Portland. • Stormwater design techniques (Bureau of Environmental Services): call 503-823-7740 or C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S12
  13. 13. C O N TA C T S This is a list of contacts, which have spoken of experience or demonstrated it to the Bureau of Environmental Services (BES). Experience which is in regard to design, construction or another type of direct experience with ecoroofs. This list is for informational purposes only and does not consti- tute a recommendation by BES or the City of Portland. If you would like to be on this list please submit your contact information and specific information about your involvement with ecoroofs. VENDORS MANUFACTURER REPS American Hydrotech Inc. Sarnafil SA Seattle: 206-441-6125 Mass: 800-451-2505 ext. 257 Illinois: 800-877-6125 Soprema Inc. Bain Associates Inc. 503-524-3382 Portland: 503-452-0788 800-356-3521 Garland Company Inc. Tremco Incorporated Portland: 800-762-8225 ext. 655 Portland OR: 503-234-6407 Mobile: 503-860-4420 Ohio: 800-321-7906 Seattle: 800-762-8225 ext. 515 Green Grid Chicago, Il: 312-424-3319 Green Tech 888-323-4397 W.P. Hickman 503-231-0280 206-841-7663 C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S13
  14. 14. CONTRACTORS Anderson Roofing Co., Inc. HOK Architects Soderstrom Architechs, P.C. 503-294-0202, Doug Christie Washington D.C: 202-339-8728 503-228-5617 All About Roofs Katrin Scholz-Barth Consulting Lando & Associates, 503-538-5066 Washington D.C.: 202-544-8453 Landscape Architects Portland: 503-233-6600 Green Seasons Turf and Tree Inc. www.lando- 503-263-4567 Lango Hanson Portland: 503-295-2437 Northwest Raingardens NURSERIES - SOIL PROVIDERS 877-887-1149 Oregon Association of Nurserymen Murase Associates 503-653-8733 Oregon Landscape Contractors Portland: 503-242-1477 Association 503-253-9091 North American Wetland Engineering Pro-Gro Forest Lake, MN: 651-433-2115 Sherwood: 800-682-3501 Teufel Landscape 503-646-1111 PIVOT design & consulting LLC Squaw Mountain Gardens Portland: 503-235-5429 Estacada, OR CONSULTANTS 503-630-5458 AEI Portland: 503-452-8003 Rana Creek Habitat Restoration Carmel Valley, CA: 831-659-3811 ADDITIONAL WEB SITES Greenroof Design Consultant 770-674-4624 Roofscapes Inc. Philadelphia, PA: 215-247-8784 Green Roofing Consultant Quebec, CAN 418-682-2478 Schaber and Associates, Inc 503-655-8921 Greenworks Portland: 503-222-5612 C I T Y O F P O R T L A N D E C O R O O F P R O G R A M - Q U E S T I O N S & A N S W E R S14
  15. 15. Dan Saltzman, Commissioner Dean Marriott, Director ECOROOFS Questions & Answers is available online© 2000 Environmental Services, Portland, Oregon 503-823-7740 PL 0382 revised Oct 2003