Sustainable Buidling Reference Guide - Forest City


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Sustainable Buidling Reference Guide - Forest City

  2. 2. At Forest City, we are deeply committed to the principles of sustainabledevelopment, as defined in the language of our core value:We will strategically and competitively balance environmental resources, economic objectives andsocial systems as we operate our business and invest in new opportunities.We are also committed to enlisting you, our retail partners, in our effort to make ourcenters as financially successful, durable, efficient and healthy as possible.To that end, we have created the Forest city Enterprises Sustainable BuildingReference Guide. This Reference Guide provides detailed analysis of and supportfor the itemized list of sustainable strategies as they appear in section one of yourTenant Handbook.This list is based on the United States Green Building Council’s (USGBC)Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program and is ourattempt to help you wade through the plethora of information on cost-effectivesolutions to the primary elements of green building. Elements which include, but arenot limited to, energy efficiency, water efficiency, indoor air quality and naturalresource conservation.While we all still have a great deal to learn in this area, our customers and partnersare increasingly interested in understanding how sustainability practices can beincorporated into their projects. Forest City is excited to assist you in that processand encourages you to call upon us to further your understanding of the social andbusiness rationale that supports sustainable development.The items listed in this reference guide are recommended to support Forest City’s goalsfor sustainability and to support LEED for Commercial Interiors (LEED-CI)certification on the part of the tenant, if so desired. Although the recommendations listedtherein are all inclusive for various Tenant types (Inline Small Shops, Outparcel, Jr.Anchor, etc.), Tenants can easily select the recommendations that are practical to theirapplication. January 23, 2007
  3. 3. Table of ContentsChapter 1: SITE WORK Page 1 TEMPORARY/PERMANENT SEEDING, MULCHING, EARTH DIKES, SILT FENCING, SEDIMENT TRAPS, SEDIMENT BASINS ................................... 2 2 PREFERRED PARKING FOR FUEL-EFFICIENT VEHICLES................................ 4 3 GREEN ROOF SYSTEM .................................................................................... 5 4 PERVIOUS PAVING MATERIAL ........................................................................ 7 5 STORMWATER HARVESTING, DETENTION AND RETENTION PONDS ............ 9 6 SHADE (ARCHITECTURAL DEVICES OR LANDSCAPING MEASURES SUCH AS TREES)......................................................................................................10 7 HIGH REFLECTANCE ROOFING AND PAVING ............................................... 11 8 DOWN FACING/MODEST EXTERIOR LIGHTING ...........................................12 9 MINIMIZE TURF AREA AND CHOOSE PLANTS WITH SITE ADAPTABILITY ....13Chapter 2: WATER SYSTEMS 10 ZONE TURF AND PLANT BED AREAS SEPARATELY FOR IRRIGATION, USING EFFICIENT SPRINKLER HEADS WITH MOISTURE SENSORS FOR TURF AND DRIP LINES FOR BED AREA...........................................................................15 11 USE GRAYWATER AND/OR CAPTURED STORMWATER FOR IRRIGATION WATER SOURCE .............................................................................................16 12 LOW FLOW TOILETS, DUAL FLUSH TOILETS, COMPOSTING TOILETS AND WATERLESS URINALS ....................................................................................17 13 LOW FLOW SHOWERHEADS ...........................................................................18 14 FAUCET OCCUPANCY SENSORS AND/OR AERATORS ....................................19Chapter 3: ENERGY SYSTEMS 15 COMMISSION ENERGY SYSTEMS ....................................................................21 16 MAXIMIZE INSULATION VALUE .................................................................... 23 17 HIGH EFFICIENCY WINDOWS ....................................................................... 25 18 MAXIMIZE HVAC EFFICIENCY .................................................................... 26 19 MAXIMIZE HOT WATER HEATER EFFICIENCY ............................................ 28 20 AUTOMATIC OCCUPANCY SENSORS FOR LIGHTING AND LIGHTING DIMMER SWITCHES ...................................................................................... 29 21 HIGH EFFICIENCY LIGHTING FIXTURES ...................................................... 30 22 DAYLIGHT SENSORS ..................................................................................... 32 23 TANDEM WIRING ......................................................................................... 33 24 ELIMINATE USE OF CFC-BASED REFRIGERANTS ........................................ 34 25 MAXIMIZE THE USE OF DAYLIGHTING ....................................................... 35 26 SOLAR SHADE AND DIFFUSING DEVICES...................................................... 36 27 INSTALL ON-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE ....................................... 37 28 MEASURE AND VERIFY BUILDING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE POST-OCCUPANCY ........................................................................................ 38 29 PURCHASE GREEN POWER CONTRACT FROM UTILITY PROVIDER .............. 39 30 ENERGY STAR APPLIANCES..............................................................................41
  4. 4. Chapter 4: Building Materials Page 31 PROVIDE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR POST-OCCUPANCY RECYCLING ............... 48 32 BUILDING REUSE/RETRO FIT ..................................................................... 49 33 CONSTRUCTION WASTE RECYCLING ............................................................ 50 34 SALVAGED AND/OR REFURBISHED BUILDING MATERIALS ..........................51 35 RECYCLED CONTENT MATERIALS................................................................ 52 36 REGIONALLY EXTRACTED (HARVESTED) & MANUFACTURED MATERIALS ................................................................................................... 53 37 RAPIDLY RENEWABLE MATERIALS ............................................................... 54 38 FOREST STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL (FSC) CERTIFIED WOOD ......................... 55 39 LOW-VOC ADHESIVES AND SEALANTS ........................................................ 56 40 LOW-EMITTING PAINTS & COATINGS .......................................................... 57 41 CARPET AND RUG INSTITUTE (CRI) GREEN LABEL PLUS CARPET AND CRI GREEN LABEL CARPET CUSHION ......................................................... 58 42 UREA-FORMALDEHYDE FREE COMPOSITE WOOD AND AGRIFIBER PRODUCTS .................................................................................................... 59 43 LOW EMITTING AND FORMALDEHYDE FREE INSULATION.......................... 60 44 LOW EMITTING SYSTEMS FURNITURE AND SEATING ...................................61Chapter 5: HVAC SYSTEMS 45 MECHANICAL (ACTIVE) VENTILATION ........................................................ 63 46 NATURAL (PASSIVE) VENTILATION .............................................................. 64 47 NO SMOKING POLICY ................................................................................... 66 48 INSTALL CO2 SENSORS IN CONJUNCTION WITH OUTDOOR AIR DELIVERY SYSTEM ........................................................................................ 67 49 PROTECT ALL HVAC EQUIPMENT FROM DUST AND OTHER PARTICULATE MATTER DURING CONSTRUCTION........................................ 68 50 DURING CONSTRUCTION, PROTECT ALL ABSORPTIVE MATERIAL FROM MOISTURE .................................................................................................... 69 51 ISOLATE CONSTRUCTION AREAS .................................................................. 70 52 POST-CONSTRUCTION BUILDING FLUSH OUT ..............................................71 53 ISOLATE AND VENT AREAS OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE ...................... 72 54 INSTALL WALK OFF GRATES AT ALL EXTERIOR ENTRANCES TO BUILDING ..................................................................................................... 73 55 INDIVIDUAL THERMAL CONTROLS IN CONJUNCTION WITH INDIVIDUAL DIFFUSERS .................................................................................................... 74
  6. 6. #1 TEMPORARY/PERMANENT SEEDING, MULCHING, EARTH DIKES, SILT FENCING, SEDIMENT TRAPS, SEDIMENT BASINSSustainable Building StrategyCreate and implement an Erosion and Sedimentation Control (ESC) Plan for all construction activitiesassociated with the project to prevent loss of soil during construction by stormwater runoff and/or winderosion. The ESC Plan should include the following measures as deemed necessary. Stabilization Temporary Seeding Plant fast growing grasses to temporarily stabilize soil Permanent Seeding Plant grass, trees and shrubs to permanently stabilize soil Mulching Place hay, grass, woodchips, straw, or gravel on the soil surface to cover and hold solids Structural Control Earth Dike Construct a mound of stabilized soil to divert surface runoff volumes from distributed areas or into sediment basins or sediment traps Silt Fence Construct posts with a filter fabric media to remove sediment from stormwater volumes flowing through the fence Sediment Trap Excavate a pond area or construct earthen embankments to allow for settling of sediment from stormwater volumes Sediment Basin Construct a pond with a controlled water release structure to allow for settling of sediment from stormwater volumes Silt Fencing Temporary/Permanent Seeding Sediment BasinEnvironmental BenefitSedimentation and erosion control will prevent the loss of topsoil, which greatly reduces the soil’s ability tosupport plant life, regulate water flow, and maintain the biodiversity of soil microbes and insects that controldisease and pest outbreaks. Loss of nutrients, soil compaction and decreased biodiversity of soil inhabitantscan severely limit the vitality of landscaping. This can lead to additional site management and environmentalconcerns, such as increased need for fertilizers, irrigation and pesticides, as well as increased stormwaterrunoff that heightens the pollution of nearby lakes and streams.Cost-BenefitErosion and sedimentation control measures are required by code in most areas to minimize difficult andexpensive mitigation measures in receiving waters, and in these cases adds no first cost to the budget. Thecost for implementation in terms of installation and performance inspection will vary depending on the type,location, topography, and soil conditions of the project.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 2
  7. 7. Approach and ImplementationTypically, the civil engineer identifies erosion-prone areas and soil stabilization measures. The contractorthen adopts a plan to implement the measures presented by the civil engineer and responds to rain events andother activities accordingly. The result of this coordination is the Erosion and Sediment Control (ESC) Plan.The ESC Plan is most effective when incorporated into the construction drawings and specifications withclear instructions regarding responsibilities.Strategies and TechnologiesCreate the ESC Plan during the design phase of the project. The technologies available are in two forms:stabilization and structural control. See specific actions for each technology above.Resources and Product OptionsThe Construction General Permit (CGP) outlines the provisions necessary to comply with Phase I and PhaseII of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program and offers a comprehensiveapproach to construction pollution prevention. Building Reference Guide 3
  8. 8. #2 PREFERRED PARKING FOR FUEL-EFFICIENT VEHICLESSustainable Building StrategyProvide preferred parking for low-emitting and fuel-efficient vehicles by designating prime parking spaceswith regulatory signage, such as “Hybrid Vehicle Parking Only”. Hybrid vehicle Hybrid SignageEnvironmental BenefitAlternative fuel and alternative technology vehicles offer the possibility of reducing air pollutants fromvehicular travel as well as the environmental effects of producing gasoline. Motor gasoline is estimated toaccount for 60 percent of all carbon dioxide (a major greenhouse gas) emitted in the United States in the last20 years.Cost-BenefitThere is a minor premium for the purchase and installation of the required signage that would otherwise notbe purchased. There are no immediate or long-term paybacks to the landlord for offering this service to theowner’s of low-emitting and fuel-efficient vehicles, though there may be some marketing or public relationsbenefits.Approach and ImplementationThe designation of parking spaces for low-emitting and fuel-efficient vehicles can be done at many stages ofthe building process, from the design phase to post-occupancy, as it does not require any change to the siteplan nor should it increase the parking capacity. For LEED, the number of spaces to assign for the use oflow-emitting and fuel-efficient vehicles should be equal to 5 percent of total parking capacity, and should bepreferred in relation to main building entrances.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 4
  9. 9. #3 GREEN ROOF SYSTEMSustainable Building StrategyInstall a vegetated roof system on either the total or a partial area of the building’s roof surface. Intensive green roof system Extensive green roof systemEnvironmental BenefitEcological and economic benefits include the recovery or introduction of green space, moderation of theurban heat island effect, improved stormwater management, water and air purification, and a reduction inenergy consumption. The mitigation of stormwater runoff is considered by many to be the primary benefitbecause of the prevalence of impervious surfaces in urban areas and the potential to reduce the size / cost ofother (traditional) stormwater infrastructure. The rapid runoff from roof surfaces can result in flooding andincreased erosion. The larger volume of runoff also results in a greater quantity of water that must be treatedbefore it is potable. A major benefit of green roofs is their ability to absorb stormwater and release it slowlyover a period of several hours, meanwhile serving a stormwater quality treatment. Green roof systems havebeen shown to retain 60-100 percent of the stormwater they receive. In addition, green roofs have a longerlife-span than standard roofs because they are protected from ultraviolet radiation and the extremefluctuations in temperature that cause roof membranes to deteriorate.Cost-BenefitWhile the installation of a green roof system is always an additional project expense when compared to abaseline model, there are several long-term financial savings that can be realized. Cost savings can beachieved from increased stormwater retention, attenuation of peak flows and urban flooding, through the re-establishment of predevelopment hydrology, and a decreased need to expand or rebuild separate storm sewersystem infrastructure due to a decrease in total hydraulic loads.Approach and ImplementationUrban projects in particular should consider the implementation of a vegetated roof system. Select native oradapted, non-invasive species, and ensure that the roof structure is designed to support the added weight ofthe vegetated layer (added weight will vary on vegetated roof system). Research the species that are likely toutilize this space (primarily birds and insects) and select plants that will help support these species byproviding food, forage or nesting areas.Strategies and TechnologiesModern green roofs can be categorized as ‘intensive’ or ‘extensive’ systems depending on the plant materialand planned usage for the roof area. Intensive green roofs use a wide variety of plant species that may includetrees and shrubs. They require deeper substrate layers, are generally limited to flat roofs, require ‘intense’maintenance, and are often park-like areas accessible to the general public. They also require additional loadbearing capacity of the roof structure. In contrast, extensive roofs are limited to herbs, grasses, mosses, anddrought tolerant succulents such as Sedum. They can be sustained in a substrate layer as shallow as 2.0 cm(1.5 in), require minimal maintenance, and are generally not accessible to the public. They usually do notrequire any additional load bearing capacity of the roof structure.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 5
  10. 10. Resources and Product OptionsGreen roof system manufacturers: GreenGrid Systems Xero Flor America, LLC Elevated Landscape Technologies www.eltgreenroofs.comThe following is a green roof industry resource portal offering basic information, product and servicedirectory, and research links: www.greenroofs.comSustainable Building Reference Guide 6
  11. 11. #4 PERVIOUS PAVING MATERIALSustainable Building StrategyInstall a pervious paving system such as pavers or porous concrete for paved site surfaces such as pedestrianand vehicular traffic as well as parking areas. Pervious Concrete PaversEnvironmental BenefitPervious paving systems reduce the amount of untreated runoff discharged into storm sewers, directlyrecharge groundwater to maintain aquifer levels, channel more water to tree roots and landscaping, so there isless need for irrigation, mitigate pollutants that can contaminate watersheds and harm sensitive ecosystems,and eliminate hydrocarbon pollution from asphalt pavements and sealers. In addition, pervious pavingsystems can aid in reducing the urban heat-island effect. Because they have an open-cell structure, pervioussurfaces don’t absorb and store heat and then radiate it back into the environment like a typical asphaltsurface. The open void structure also allows cooler earth temperatures from below to cool the pavement.Increased safety for drivers and pedestrians is addressed due to the fact that pervious surfaces absorb waterrather than allowing it to puddle, thus reducing the chance of hydroplaning and tire spray.Cost-BenefitReduction in heat islands lowers the cost of cooling and HVAC equipment needs, which offers significantsavings over the lifetime of a building. Pervious paving systems cost slightly more upfront, and may haveincreased maintenance over traditional concrete due to maintaining the porosity of the system. Becausepervious paving systems allow stormwater to percolate through, smaller stormwater collection and treatmentsystems can accommodate the site and lessen the burden on municipalities for maintenance and repair,resulting in a more affordable and stable tax base.Approach and ImplementationWhile pervious paving systems can be used anywhere conventional concrete is used, pavers should be limitedto pedestrian traffic and minimal vehicular traffic. The use of pervious paving systems will not alter thedesired paving design.Strategies and TechnologiesEssentially, pervious concrete is a structural concrete pavement with a large volume (15 to 35 percent) ofinterconnected voids. Like conventional concrete, it’s made from a mixture of cement, coarse aggregates andwater. However, it contains little or no sand, which results in a porous open-cell structure that water passesthrough readily. It’s possible to achieve pervious concrete compressive strengths of 3,000 to 4,000 poundsper square inch (psi) and flexural strengths of 500 to 600 psi, which are on par with conventional concrete.Pervious concrete that is partially saturated should have sufficient voids to accommodate the expansioncaused by freezing of water. Structural damage could occur, however, if the pavement becomes fully saturatedor the ability of the concrete to drain water is compromised due to clogging of the void structure.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 7
  12. 12. Resources and Product OptionsPervious paving system manufacturers: EcoGrid Porous pavers by Hanover Architectural Products InfiltraStone by Pavestone Corporation Stoneycrete by Stoney Creek Materials www.stoneycreekmaterials.comSustainable Building Reference Guide 8
  13. 13. #5 STORMWATER HARVESTING, DETENTION AND RETENTION PONDSSustainable Building StrategyManage stormwater runoff by creating bioswales or retention ponds on site. Another effective stormwatermanagement system is to capture and store rainwater in cisterns for later use in non-potable water systemssuch as irrigation, fire suppression, toilet and urinal flushing, and custodial uses. Stormwater cistern Detention pondEnvironmental BenefitAs areas are constructed and urbanized, surface permeability is reduced, resulting in increased stormwaterrunoff volumes that are transported via urban infrastructure (e.g., gutters, pipes and sewers) to receivingwaters. Stormwater management techniques such as rainwater harvesting, bioswales and retention pondsreduce the negative effects of sedimentation and transport of contaminants through the infrastructure andinto local water bodies, as well as recharge natural aquifers.Cost-BenefitIf natural drainage systems are designed and implemented at the beginning of site planning, they can beintegrated economically into the overall development. Water detention and retention features require cost fordesign, installation and maintenance. However, these features can also add significant value as site amenitiesif planned early in the design. Smaller stormwater collection and treatment systems lessen the burden onmunicipalities for maintenance and repair, resulting in a more affordable and stable tax base.Approach and ImplementationIf applying rainwater harvesting, there are several options for storage and reuse techniques, which range fromsmall-scale systems (e.g., rain barrels) to underground cisterns that may hold large volumes of water. Arainwater harvesting plan should consider the following things: anticipated rain fall, water need for theintended use, water release method, drainage area, conveyance system, pretreatment, and pressurization. Aretention pond is designed to hold a specific amount of water indefinitely. Usually the pond is designed tohave drainage leading to another location when the water level gets above the pond capacity, but stillmaintains a certain capacity.A detention pond holds excess water when it needs to and dries up when the water has percolated away fromthe site at a slower pace. Both are permanent features on the site.Strategies and TechnologiesDesign the project site to maintain natural stormwater flows by promoting infiltration. Retention ponds andbioswales are both effective methods of minimizing impervious surfaces, while specifying a rainwaterharvesting system creates an alternate water source to potable municipal water for non-potable uses.Resources and Product OptionsStormwater Best Management Practice Design Guide, EPA/600/R-04/121A Building Reference Guide 9
  14. 14. #6 SHADE (ARCHITECTURAL DEVICES OR LANDSCAPING MEASURES SUCH AS TREES)Sustainable Building StrategyProvide shade for site hardscapes such as roads, sidewalks, courtyards, and parking lots in the form oflandscaping and trees and/or architectural shading devices. Architectural shading device Tree shade as part of landscaping planEnvironmental BenefitVegetation cools the area surrounding it via shade and evapotranspiration. Heat islands can be mitigatedthrough the application of shading and the use of materials that reflect the sun’s heat instead of absorbing it.Cost-BenefitAppropriate shading as a result from the landscaping design can be applied at no additional cost if integratedinto the plan at an early stage. The benefit of shade providing vegetation not only lowers the cost of coolingand HVAC equipment needs, offering a significant savings over the lifetime of a building, it also creates anenjoyable outdoor space maximizing the projects usable exterior space.Approach and ImplementationProvide shade using native or adaptive trees, large shrubs, and non-invasive vines along pedestrian walkways,exterior gathering spaces, and parking lots. Trellises and other exterior structures can support vegetation toshade parking lots, walkways, and plazas.Strategies and TechnologiesDeciduous trees allow a building to benefit from solar heat gain during the winter months. Where on-sitelocation tree planting is not possible, use architectural shading devices to block direct sunlight radiance in theform of overhangs, pergolas, trellises, etc.Resources and Product OptionsHeat Island Effect, US Environmental Protection Agency: Basic information about heat island effect, itssocial and environmental costs, and strategies to minimize its prevalence. Building Reference Guide 10
  15. 15. #7 HIGH REFLECTANCE ROOFING AND PAVINGSustainable Building StrategyInstall white or light grey concrete for all paved surfaces including pedestrian and vehicular traffic-ways, aswell as parking lots. Install a light colored roof finish. High reflectance roof system High reflectance paving materialEnvironmental BenefitThe use of light colored, reflective surfaces for parking, roofs, walkways, and other surfaces contributes to theprevention of heat island effected created when radiation from the sun is absorbed into dark, non-reflectivesurfaces and transferred back to the local climate through convection and conduction. As a result of heatisland effects, ambient temperatures in urban areas can be artificially elevated by more than 10 degreesFahrenheit (°F) when compared to undeveloped areas. Heat islands can be mitigated through the applicationof shading and the use of materials that reflect the sun’s heat instead of absorbing it.Cost-BenefitReduction in heat islands lowers the cost of cooling and HVAC equipment needs, which offers significantsavings over the lifetime of a building. Concrete with white cement may cost up to twice as much as thatmade with gray cement.Approach and ImplementationDarker paving and roofing materials, such as asphalt, generally exhibit low reflectance and consequently lowsolar reflectance index (SRI) values. Grey or white concrete has a higher reflectance and a higher SRI value.Strategies and TechnologiesHigh reflectance surfaces minimize the absorption of summer heat, thereby reducing air conditioning costs.High reflectance roofs, sometimes called cool roofs, typically are white and are made of either metal, singleply membrane, or elastomeric coating (or other type of coating) over a conventional roof. Simply increasingthe reflectivity of a roof surface can decrease average daily air conditioning electricity use from 13 to 16percent. High reflectance roofs lower energy use by: Lowering the absorption of solar energy; Reducing surface temperatures; and Decreasing heat transfer into a building.Resources and Product OptionsCool Roof Rating Council: A non-profit organization dedicated to providing energy performance ratings forroof surfaces including product durability. www.coolroofs.orgAmerican Concrete Pavement Association: See report issued June 2002, “Albedo: A Measure of PavementSurface Reflectance” Building Reference Guide 11
  16. 16. #8 DOWN FACING/MODEST EXTERIOR LIGHTINGSustainable Building StrategyDesign the project’s exterior lighting to avoid over lighting (too much or too bright), up-lighting, or lightingpollution to surrounding areas. Down facing parking lot lighting planEnvironmental BenefitSensitively designed lighting systems that minimize glare and provide more uniform light at lower levels willhelp create aesthetically pleasing environments that are safer and more secure. Minimizing light pollutionallows for night sky access by the surrounding community. Another key benefit is better visual comfort andimproved visibility. A carefully designed and maintained outdoor lighting system can help a project be a non-intrusive member of the community.Cost-BenefitCarefully designed exterior lighting solutions can reduce infrastructure costs and energy use when comparedto common practice solutions. Energy and maintenance savings over the lifetime of the project can besubstantial.Approach and ImplementationProjects should consider the use of low intensity, shielded fixtures as well as curfew controllers to turn offnon-essential site lighting after some appropriately determined time, such as 10:00 p.m., or immediately afterclosing (whichever is later) to further reduce the effects of light pollution. Projects should minimize thelighting of architectural and landscape features. Where lighting is required for safety, security, egress oridentification, utilize down-lighting techniques rather than up-lighting.Strategies and TechnologiesAdopt site lighting criteria to maintain safe light levels while avoiding off-site lighting and night sky pollution.Minimize sight lighting where possible and mode the site lighting using a computer model. Curfew timersand controls can be effective components of the overall lighting strategy.Resources and Product OptionsInternational Dark Sky Association: A nonprofit agency dedicated to educating and providing solution tolight pollution. Building Reference Guide 12
  17. 17. #9 MINIMIZE TURF AREA AND CHOOSE PLANTS WITH SITE ADAPTABILITYSustainable Building StrategyUse turf sparsely throughout the landscape design, and in its place employ climate-tolerant plants that cansurvive on natural rainfall quantities after initial establishment. Contour the land to direct rainwater runoffthrough the site to give vegetation an additional water supply. Use techniques such as mulching andcomposting to maintain plant health. Native landscaping Minimized turf areaEnvironmental BenefitWater efficient landscaping helps to conserve local and regional potable water resources. Maintaining naturalaquifer conditions is important to providing reliable water sources for future generations. Consideration ofwater issues during planning can encourage development when resources can support it, and preventdevelopment if it exceeds the resource capacity.Cost-BenefitCurrently, the most effective strategy to avoid escalating water costs for irrigation is to design landscapingadapted to the local climate and the site’s microclimate. The cost can be reduced or eliminated throughthoughtful planning and careful plant selection and layout. Native or adapted plants further reduce operatingcosts because they require less fertilizer and maintenance than turf grass.Approach and ImplementationUnderstand the inherent qualities of the site such as topography, orientation, sun and wind exposure, andshadow profiles to make appropriate design choices. Plant turf grasses only for functional benefits such asrecreational areas, pedestrian use, or specifically for soil conservation. Complete a soil analysis and amend thesoil as deemed necessary. When choosing plants, consider the mature size of the plant, growth rate, textureand color, use no mono-species or excessive multi-species selection, and keep the plant choices diverse. Allplant choices should be made on regional plant life so that it is able to sustain itself with the site’s naturalwater supply.Strategies and TechnologiesPerform a soil/climate analysis to determine appropriate landscape types and design the landscape withindigenous plants to reduce or eliminate irrigation requirements. Consider using stormwater, graywater,and/or condensate water for irrigation.Product OptionsVisit the PlantNative website (below) to find an informative resource on native plants by region includinglocal nurseries and professionals to assist in the implementation of native landscaping into the building siteplan. Building Reference Guide 13
  19. 19. #10 ZONE TURF AND PLANT BED AREAS SEPARATELY FOR IRRIGATION, USING EFFICIENT SPRINKLER HEADS WITH MOISTURE SENSORS FOR TURF AND DRIP LINES FOR BED AREASustainable Building StrategyIn addition to making landscaping choices based on a soil and climate analysis, use water saving methods forinstalling an irrigation system including the use of water zones, efficient sprinkler heads, moisture/rainsensors, and drip irrigation techniques. Water saving heads Sample zoning plan Efficient sprinkler systemEnvironmental BenefitReduction in the amount of potable water used for irrigation lessens demand on limited supplies. Sincelandscape irrigation is the largest potable water consumption system, it is an important opportunity to reduceoverall potable water usage.Cost-BenefitCurrently, the most effective strategy to avoid escalating water costs for irrigation is to design landscapingadapted to the local climate and the site’s microclimate. The cost can be reduced or eliminated throughthoughtful planning and careful plant selection and layout. Native or adapted plants further reduce operatingcosts because they require less fertilizer and maintenance than turf grass. Although the additional design costfor a drip irrigation system may make it more expensive than a conventional system, a drip system usuallycosts less to install and has lower water use and maintenance requirements. This usually leads to a very shortpayback period.Approach and ImplementationPlant using water zones: High=regular watering; Moderate=occasional watering; Low=natural rainfall.Regularly check irrigation systems for efficient and effective operation. Use drip, micro misters, and sub-surface irrigation systems where applicable, and smart irrigation controllers throughout. Do not irrigateplants from November through April, and do not irrigate shrubs from September to June.Strategies and TechnologiesHigh efficiency irrigation strategies include micro-irrigation systems, moisture sensors, rain shut-offs, andweather-based evapotranspiration controllers. Drip systems apply water slowly and directly to the roots ofplants using 30-50 percent less water than sprinkler irrigation. Moisture and rain sensors save water byensuring that plants only receive water when necessary.Resources and Product OptionsTo achieve a water efficient irrigation system, the focus is not on the irrigation products in particular, but onthe irrigation design.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 15
  20. 20. #11 USE GRAYWATER AND/OR CAPTURED STORMWATER FOR IRRIGATION WATER SOURCESustainable Building StrategySave and store non-potable water for uses where potable water is unnecessary such as irrigation. Commercial graywater recycling diagramEnvironmental BenefitReduction in the amount of potable water used for irrigation lessens demand on limited supplies. Sincelandscape irrigation is the largest potable water consumption system, it is an important opportunity to reduceoverall potable water usage.Cost-BenefitWhile the installation of a rainwater harvesting or graywater collection system is a significant first cost item, along term financial benefit is reducing or eliminating dependence on municipal water and its associated fees.Approach and ImplementationOften times, it is appropriate to use a combination of water saving strategies to effectively achieve the bestwater saving plan. An effective approach is to a landscaping plan with native and adaptable plant life first toreduce water demand and then meet the demand in the most sustainable manner. It is important to researchlocal rainfall quantity and quality, as collection systems may be inappropriate in areas with rainfall of poorquality or low quantity. The Northwest is an ideal climate for rainwater collection because it comes in fairlyregularly and fairly gently. However, many other areas of the country also receive enough rainwater to makeharvesting it an option. According to, Orlando, FL receives an average of 48 inches of rainper year; 37 inches of precipitation falls yearly in Dallas, TX. Northerly cities like Chicago, IL (38 inches peryear) and New York City, NY (46 inches per year) receive enough rainfall to make a harvesting systempossible, but frozen precipitation needs to be taken into account. In extremely dry climates, such as Phoenix,where rainfall is less than 10 inches per year, rainwater harvesting is not as practical.Strategies and TechnologiesA rainwater collection system (e.g., cistern, underground tank, ponds) can significantly reduce or completelyeliminate the amount of potable water used for irrigation. Rainwater can be collected from roofs, plazas andpaved areas and then filtered by combination of graded screens and paper filters to prepare it for use inirrigation. Waste water recovery can be accomplished either on site or at the municipal level. On-site systemsinclude graywater and/or wastewater treatment. Graywater consists of wastewater from sinks, showers andwashing machines, and other building activities that do not involve human waste or food processing.Resources and Product OptionsGraywater treatment manufacturers: Brac Systems Greywater Treatment Systems by Clivus Multrum, Inc: www.clivusmultrum.comRainwater harvesting system manufacturers: Rainwater Catchment Systems by Rain Man Waterworks: www.rainharvester.comSustainable Building Reference Guide 16
  21. 21. #12 LOW FLOW TOILETS, DUAL FLUSH TOILETS, COMPOSTING TOILETS, AND WATERLESS URINALSSustainable Building StrategyInstall low-flow or dual-flush toilets and waterless urinals. Specify toilet flow rates that are less than 1.6gallons per minute (gpm) and 1.0 gpm for urinals, which are the national baseline low flow rates for thosefixtures as set forth by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Example dual flush toilet Dual flush technology diagramEnvironmental BenefitReducing the amount of potable water consumption in buildings for water closets and urinals protects thenatural water cycle and conserves scarce water resources. Another benefit of potable water conservation isreduced energy use and chemical inputs at municipal water treatment plants. When used in conjunction withother water efficient technologies and fixtures, significant savings can be obtained, both in terms of resourceconservation and municipal utility charges.Cost-BenefitLow-flow and/or dual-flush toilets involve either no additional cost or only minimal cost premiums.Waterless urinals tend to have a marginally higher first cost and also require training the janitorial staff onproper maintenance procedures. The important environmental and economic savings is apparent post-occupancy where reductions in water consumption will significantly minimize building water use feesfurthermore contributing to a reduction in operational costs.Approach and ImplementationTo determine the most effective strategies for a particular condition, the project team should analyze thewater conservation options available to the project based on location, code compliance and overall projectfunction. Determine areas of high water usage and evaluate potential alternative water savings technologies.Consider reuse of stormwater and graywater for non-potable applications such as toilet and urinal flushing.Strategies and TechnologiesThere are a number of ultra high efficiency toilets that use considerably less than the 1.6 gallons per flush(gpf) required by standard building code. Waterless urinals use advanced hydraulic design and a buoyant fluidinstead of water to maintain sanitary conditions and provide an odor seal. These products significantlyreduce water consumption without sacrificing performance.Resources and Product OptionsDual Flush Toilets Vienna by Vortens Caravelle by Caroma www.caromausa.comWaterless Urinals McDry Waterless Urinal by Duravit Steward by Kohler www.kohler.comSustainable Building Reference Guide 17
  22. 22. #13 LOW FLOW SHOWERHEADSSustainable Building StrategyInstall low flow showerheads throughout all shower facilities. Specify showerheads that have a flow rate lessthan 2.5 gpm, which is the national baseline flow rate for showerheads as set forth by the Energy Policy Actof 1992. Delta H2Okinetic low flow head Niagara Conservation Corp. low flow headEnvironmental BenefitReducing the amount of potable water consumption in buildings for water closets and urinals protects thenatural water cycle and conserves scarce water resources. Another benefit of potable water conservation isreduced energy use and chemical inputs at municipal water treatment plants.Cost-BenefitWater-conserving showerheads that use less water than the requirements in the Energy Policy Act of 1992may have higher initial costs. However, installation of these showerheads can result in significant long-termfinancial savings.Approach and ImplementationNo alterations or deviations from typical design approaches or implementation tactics need to be taken whenconsidering the use of water saving showerheads as they do not require any special rough in or vary ininstallation from traditional showerheads. When deciding on a water saving showerhead however, payparticular attention to water quality as this aspect does vary in quality among brands.Strategies and TechnologiesThere are a number of water saving showerheads that use less than the 2.5 gpm required by standard buildingcode. The water saving device within the showerhead in an aerator similar to those installed on sink faucets.Many showerheads also incorporate a water shaping feature which optimizes the water quality.Resources and Product OptionsH2Okinetic by Delta www.deltafaucet.comNiagara Conservation Corporation www.niagaraconservation.comSustainable Building Reference Guide 18
  23. 23. #14 FAUCET OCCUPANCY SENSORS AND/OR AERATORSSustainable Building StrategyInstall faucet aerators on all faucets along with electronic flow sensors for commercial application. With theaddition of a faucet aerator, the flow rate should be below 2.5 gpm, which is the national baseline flow rate asset for by the EPAct of 1992, for both bathroom and kitchen applications. Most occupant sensors forfaucets have a programmable flow time option, and in most commercial settings are programmed to 12seconds per use. Occupancy sensor Faucet aeratorEnvironmental BenefitReducing the amount of potable water consumption in buildings for faucet fixtures protects the natural watercycle and conserves scarce water resources. Another benefit of potable water conservation is reduced energyuse and chemical inputs at municipal water treatment plants.Cost-BenefitMost contemporary standard faucet assemblies include an aerator and therefore no additional first costshould be required. If the aerator is not included in the assembly, they can be purchased very inexpensively.The important environmental and economic savings is apparent post-occupancy where reductions in waterconsumption will significantly minimize building water use fees furthermore contributing to a reduction inoperational costs.Strategies and TechnologiesFaucets utilizing aerators can achieve a flow rate as little as 1.0 gpm compared to the 2.5 gpm required bystandard building code. Aerators are very affordable and are available with tamper proof devices to ensurepost-occupancy usage. Electronic flow sensors eliminate the possibility of excessive water usage.Product OptionsLow-flow, high-efficiency faucets with electronic flow sensors are readily available in the marketplace and canbe installed in the same manner as conventional fixtures. Toto, EcoPower Faucets Sloan, Optima Solis Building Reference Guide 19
  25. 25. #15 COMMISSION ENERGY SYSTEMSSustainable Building StrategyEmploy a commissioning agent to ensure that all energy systems are functioning as designed. Commissioning agents inspecting systemsEnvironmental BenefitBuilding commissioning is a quality-assurance process of ensuring that a building’s complex array of systemsis designed, installed, tested, and operated to perform according to the design intent and the building owner’soperational needs.Cost-BenefitIn a recent study1, researchers found that for new construction, median commissioning costs were $1.00 persquare foot, representing 0.6 percent of total construction costs. The energy-savings alone yielded a medianpayback time on the commissioning costs of 4.8 years. For existing buildings, the researchers found mediancommissioning costs of $0.27 per square foot, with whole-building energy savings of 15 percent and apayback time of 0.7 years.The benefits of commissioning include: Fewer change orders during construction Fewer call-backs after construction Lower energy bills Avoided premature equipment replacement costs Proper training of the building’s operational staff Safer and healthier indoor environment Long-term tenant satisfaction Improved profit marginWhile existing buildings showed a six-fold greater energy savings and four-fold lower commissioning coststhan new construction, the median payback time in both cases is still very attractive, especially when non-energy impacts are accounted for. The non-energy benefits of commissioning, which are rarely quantified, caninclude reduced change-orders thanks to early detection of problems during design and construction, andidentification and correction of problems that may lead to equipment breaking down prematurely. The studyfound that median one-time non-energy benefits were $1.24 per square foot per year for new construction —comparable to the entire cost of commissioning.1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s study, “The Cost-Effectiveness of Commercial-Buildings Commissioning,” can be downloadedfrom PUBS/Cx-Costs-Benefits.html.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 21
  26. 26. Approach and ImplementationFor new construction, commissioning ideally starts as soon as a facility is conceptualized, and continues untilthe building is occupied. Through the commissioning process, expectations for the performance of thebuilding systems are established and well-defined procedures are put in place to determine whether thoseexpectations have been met. Although building commissioning originally was created to ensure that HVACsystems were properly specified and installed, it can be successfully applied to virtually any building system,and to existing buildings as well as new construction.Resources and Product OptionsEnergy Design Resources offers comprehensive commissioning guidelines, design briefs on commissioningand related topics, plus many other resources. Be sure to check out Energy Design Resources’Commissioning Assistant, a web-based tool that you can use to evaluate probable commissioning costs,identify an appropriate commissioning scope, and access commissioning specifications.www.energydesignresources.comThe California Commissioning Collaborative is a nonprofit organization that provides programs, tools andtechniques to encourage the use of the building commissioning process. www.cacx.orgBuilding Commissioning Authority Database of Commissioning agents: www.bcxa.orgSustainable Building Reference Guide 22
  27. 27. #16 MAXIMIZE INSULATION VALUESustainable Building StrategyInstall the most effective insulation R-value product for the project’s site location and building operation. Cotton batt insulation Spray-in foam insulation Blown-in cellulose insulationEnvironmental BenefitProperly installed insulation helps to prevent air infiltration into the building. By helping to reduce unwantedinfiltration, the likelihood of moisture problems is also reduced. Commercial and residential buildingsconsume approximately 2/3 of the electricity and 1/3 of all energy in the United States. Conventional formsof energy production may have devastating environmental effects. Energy efficiency in building limits theharmful environmental side effects of energy generation, distribution and consumption.Cost-BenefitSome energy-efficiency measures may not require additional first costs. Many measures that do result inhigher capital costs may generate cost savings from lower energy use, smaller equipment, reduced space needsfor mechanical and electrical equipment, and utility rebates. The saving may vastly exceed the incrementalcapital costs associated with the energy efficiency measures.Approach and ImplementationIn addition to site location, determine method of wall construction to apply the most effective insulation typeand R-value as recommended in the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 (see Appendix).Strategies and TechnologiesDesign the building envelope to maximize energy performance in conjunction with the HVAC, lighting andother systems within the building. There are several choices for insulation including blown-in celluloseinsulation, spray-in foam insulation and batt insulation, which includes typical fiberglass, formaldehyde-freeand cotton. Additional R-value can be obtained through insulated sheathing and thermal mass from non-stick frame construction, such as SIPs, ICFs and haybale structures. See typical R-values for varyinginsulation types in chart below.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 23
  28. 28. R-Value in Wall Construction Insulation Type Implementation Notes 2" x 4" 2" x 6" Formaldehyde Free Fiberglass Batt R-13 R-19 Standard batt installation process Engineered panel that provides structural framing, insulation, and exterior sheathing in a solid, one-piece Structurally Insulated Panel (SIP) R-15 R-23 component Fairly difficult to install, trained installer is required Cotton Batt R-13 R-19 100% recycled cotton (i.e. jeans, etc.) Blown-In Cellulose R-17 R-24.7 100% recycled newspaper For wall cavities, requires either a binder or blow loose fill in behind a wire mesh Settling will occur initially as part of installation process, but additional settling over time can compromise performance Is not moisture resistant Wall thickness is irrelevant Is an additional layering of insulation to the wall cavity insulation Is especially appropriate when specifying metal stud wall Insulated Exterior Wall Sheathing R-3.5 construction Insulated concrete forms snap into place, concrete is Insulating Concrete Form Block (ICF) R-28 R-32 poured in cavity Available in open-cell (isocyanurate) or closed-cell Cavity Spray Foam R-27 R-39 (polyurethane) Can be combined with fiberglass batts for best cost and enhanced efficiency (i.e.- 1" of spray foam and finished with batt) Closed cell spray foam eliminates need for house wrap (air, vapor, moisture barrier inherent in closed cell) Formaldehyde free *R-Values are altered by regional/seasonal conditions (i.e., wind, moisture, outdoor temperature). All values listed in chart are considered average thermal resistance.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 24
  29. 29. #17 HIGH EFFICIENCY WINDOWSSustainable Building StrategySpecify spectrally selective high efficiency, low-emitting windows with the appropriate U-value and solar heatgain reflectance (SHGR) coefficient for the project’s site and climate. High performance windows Diagram of high performance window constructionEnvironmental BenefitsEnergy consumption in buildings can be dramatically reduced by installing high performance glazing thatreduces heat loss in the winter months and heat gain in the summer months.Cost-BenefitHigh efficiency glazing generally have higher first costs but represent significant operational cost savingsthrough lower energy use, smaller equipment, reduced space needs for mechanical and electrical equipment,and utility rebates.Approach and ImplementationReference the regional U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient recommendations included in the ASHRAEStandard 90.1-2004 to determine appropriate window performance for the project climate (see Appendix). Itis important to balance the glass type’s thermal parameters with visible light transmittance to increase theamount of natural light in the building.Strategies and TechnologiesLower unit U-factors (U-factor of glass and frame assembly together) reduce heat loss. While all Low-Eproducts reduce heat loss, not all Low-E products keep out excess heat in the summer. Lower shadingcoefficient values reduce heat gain, which in turn reduces cooling energy consumption. It is important tobalance these two factors when selecting glazing properties. Spectrally selective glazing incorporates technicaladvances in Low-E coatings that filter out the heat producing portions of the solar spectrum, but still allowthe greatest possible visible light transmittance. Spectrally Selective Low-E glass allows more natural lightinto buildings, while controlling radiated heat, providing maximum energy efficiency, and reducing heat loadsin areas where cooling costs are high.Resources and Product OptionsThe National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) develops and administers comparative energy and relatedrating programs that serve the public and satisfy the needs of its private sector partners by providing fair,accurate and credible, user-friendly information on fenestration product performance. Building Reference Guide 25
  30. 30. #18 MAXIMIZE HVAC EFFICIENCYSustainable Building StrategySpecify high efficiency HVAC with minimum Energy Efficiency Rating (EER) rating of 10.2, or 15 percentmore efficient than a system that is in minimum compliance with ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 – 2001.Effective strategies include high efficiency gas remote thermal unit (RTU) with air-side economizers,packaged Variable Air Volume (VAV) with Variable frequency Drives (VFDs) on supply air fans, modulatingburners, indirect evaporative pre-cooling stages, evaporative condensers, heat recovery systems, and air-source heat-pumps. In areas with high demand charges, consider load shifting rooftop units like the Ice Bear50.Environmental BenefitThe two biggest uses of energy in retail buildings are lighting and HVAC systems. Choosing the rightHVAC system can greatly impact a building’s energy performance and indoor air quality. As a result,environmental consequences associated with energy production will be minimized, as will energy costs.Cost-BenefitHigh efficiency HVAC systems will include higher up-front costs compared to conventional units. However,selecting a high performance HVAC system is one of the most important strategies to consider whendesigning a sustainable building. High efficiency HVAC systems typically result in quick payback periodsbecause of the large energy savings. For example, in hot climates like Phoenix, AZ and Las Vegas, NV,indirect evaporative pre-cooling pays for itself immediately in the first cost savings from downsizingequipment.Strategies and TechnologiesFor smaller tenant spaces (< 10,000 square feet (SF)) served by rooftop units, consider high efficiencypackaged rooftop units with gas heat and DX cooling. Also, specify units with refrigerants with low ozonedepleting potential and low global warming potential, such as R-410a rather than R-22.Equip units with modulating economizers (air-side economizers) to reduce cooling energy use in dryerclimates. Tables 6.5.1 and B-4 are taken from ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and identify those climates in which theenergy standard requires economizers. In climates such as those in Colorado (5b) and California (3a),economizers are required on units larger than 5 tons. In Chicago, Il and Cleveland, OH, economizers arerequired on units larger than 10 tons. There are more humid climates for which there are no economizerrequirements.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 26
  31. 31. The majority of gas-fired rooftop space heaters have heating efficiencies in the 80 percent range. Improvedperformance is achievable with modulating gas burners that enhance part-load performance. Modulatingunits regulate combustion air and natural gas flows according to heating demand. These systems providebetter temperature control, and are capable of maintaining high comfort levels in multiple zones.For larger tenants (> 10,000 SF) consider packaged VAV rooftop units with variable frequency drives onsupply air fans. A variable air volume system will adjust the supply air flow and supply air temperature inresponse to the different zones served by a VAV rooftop unit. This reduces fan energy use, and cooling andheating energy use. Fans controlled with a variable-speed drive on HVAC motors operate much moreefficiently than those with inlet vanes.For larger tenants (>10,000 SF) located in dryer climates, indirect evaporative pre-cooling stages can reduceinstalled cooling capacity and save on cooling energy costs. Indirect evaporative units can also be used forheat recovery when in heating mode. Ventilation heat recovery systems are worth considering in climateswith significant heating hours and with systems that run long hours.Another alternative is evaporative condensers, rather than standard air-cooled condensers. Evaporativecondensers improve equipment efficiency by allowing the condenser to reject heat to a lower temperaturesource (i.e., water). These units have a minimum EER of 12. Smaller split systems (<5 tons) are availablewith evaporatively cooled condensers. See the link to the Freus system below.Some areas of the country have high demand charges for electricity power use during their peak periods ofconsumption. The peak times are generally in the afternoon and early evening. Shifting power consumptionto the nighttime can lower demand charges. The Ice Bear 50 system is a small packaged rooftop unit (7.5tons) that makes ice at night and uses it to cool the building during the day.For ground floor spaces below multi-story areas, consider high efficiency heat pump split systems withsupplemental gas heat. Heat pumps are more efficient than other all-electric heating and cooling options. Airsource heat pumps extract heat from, and reject heat to, the air. Since their heating capability below 40o F ispoor, back-up heat is required in colder climates. Another option is a variable refrigerant flow system, whichis sometimes termed a multi-split system and functions like a split system that serves multiple zones. Eitherof these options requires supplemental outdoor air ventilation.Resources and Product OptionsAll of the major HVAC manufacturers offer high efficiency alternatives. Selecting an HVAC system thatincludes energy efficient equipment without compromising indoor environmental quality is one of the mostimportant elements to sustainable buildings. While the actual unit specifications will depend on tenantlocation, size, occupancy, etc, here are some brand names and models to consider: Trane, Precedent High Efficiency Trane, IntelliPak Carrier, 48PG Centurion York, Stellar Plus Lennox, S-Class SPA McQuay, Applied Rooftop System, SuperMod Burner Fujitsu Multi-Split System Mitsubishi Multi-Split System Ice Bear 50, Ice Energy Freus evaporatively cooled Split System http://www.freus.comSustainable Building Reference Guide 27
  32. 32. #19 MAXIMIZE HOT WATER HEATER EFFICIENCYSustainable Building StrategySpecify high efficiency water heaters or “non-conventional” technologies such as solar, tankless, gascondensing or heat pump water heaters rather than conventional technologies. In retail applications wherehot water use is low, insulate the tank and either insulate the pipes or upgrade the heat trap to improve theperformance of the system.Environmental BenefitWater-heating energy costs can be managed by selecting the appropriate fuel and water heater type, usingefficient system design, and reducing hot water consumption.Cost-BenefitEnergy costs for water heating can be reduced to anywhere between 20 and 80 percent. In applications withsmall hot water loads, insulating and heat traps are the most cost effective option with storage water heaters.In applications with higher loads, the more efficient alternatives carry a premium that can be recovered in 5-10 years.Strategies and TechnologiesConventional storage hot water heaters lose heat to their surroundings throughout the year. Fortunately,there are a number of technologies available to heat water efficiently: solar thermal, heat pumps, gascondensing and demand water heaters offer significant energy savings potential compared to conventionalstorage products. However, where hot water usage is low, the most cost effective strategy is insulating thetank and either insulating the pipes or upgrading the heat trap.High efficiency storage water heaters, such as condensing water heaters, are typically cost prohibitive. Arecent addition to the market – the A.O. Smith Vertex – is a reasonably priced (less than $1,000), highefficiency water heater.It is possible to completely eliminate standby heat losses from the tank and reduce energy consumption 20 to30 percent with demand (or instantaneous) water heaters, which do not have storage tanks. Demand hotwater heaters offer a practical solution for buildings that do not have high demand for hot water (like mostretail applications). Instantaneous water heaters, while double the cost of storage water heaters, are moreenergy efficient and require less space and can have shortened runs to the fixtures.Heat pump water heaters use heat from the surroundings to heat water instead of generating heat directlywith electricity. Heat pumps cost more up-front, but can provide up to 60 percent energy savings overconventional electric water heaters. A by-product of heat pump water heaters is cooling of the surroundingroom air.Solar water-heating systems reduce the use of electricity or fossil fuels by as much as 80 percent. Thesesystems typically have a simple payback of 12 years, but with a 30 percent Federal Tax Credit and accelerateddepreciation the cost effectiveness of these systems is much improved.Resources and Product OptionsSelecting the proper water heating technology depends on climate and consumption needs. With theseconsiderations in mind, here are a few recommendations for high-efficiency water heaters. A.O. Smith Vertex 90 percent Water Heater Paloma, PH24M Tankless Water Heater Takagi Industrial Co. USA Inc, Tankless Water Heaters Colmac Coil Manufacturing, Inc., Heat Pump Water Heaters Solargenic Energy, LLC, Solar Water Heating System Building Reference Guide 28
  33. 33. #20 AUTOMATIC OCCUPANCY SENSORS FOR LIGHTING AND LIGHTING DIMMER SWITCHESSustainable Building StrategyInstall occupancy sensor controls and dimming wall switches.Environmental BenefitThe two biggest uses of energy in commercial buildings are lighting and HVAC systems. Lighting controlstrategies such as dimming wall switches and occupancy sensors can significantly reduce a building’s energyneeds. Occupancy sensors can reduce lighting energy use by 30 to 60 percent, depending on the frequency ofroom usage. As a result, environmental consequences associated with energy production will be minimized(global warming, air and water pollution, habitat degradation, etc.).Cost-BenefitSavings due to occupancy sensors and dimming switches vary considerably across building types dependingon specific use requirements. Given the limited area in retail spaces that can effectively utilize thesestrategies, energy savings is not thought to be significant. However, first costs are minimal, and this strategycan have a profound ripple effect in educating employees to the importance of energy conservation.Strategies and TechnologiesIn most commercial buildings, electric lights are left on when rooms are unoccupied. While light switches areusually available, occupants do not typically turn off lights when rooms are not in use. Occupancy sensorsovercome this problem by automatically turning lights off or on as needed. Dimming wall switches allowbuilding occupants to easily reduce light levels for varying visual task requirements.Occupancy sensor control is applicable for most interior spaces where it is common for lights to be on whenno one is present for short to long periods throughout the day. In a commercial environment, thesestrategies should be implemented in all back-of-house spaces. Restaurants should also consider installingthese mechanisms in restroom areas.Product OptionsMost lighting companies carry occupancy sensors and offer dimming features for most switches. The Watt Stopper, WD Dimmable PIR Wall Switch Leviton Lighting Control Division, Occupancy Sensor Building Reference Guide 29
  34. 34. #21 HIGH EFFICIENCY LIGHTING FIXTURESSustainable Building StrategySpecify high efficiency lighting fixtures to reduce lighting power density to 15 percent below that allowed byASHRAE Standard 90.1–2004. In retail applications, ASHRAE 90.1-2004 allows for 1.5 watts per squarefoot (W/SF) of general lighting, plus additional lighting for displays. The standard allows for 1.6 W/SF ofdisplay lighting (based on area of display) for general merchandise and 3.9 W/SF for valuable merchandise,such as jewelry, fine apparel, china, etc. Design with T8 and T5 fluorescents, compact fluorescents and metalhalides. Highly energy efficient LED lights can provide low-maintenance, accent lighting. Consider controlsas well with separate switching and dimming controls for display lighting. Use of daylighitng through toplighting, such as clerestories and skylights, is also recommended.Environmental BenefitBased on surveys conducted by the Lighting Research Center (LRC) of lighting power densities, a typical mallstore will use about 11,000 kilowatt hours (kWhs) of electricity for lighting its display windows each year.2 Atan average cost of $0.10 per kWh, this works out to $1,100 per year in electricity costs. This same studyfound that stores could reduce the wattage of the lighting in the display windows by half, and still maintainthe windows visual appeal and their ability to capture shoppers attention without negatively impacting retailsales. This strategy only takes into account changing lighting strategies in display windows. If high efficiencylighting fixtures are specified throughout the store, savings go up exponentially.Cost-BenefitIt is possible to reduce lighting energy requirements by up to 40 percent. While you will pay more for highefficiency fixtures, not only will you save money on your energy bill, you also will significantly cut down onreplacement lighting costs.Strategies and TechnologiesThere are a number of different lighting strategies that will allow retailers to reduce lighting power densitieswhile still capturing shoppers’ attention. Lighting fixture efficiencies have improved dramatically over theyears. Some alternative high efficiency fixtures to consider include Standard T8 and T5 Fluorescents, andHigh Performance T8 and T5 fluorescents, and superior quality compact fluorescents with high colorrendition and daylight color temperatures. The Standard T8 has an efficiency of about 83 Lumens per Watt(lm/W) compared to 12 lm/W for a conventional incandescent bulb. Also consider ceramic metal halides, atype of high intensity discharge (HID) lamp, and light emitting diode (LED) lights.Linear fluorescent lamps should be specified with electronic ballasts. They are also available with dimmableballasts and can be efficiently integrated into a well-daylit space. Fluorescent fixtures on programmed startelectronic ballasts can handle twice times the starts that standard ballasts can. Compact fluorescent lamps(CFL) also have electronic ballasts and there are dimmable CFL available.HID lamps produce light by striking an electrical arc across tungsten electrodes housed inside a speciallydesigned inner glass tube. This tube is filled with both gas and metals. The gas aids in the starting of thelamps and the metals produce the light once they are heated to a point of evaporation. HID lamps produce alarge quantity of light in a small package in comparison with incandescent and fluorescent sources. HIDlighting is typically used when high levels of light are required over large areas and when energy efficiencyand/or long life are desired. More recently, however, HID sources, especially metal halide (MH), have beenused in small retail and residential environments. Note that HID lamps cannot be dimmed.2 Lighting Research Center. “Saving Energy in Retail Display Windows.” Building Reference Guide 30
  35. 35. MH lamps produce a white light, while high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps produce a yellow light. Recentresearch has shown that the white light produced by MH lamps can allow people to see in greater detail thanyellow light, especially in lower level lighting conditions. Ceramic metal halides (39W) are recommended inapplications with ceilings over 10 feet and recessed or ceiling-mounted fixtures, and can be used in lieu of MR(multireflector) lamps and halogen PAR lamps.LED’s are light emitting diodes that we are familiar as small display lights on consoles. LED’s operate onlow-voltage current and have the longest life of the various light sources. LED’s are directional light sourceslike PAR and MR lamps. They are assembled in arrays to produce sufficient light but use 1/10th of acomparable incandescent light source.Resources and Product OptionsAlmost all major lighting manufacturers offer high efficiency lamps. Some of the leading companies includethe following. Osram Sylvania Lithonia Lighting Phillips Universal Lighting Technologies Building Reference Guide 31
  36. 36. #22 DAYLIGHT SENSORSSustainable Building StrategySpecify interior photo-sensors connected with electronic dimming ballasts in daylit spaces.Environmental BenefitThe purpose of utilizing photo-sensors to control electronic dimming ballasts is to reduce electric lightingenergy in daylit spaces by dimming the electric lighting system based on the availability of daylight. Inprinciple, daylighting can reduce electrical use both for lighting and for cooling. However, these benefits willonly occur if electric lighting is switched off or dimmed when daylight provides adequate illumination.Therefore, daylighting measures need to be fully integrated with the electric lighting scheme.In addition to energy savings, electric light dimming systems offer two other advantages over conventionallighting systems. First, conventional lighting systems are typically designed to over-illuminate rooms toaccount for the 30 percent drop in lighting output over time. Electric light dimming systems automaticallycompensate for this reduced output to give a constant light level over time. Second, daylighting controls canbe adjusted to give the desired light level for any space. Thus, when floor plans are changed, it is easy toadjust the light levels to meet the lighting needs of each area (provided the system is zoned properly and hassufficient lighting capacity).Cost-BenefitThe use of natural, day light can save money through reduced electrical HVAC requirement, increaseenvironmental comfort, and conserve resources. Studies consistently show increased worker productivity,retail sales and other benefits from spaces that incorporate natural light.Strategies and TechnologiesMost lighting systems in commercial environments operate at full output regardless of outdoor conditions.On most days, however, daylighting (sunlight through windows and/or skylights) can provide sufficient lightlevels for most retail activities. Dimming daylighting control systems use interior photo-sensors to controlelectronic dimming ballasts, which gradually dim or brighten lamps within the daylight zone. This system istransparent to the building occupant since the dimming system continuously maintains the designed lightlevels without switching lamps on or off. The daylight zone depth for controlling light fixtures for thisstrategy can be from 2 to 2.5 times the head height of the window. If combined with Skylights or Light Pipes(#25 Maximize the Use of Daylighting), the entire retail sales floor area should utilize these calibrateddaylighting controls.Product OptionsAs with other lighting systems and controls, most lighting companies offer photo-sensors and electronicdimming capabilities. Advance Transformer Co. Osram Sylvania Building Reference Guide 32
  37. 37. #23 TANDEM WIRINGSustainable Building StrategyWhere 2-lamp fixtures are used, "tandem-wire" adjacent fixtures so the fixtures can be controlled by one 4-lamp ballast. In other words, a pair of fixtures have one (1) 4-lamp ballast in the master servicing the twolamps of each fixture and one (1) 2-lamp ballast in the master servicing the center single lamp in each fixture.Environmental BenefitEnergy efficiency in buildings limits the harmful environmental side effects of energy generation, distributionand consumption. Tandem wiring has been known to reduce energy use by these fixtures by 9 percent, andmore in some cases.Cost-BenefitEven with the extra labor costs for tandem wiring, a 4-lamp ballast costs about the same as two 2-lampballasts. This technique allows fewer single-lamp ballasts in the combination, thus reducing material costsand energy.Approach and ImplementationThis technique is usually found in recessed lay-in fluorescent fixtures having three lamps in each fixture.Luminaires designed for use with one or three linear fluorescent lamps greater than 30 W each can use twolamp tandem-wired ballasts in place of single lamp ballasts when 2 or more luminaires are in the same spaceand on the same control device.Exceptions include: 1. Recessed luminaires more than 10 ft apart measured center to center; 2. Surface mounted or pendant luminaires which are not continuous; 3. Luminaires using single lamp high-frequency electronic ballasts; 4. Luminaires using three lamp high-frequency electronic ballasts or three lamp electromagnetic ballasts; 5. Luminaires on emergency circuits; and 6. Luminaires with no available pair.Strategies and TechnologiesTandem wiring is one measure towards whole building energy efficiency as prescribed in the ASHRAEStandard 90.1-2004. Tandem wiring specifically addresses demand reduction. To accomplish whole buildingdemand reduction, consider optimizing building form and orientation, reducing internal loads through shelland lighting improvements, and shifting load to off-peak periods.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 33
  38. 38. #24 ELIMINATE USE OF CFC-BASED REFRIGERANTSSustainable Building StrategySpecify zero use of CFC-based refrigerants in HVAC&R systems.Environmental BenefitCFC-based refrigerants destroy ozone in the earth’s atmosphere, which is the root cause of numerousenvironmental and health problems. Ozone is needed to shield the earth against harmful ultraviolet radiation.Using non-CFC building equipment slows the depletion of the ozone layer and reduces the accumulation ofgreenhouse gases and the potential for global climate change.Strategies and TechnologiesUntil recently, most refrigeration (air-conditioning) systems used CFCs. As a result of the Montreal Protocolto protect the earths ozone layer, CFC production in the United States was completely phased out by the endof 1995. Specification of non-CFC building equipment is now standard as no new systems utilizing CFCs arebeing manufactured. In most cases, CFCs have been replaced with HCFCs (typically R22 and R123).Although HCFCs have only 1/20th the ozone depleting potential of CFCs, the use of HCFCs does reducethe ozone layer. As a result, the use of HCFCs will also be phased out, beginning in 2004. There are severalclasses of refrigerants that have zero ozone-depletion potential.Product OptionsAll contemporary HVAC&R systems come standard without CFC-based refrigerants. Since the end of 1995,CFC refrigerants have not been manufactured in the United States.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 34
  39. 39. #25 MAXIMIZE THE USE OF DAYLIGHTINGSustainable Building StrategyDesign the building to maximize interior daylighting luminosity, including south-facing glazing in addition toskylights and light tubes. Retail daylighting Commercial daylighting Skylight daylightingEnvironmental BenefitBoth glazing and skylights or light tubes greatly enhance the daylighting benefits in many buildingenvironments. Daylighting reduces the need for electric lighting of building interiors, resulting in decreasedenergy use. This lighting energy use reduction conserves natural resources and reduces air pollution impactsdue to energy production and consumption.Cost-BenefitSpecialized glazing can increase initial costs for a project and can lead to excessive heat gain if not designproperly. Glazing provides less insulating effects compared to standard walls, resulting in higher energy useand requiring additional maintenance. A well designed daylit building is estimated to reduce lighting energyuse by 50 to 80 percent. Daylit spaces can increase occupant productivity and reduce absenteeism and illness.In most cases, occupant salaries significantly outweigh first costs of incorporating daylighting measures into abuilding design.Approach and ImplementationThe desired amount of daylight will differ depending on the tasks occurring within each program space.Daylit spaces often have several daylight zones with differing target light levels. In addition to light levels, theimplementation of daylighting should address interior color schemes, direct beam penetration and integrationwith the electric lighting system. Glare control is perhaps the most common failure in daylightingimplementation.Strategies and TechnologiesStrategies to consider include building orientation, shallow floor plates, increased building perimeter, exteriorand interior permanent shading devices, high performance glazing, and automatic photocell-based controls.Predict daylight factors via manual calculations or model daylighting strategies with a physical or computermodel to assess footcandle levels and daylight factors achieved.Product OptionsSee “High Efficiency Windows” for a reference to determine the most appropriate window products to use interms of climate.The following are light tube product options. Solatube Sun-Dome Tubular Skylights by Daylighting Technologies, Inc. www.sun-dome.netSustainable Building Reference Guide 35
  40. 40. #26 SOLAR SHADE AND DIFFUSING DEVICESSustainable Building StrategyInstall exterior solar shading devices such as awnings and interior daylight diffusers, such as light shelves.Environmental BenefitDay-lighting reduces the need for electric lighting, which results in decreased energy consumption. Daylitspaces may also increase occupant productivity. However, if not controlled properly, this light can provideunwanted glare, therefore, it is important to employ shading devices to control glare.Cost-BenefitSolar shade and diffusing devices reduce heat gain obtained through glazed surface areas. As a result, thesetechniques contribute to an energy efficient fenestration strategy as well as increase the interior distance towhich the benefits of daylighting can be obtained. Collectively, daylighting strategies provide an opportunityto downsize mechanical cooling equipment at the design stage and/or permit energy savings resulting fromdecreased lighting and cooling requirements.Strategies and TechnologiesAwnings should be installed to prevent excessive glare in a commercial application. Light shelves allowdaylight to penetrate the space up to 2.5 times the distance between the floor and the top of the window,while simultaneously blocking unwanted glare. Typical installations usually make a feature of the light shelf.Light shelves are usually part of a broader daylight strategy that does not depend on the light shelf; rather; thelight shelf is an extension of the strategy.Sustainable Building Reference Guide 36
  41. 41. #27 INSTALL ON-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCESustainable Building StrategySupply a portion of the building’s total energy through the use of on-site renewable energy systems, such asphotovoltaics (PVs).Environmental BenefitWith growing concern over climate change, rising energy prices and the reliability of conventional fuelsources, how electricity is generated has become critical. The use of renewable energy reduces environmentalimpacts associated with utility energy production and use. In addition to preventing environmentaldegradation, on-site use of renewable energy can improve power reliability and reduce reliance on the localpower distribution grid.Cost-BenefitWhile still expensive, the costs of PV systems have come down significantly in recent years. The higher firstcosts can be off-set by federal and state utility rebates (see resource link above), as well as by net meteringarrangements in which excess peak electricity is sold back to the utility. With Building IntegratedPhotovoltaics (BIPVs), the costs should also include the marginal savings on the replaced elements of thebuilding such as roofing or cladding.Strategies and TechnologiesRenewable energy can be generated on a building site by using technologies that convert energy from the sun,wind and biomass into usable energy. Solar PVs, which convert sunlight directly into electric power, are themost practical renewable energy technology for small to medium sized commercial buildings. In the past,PVs were assembled into panels that required a structure to orient them to the sun. In recent years, theefficiency of the cells has increased and BIPVs are increasingly incorporated into building elements such asthe roof, shell or window systems.Solar PV systems can provide a renewable, non-polluting electricity source and reduced electric bills. PVsystems for buildings utilize a parallel connection with the utility which allows buying electricity or power forusage over that supplied by PVs and selling surplus power back to the utility when PV power exceeds thebuilding load. Net metering, a system in which power is put back into the utility grid when the local demandis less than the capacity of the PV array, is required in some 30 states. This means that the PV-generatedpower is worth the retail price of the electricity being displaced. In commercial buildings with “time-of-day”billing, electricity displaced during the sunniest hours of the day is worth the most.Resources and Product OptionsThere are various types of PVs and companies that specialize in different areas ranging from design,engineering, sales, installation, and service. At the FindSolar link below, a comprehensive database for localrenewable energy professionals as well as a solar calculator is available for both commercial and residentialbuilding types. Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE) is a comprehensive source of informationon state, local, utility and selected federal incentives that promote renewable energy. Building Reference Guide 37
  42. 42. #28 MEASURE AND VERIFY BUILDING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE POST- OCCUPANCYSustainable Building StrategyDevelop a measurement and verification (M&V) plan to evaluate building and/or energy systemperformance.Environmental BenefitMeasurement and verification of a building’s ongoing energy use allows for optimization of related systemsover the lifetime of the building. As a result, the cost and environmental impacts associated with energy canbe minimized.Cost-BenefitThe added cost to institute an M&V program in a new construction project is strongly tied to the complexityof the building systems. The factors that typically affect M&V accuracy and costs are: Level of detail and effort associated with verifying post-construction conditions; Number and types of metering points; Duration and accuracy of metering activities; Number and complexity of dependent and independent variables that must be measured or determined on an ongoing basis; Availability of existing data collecting systems; and Confidence and precision levels specified for the analyses.Approach and ImplementationThe International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Volume III provides aconcise description of best-practice techniques for verifying the energy performance of building projects (seeresource link below). The IPMVP is not prescriptive regarding the application of M&V options, but insteaddefers to the professional judgment of the implementer(s) to apply the options in a manner that is appropriateto the project scale while still meeting the M&V objective.Strategies and TechnologiesInstall the necessary metering equipment to measure energy use. Track performance by comparing predictedperformance to actual performance, broken down by component or system as appropriate. Evaluate energyefficiency by comparing actual performance to baseline performance.Resources and Product OptionsThe IPMVP volumes are available for download, which is the organizations flagship product in the form of aset of framework documents used: To develop an M&V strategy and plan for quantifying energy and water savings in retrofits and new construction; To monitor indoor environmental quality; and To quantify emissions reductions. Building Reference Guide 38