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MECHANICAL VENTILATION commercial kitchen.pptx

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MECHANICAL VENTILATION commercial kitchen.pptx

  1. 1. MECANICAL VENTILATION COMMERTIAL KITCHEN SUBMITTED BY:- FIZA NAAZ
  2. 2. COMMERCIAL KITCHEN VENTILATION (CKV) What is commercial kitchen ventilation? Kitchen ventilation is the branch of ventilation specializing in the treatment of air from kitchens. It addresses the problems of grease, smoke and odors not found in most other ventilation systems. WHY? CKV is a major component of restaurant function because it affects not only the kitchen but the dining room and other areas as well. CONTROLLING KITCHEN TEMPERATURES AND AIR QUALITY  Kitchens can be very uncomfortable environments for the people working in them. Most often kitchens are extremely hot, but if the HVAC system isn’t properly balanced.  Preparing and cooking food produces smoke, steam, airborne particles and odors that can irritate eyes and skin or cause respiratory troubles. REDUCING ENERGY LOSS:  Proper kitchen ventilation requires a complete replacement of kitchen air – that is, air removed through exhaust systems must be replaced by air brought in through the HVAC equipment or ventilation sources. RESTRICTING ODORS:  The odors associated with food and cooking can’t be avoided in a commercial kitchen, but a properly arranged ventilation system can keep those odors from escaping into the dining room, bar or other areas where they could be disagreeable to customers. Stopping contamination of exhaust systems:  Ventilation systems can be contaminated by the grease, dust and other material contained in kitchen air. When this happens, ventilation fans, ducts, hoods and equipment must be cleaned, creating additional expense for the restaurant owner. An adequate kitchen ventilation system should:  Remove cooking fumes at the source, i.e. as close as possible to the cooking equipment.  Remove excess hot air and introduce cool clean air, maintaining a comfortable environment. Inadequate ventilation can cause stress, contributing to unsafe working conditions and high staff turnover.  Ensure that air movement in the kitchen does not cause discomfort.  Provide sufficient air for complete combustion at fired appliances, and prevent the risk of carbon monoxide accumulation.  Be easy to clean (intermittent e.g., manually, or continuously e.g. using ozone) so that fat residues do not accumulate in the hood and ducts and block air inlets, leading to loss of efficiency and increasing fire risk.  Be quiet and vibration-free. REFERENCES :-Design of Ventilation System for Commercial Kitchen – IRJET https://www.irjet.net Kitchen_ventilation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Commercial Kitchen Ventilation: Why It's So Important https://www.sobieskiinc.com
  3. 3. COMPONENTS OF COMMERTIAL KITCHEN VENTILATION Commercial Kitchen Hood The commercial kitchen hood is the central hub of the interior exhaust system, and it houses many of the other important components of the ventilation mechanism. It generally sits directly above the cooking area, in order to catch as much smoke and debris as possible coming from the surface. TYPES OF COMMERCIAL KITCHEN VENTILATION HOODS • Type 1 Hood Type 1 commercial kitchen hoods are necessary for cooking surfaces that expel discharge containing grease, and they are fully-welded. If the cooking equipment is located against a wall, you can utilize a wall canopy hood. If no walls are present around the stovetop, either single- or double-island hoods can be installed on the ceiling. Island hoods tend to suffer from greater rates of drafts and spillage due to the increased airflow around the unit. • Type 2 Hood If the cooking surface only produces heat and condensation, rather than grease, then a Type 2 commercial kitchen hood can be installed. Type 2 hoods lack a grease filter, and they can be constructed from a standard galvanized duct instead of being fully-welded. REFERENCES :- https://www.hoodfilters.com/foodservice-blog/2016/09/30/intro-to-commercial-kitchen-ventilation-systems/ Type 1 Type 2 UPBLAST EXHAUST FAN Upblast exhaust fans sit on the exterior of the restaurant and use a fan to drive exhaust out of the ventilation system. These fans also need to be equipped with one or more grease filters in order to prevent grease from spilling out of the system and onto the roof of the building. Types of Upblast Exhaust Fans •Belt Drive Exhaust Fan Belt drive exhaust fans operate through a motor shaft that is controlled by a belt-and-motor pulley. As the belt vibrates, it creates friction, which can cause a decrease in fan performance and necessitate repairs. They are favored by many restaurant owners for their affordability and quiet operation. •Direct Drive Exhaust Fan The fan blades on a direct drive exhaust fan are directly connected to the motor shaft, eliminating the need for a belt. They contain fewer parts than a belt drive fan and have the added bonus of reducing energy usage thanks to more efficient operation. While they are generally higher in price, many people believe that the ease of maintenance and cleaning offsets the higher upfront costs.
  4. 4. MAKE-UP AIR UNIT The job of the make-up air unit is to do exactly what it says: it replaces the exhaust that was removed from the cooking area with non-contaminated air. Make-up air units can be either tempered or non-tempered, and at peak performance, they should be replacing 100 percent of the exhaust that is being removed.  Types of Make-up Air Units • Tempered Make-up Air Units Both types of make-up air units can supply the kitchen with non-contaminated air to replace what has been removed by the ventilation system, but tempered units can also heat or cool the air to increase the comfort level of the kitchen environment. • Non-tempered Make-up Air Units Non-tempered units are typically less expensive than their counterparts, but they are often unsuitable in locations that experience frequent temperature extremes.  TYPES OF COMMERCIAL HOOD FILTERS • Fire Suppression System Fire suppression systems are required for all commercial kitchen hood systems, and they must pass certification by successfully extinguishing an oil fire in excess of 680 degrees Fahrenheit. This is accomplished either through chemical agents or the release of water, although some systems use both. Fire suppression systems can be mounted inside the kitchen hood or in a nearby location, but there are restrictions on how far away from the cooking area they can be. • Hood Filter Bank The hood filter bank houses the grease filter which attempts to catch oil and debris before they can enter the exhaust system. Too much grease entering into the exhaust system can accelerate its decomposition, so it’s important to clean the hood filter frequently to avoid buildup. Baffle hood filters are available in three types of material: Stainless steel, Galvanized steel, or Aluminum. • Hood Filter Material Hood filters are typically constructed from either Aluminum, Galvanized steel, or Stainless steel. Aluminum is inexpensive, lightweight, and versatile, and aluminum filters are a great option if you’re working with a limited budget. Galvanized steel filters are generally more durable and expensive. However, they can be subject to corrosion. Stainless steel filters are often the most expensive option, and they feature powerful anti-corrosive properties which reduce the need for maintenance and replacement. • Spark Arrestors Spark arrestors are necessary when using solid cooking fuels that can create airborne sparks. These are common in grilling or smoking applications, and they include organic substances such as charcoal briquettes or natural hardwood. COMPONENTS OF CKV REFERENCES :- https://www.hoodfilters.com/foodservice-blog/2016/09/30/intro-to-commercial-kitchen-ventilation-systems/
  5. 5. PURPOSE • High temperature and cooking particulates are unavoidable and intent to damage occupant health. Particulate matter create risk of respiratory infection, heart diseases, etc. • In order to make comfortable working environment for occupant who spends considerable time there, heated air and moisture need to be exhausted. • To create safe, healthy, acceptable working conditions pollutants produced from kitchen area need ejectment. • Mechanical exhaust ventilation system should be prudential of all smoke, odour, heat that is produced during frying process and promote comfortable indoor working conditions • Kitchen pollutants should be exhausted by using arrangement of canopy, where blower, filter and duct are used as mountings. • The canopy must be capable to collect all the pollutants effectively. Grease is the combination of water vapor and oil that produced from fried products. • The commercial kitchen is hot and humid, the occupants spend a lot of time there. Mechanical extract ventilation system and Single Island canopy for a big commercial kitchen that produces fried goods in a continuous fryer with dimensions of 3.85m × 0.56m. • The design for ventilation system of a commercial kitchen varies depending on the available space and the amount of food being prepared • The exhaust flow rate is estimated using the SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association) technique and appliance duty category, taking into account all room constraints and data FUNCTION
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Improvement of Air Quality heating or cooling energy can also be removed as smoke, particles and odors are exhausted out of the building Removal of Grease Needs regular Maintenance Odour Control The utility service interruption or equipment failure often interrupts the regular operation of a mechanical ventilation system. Reducing energy loss Backing up mechanical ventilation for a critical facility may be economically unreasonable. Stopping contamination of exhaust systems The filters have to be changed every 4 months.
  7. 7. TYPICAL INSTALATION:- Canopy/ Hood and Exhaust flow rate Hoods are placed at various heights and horizontal locations in relation to the cooking equipment and have varied capture areas. Here Single island canopy is suitable as shown in Fig - 2. The outside of the hood must be made of at least 18 gauge (1.27 mm) galvanized steel or stainless steel. Here canopy dimensions are calculated by SMACNA method: Wh = Ws + 0.8H = 3850 + (0.8 ×1000) = 4650 mm Lh = Ls + 0.8H = 560 + (0.8 ×1000) = 1360 mm (H = 1000 mm) [19] Exhaust flow rate for medium duty category is 5914 cfm (2.79 m3/s) Exhaust flow rate for heavy duty category is 7886 cfm (3.72 m3/s) For commercial kitchen applications, when not specified by code, the following guidelines may be used to determine the minimum kitchen hood exhaust CFM: Type of Cooking Equipment CFM/Ft.2 of Hood Light Duty Oven, Range, Kettle 50 Medium Duty Fryer, Griddle 70 Heavy Duty Char broiler, Electric Broiler 100 Static pressure usually ranges from .625"(15.9mm) to 1.0" (23.4mm) for 1 story buildings. Supply air is recommended to be 90% of your determined exhaust CFM. The remaining 10% will be drawn from adjacent areas to the kitchen, which helps prevent undesirable odors from drifting into areas such as the dining room. The pressure generated by fans in ductwork is very small. Yet, accurately estimating the static pressure is critical to proper fan selection. Fan static pressure is measured in inches of water gauge. One pound per square inch is equivalent to 27.7 in. of water gauge. Static pressure in fan systems are typically less than 2 in. of water gauge, or 0.072 Psi. The amount of static pressure that the fan must overcome depends on the air velocity in the ductwork, the number of duct turns (and other resistive elements), and the duct length. For properly designed systems with sufficient make-up air, the guidelines in the table can be used for estimating static pressure. Static Pressure Guidelines Non-Ducted: 0.05 inches to 0.20 inches Ducted: 0.2 inches to 0.4 inches per 100 feet of duct (assuming duct air velocity falls within 1,000-1,800 feet per minute) Fittings: 0.08 inches per fitting (elbow, register, grille, damper, etc.) CFM/Ft.2 of Hood Important: Static pressure requirements are significantly affected by the amount of make-up air supplied to an area. Insufficient make-up air will increase static pressure and reduce the amount of air that will be exhausted. Remember, for each cubic foot of air exhausted, one cubic foot of air must be supplied.
  8. 8. NBC STANDARDS FOR MECANICAL VENTILATION FOR COMMERCIAL KITCHEN • Desired ventilation rates in the kitchens depend upon the type of equipment in use and the released impurity loads (including surplus heat). Ventilation Standards set up the guide lines for ventilation volumes, whereas surplus heat and impurity loads determine the actual airflows based on thermal considerations. The design for kitchen airflow must allow for sufficient ventilation. REFERENCES :-Group 4 (2005): NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2005 GROUP 4 PART 8 PAGE 33
  9. 9.  WALL CANOPY HOOD - EXHAUST ONLY • Exhaust only wall canopy hoods introduce supply air through ceiling diffusers or external supply plenums. More dimensional flexibility than other manufacturers • Available as single-wall front or double-wall front • Double-wall provides one-inch (25 mm), of insulation between the two front panels for additional strength and rigidity  AUTO SCRUBBER • The Auto Scrubber cleans not only the inside of the exhaust plenum, but filters too. For use with Greenheck filters that include baffle, Grease-X-Tractor and Grease Grabber • Easy maintenance (no tool access panels) • Can connect to a variety of building automation systems • Compatible with several Greenheck control systems  SINGLE-ISLAND EXHAUST ONLY • Use single-island style canopy hoods over cooking equipment that produces heat and grease- laden effluent. These hoods are used over one row of cooking equipment placed where no walls exist. • Features four finished stainless steel sides  BACKSHELF HOOD • Type I proximity hoods are for grease- and heat-laden effluent and are shorter in front (tapered height and width) than a canopy hood. These are the perfect solution for light- and medium-duty cooking applications with low ceilings. Optional plate shelf and/or pass-over enclosure • Optional flue bypass Grease Hoods – Type I REFERENCES :-https://www.greenheck.com/en/products/kitchen-ventilation-systems/kitchen-ventilation-products MARKET AVALIBILITY
  10. 10. Non-Grease Hoods – Type II • HEAT AND FUME HOODS • Greenheck’s heat and fume hood is primarily used for ovens or general ventilation applications to capture heat and vapor, creating a more comfortable environment for the cooking staff. • CONDENSATE HOODS • Condensate models include a gutter and have optional baffles and drain connection for use over heavy condensation kitchen appliances such as dishwashers. • The residential range hood is a dual-purpose device. It is a both a ventilation hood and a self-contained fire suppression system. The hood is designed for use above residential style appliances in commercial settings. FIRE READY RANGE HOOD (GRRS) REFERENCES :-https://www.greenheck.com/en/products/kitchen-ventilation-systems/kitchen-ventilation-products MARKET AVALIBILITY
  11. 11. o KITCHEN NON-GAS-FIRED MAKE-UP AIR UNITS  MSX • The MSX is a highly configurable make-up air unit that can be utilized to meet the needs of a variety of applications. The MSX’s modular design allows for a wide range heating, cooling, and filtration options. • 800 to 48,000 cfm and 4 in. wg o KITCHEN NON-TEMPERED MAKE-UP AIR UNITS  KSFD/KSFB • The KSF series has both a belt drive (model KSFB) and direct drive (model KSFD) configuration. Both have a compact design and provide a great source of non-tempered make-up air for commercial, institutional and kitchen applications. • 300 to 10,250 cfm and 3 in. wg • UL 705  MSF • Model MSF is for price sensitive, non-tempered make-up air applications. The MSF features a direct drive, backward inclined plenum supply fan that provides many value-added benefits for the end user. The plenum fan arrangement allows for bottom, horizontal, left and right discharge arrangements for convenient ducting. Maintenance and air balancing in the field are simplified with this direct drive arrangement. • 500 - 5,300 cfm and 3 in. wg • Permanent split capacitor (PSC), Vari-Green® electronically commutated (EC), or variable frequency drive (VFD) controlled three-phase motors • UL705
  12. 12. Kitchen Make-up Air Units o KITCHEN DIRECT GAS-FIRED MAKE-UP AIR UNITS  DGX • Model DGX is a highly configurable direct gas-fired heating and cooling system. The unit incorporates a modular design to maximize configuration flexibility. In addition, constant volume, 100% outdoor air, recirculation, and VAV airflow arrangement are available. The DGX can be configured with a forward-curved, backward-curved or mixed flow plenum supply fan allowing for either belt-driven or drive arrangements. • 800 to 48,000 cfm and 4 in. wg • Up to 4,800,000 BTU/hr. • Cooling options: packaged direct expansion (DX), split direct expansion (DX), chilled water, or evaporative cooling o KITCHEN INDIRECT GAS-FIRED MAKE-UP AIR UNITS  IGX • Model IGX is a highly configurable indirect gas-fired heating system. The unit has a modular design for maximum flexibility. Recirculation and VAV options are available in addition to constant volume, 100% outdoor air operation. The IGX has heating, cooling, and airflow capacities to provide make-up air across a broad range of applications. • 800 to 15,000 cfm and 3 in. wg • Up to 1,200,000 BTU/hr. • Cooling options: packaged direct expansion, split direct expansion, chilled water, or evaporative cooling • 16:1 electronic modulation per furnace
  13. 13. Kitchen Fire Suppression Systems The first line of defense against fire in a commercial kitchen is the fire protection system installed in the exhaust hood. AMEREX KP • Appliance specific fire suppression is a wet chemical system to be used when the equipment placement is known with few, if any, changes. Nozzles are selected and aimed at specific hazards on each appliance. The chemical agent itself is a low pH that’s non-corrosive to stainless steel and cleans up safely with water and a sponge. ANSUL R-102 • The nozzles and placement in an appliance-specific fire system are chosen for the type of cooking equipment it needs to protect. This is the most cost-effective system, as only the appliances that need protection are covered. Stainless agent tank enclosures 1. Flexible agent distribution 2. Additional switches (two SPDT is standard) 3. Additional pull stations (one is standard) MARKET AVALIBILITY
  14. 14. MECHANICAL VENTILATION SET UP IN COMMERTIAL KITCHEN
  15. 15. THANKYOU

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