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History of Advertisements


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History of Advertising through the decades.

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History of Advertisements

  1. 1. History of Advertising Fiza Miah Exam No. 3323
  2. 2. Advertisements Advertisements is the process of delivering a message about ideas, goods and services, through the media paid by an identifiable sponsor. The history of advertising can be traced back to a very long time ago. It became a major force in capitalist economies in the mid- 19th century, based primarily on newspaper and magazines. In the 20th century, advertising grew rapidly with new technologies such as direct mail, radio, television, the internet and smart phones. The internet has revolutionised the advertising industry, in the most outstanding way, not only has it changed the way ads broadcast but it has also changed the way consumers act towards them.
  3. 3. Advertisements • Advertising has numerous objectives which includes communicating with potential customers as well as persuading them to adopt a particular product or develop a preference towards the product for repeat purchase which ultimately results in brand loyalty. Advertising Theory or theories therefore try to explain how and why advertising is effective in influencing behaviours and accomplishing its objectives. • There are numerous theories on advertising. Most theories of advertising generally propose that the effectiveness of advertising is dependent on the main practices being carried out including more exposure towards the brand or repetitive advertising
  4. 4. 1900s As shown in this picture the portrayal of women was thin and to be very feminine. Corsets were advertised greatly in this time as the hourglass figure was glorified and admired. Synching in your waist and having a curvy figure was the epitome of the perfect ‘1900’ women. Adverts were a lot about body image and fashion, and hugely towards women's appearance. The significance of men in this era is shown as simple arrangements like putting them in the centre of the ads shows them as more important and worthy than women. The image of women started to change as the 1900’s went on. A revolutionary ad which shows that you ‘need not be embarrassed’ takes away some of the stigma that women have to shave their armpits. This did get a lot of negative feedback however it was definitely at turning point in women's representation. The common stereotypes of food advertiseme nt and women in the kitchen was highly common in this period. Almost always women were associated with housework. Advertisements have developed throughout the years in order to sell more products. In the early 1900s, advertisements have been a way in solving personal and social problems . Women at this time were placed as the main audience for the products advertised.
  5. 5. 1920s onwards Definitions of beauty was a very controversial subject in the 1920s, as lighter hair was seen as beauty. Women were constantly advertised products which altered themselves. The fact that women see themselves as ‘doomed’ if they did not fit the criteria of attractive in the 1920’s shows how insecure women were and society’s expectations to be ‘beautiful’ in every aspect of a women's life. The editing here is very classic 1920s to 19-50s style, as big and bold fonts used to catch the eye of consumers. Minimalism definitely did not exist at this time and adverts constantly at their best ability, needed to be aye- catching and quite obnoxious. Body image was significant in the 1920s and weight was seen as crucial part of someone's beauty. Much like todays time women's weight was seen as ugly and unattractive. So, products like selling soap had always connected to body image and taking imperfections away. Although it was delusional many people still bought the products.
  6. 6. In other advertisements, companies would target consumers greatest desires or fears. Ads would often relate their product to one's acceptance in society, self improvement, or one's beauty. In some advertisements, companies would target consumers greatest desires or fears. Ads would often relate their product to one's acceptance in society, self improvement, or one's beauty. This period of advertising often touched upon a women's vulnerability. For example as shown byt the ad her a women is pondering her status and the want to get married. Stereotypes like these were clearly a selling point for companies as psychologically they could steer people in, in buying their products. Even if it didn’t have any link towards the actual product. In many ads such as this one frequently the product had nothing to do with women, however they were used as a type of incentive for the consumer (men). For example in the image shown above a company is advertising bow-ties. However a female is used to subliminally tell men that this tie will give you the attention of women. This connotes that women in this period were commonly objectified as purely a tool to sell products.
  7. 7. 1930’sThe representation of women pre 1900s and present were expected to work at home, cook and clean. This reflected in advertisements as well. From this ‘Coca-Cola’ ad we see a women in a n apron, lying down and having her drink. In the description it quotes ‘Housework brings the urge to pause and relax’. The stereotype of women as housewives were used as a key selling point in the 1900’s. We see a women happy and relaxed in her home with a bottle of Coke, we as consumers instantly feel a sense of intrigue and desire to feel the same way. Advertisers home in on a women’s desire to keep slim, creating the illogical link between smoking and beauty that still persists. The new advertisements were typically placed in women’s magazines. With one of the first, for Lucky Strike Cigarettes in the early 1930s, urging women to ‘Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet’. The advert said smoking meant ‘you will avoid over- indulgence in the things that cause excess weight, and maintain a modern graceful form’. Ads like this really created this concept that smoking showed a women's independence and modernity.
  8. 8. 1940s Body image and weight still persisted throughout the early 1900s and the desire to have a curvy figure was more and more advertised. Advertisements used societies image of beauty as a key way to sell products. This style of advert was very conventional at the time with most ads showing the same image of women and big and black typography. Many advertisements to do with anything culinary was targeted at women. The mere prospect of a man needing to pay attention to these ads was not a thought. Women were always associated with the home and cooking. ‘Just between us girls’ reveals the very apparent sexism that the 1940’s era promoted. This advertisement shows how degrading companies were and the patriarchal society that women were in. The ad states ‘show her it’s a man’s world’ which shows that even sellers promoted this inequality between men and women as it unfortunately sold. Although cameras were not as popular, drawn depictions were the only way to create these stereotypes.
  9. 9. 1950’s The representation of women in the 1950’s essentially got worse. In this advert for Volkswagen it is promoting that this car is ‘safe’ for women to drive. The message of women in this advert reveals them as inferior and less able to do the same things as men. ‘His kind of girl’ instantly makes consumers of the product of the time question this characteristic. We are showed a ‘happy’ couple, where the wife is cleaning clothes spotlessly to satisfy her husband. This advert instantly connotes sexism and that a women only purpose is to please her husband and be the ‘conventional’ housewife. Although this is a washing clothes powder advert the company’s intention was to connect it to a common want of a wife in that time which was to have the satisfaction of her husband. The step-by-step picture guide creates a picture perfect approach to the relationship and the joy that comes out of consumers using this product.
  10. 10. 1960s The 1960’s campaign for Tipalet cigarettes showed a wide-eyed beauty in a low cut top and open mouth. The cigarette acts as an extension of the mans virility, emphasising women as passive sexual objects manipulated by men. This not-so subliminal message is that a man should be in control and should maintain his dominance over his wife- even when it comes to which coffee she buys, through physical intimidation. This advert promotes abusive relationships and is an accurate representation of the dehumanisation of women in the 1960’s. Small-waisted, beautifully dresses, a welcome-home smile and delighted to be given a vacuum cleaner for Christmas. Women had to be the perfect housewives and mothers and still stay attractive enough to keep her man. The angle of this image looking down on the women could represent the man and this could have bee done to show that the man is constantly at higher status than his wife.
  11. 11. 1970s This advert of the 70’s promoting an automatic car directed at women shows how still in more later years women were being undermined and ridiculed. This advert shows a women as unable to drive a car unless it is automatic. Showing a women rather confused adds to the stereotype as women are stereotypically seen as less equal to men when it comes to driving and many other things in this time. This advert claims to be targeted at women but really ‘built for men’. Almost all adverts during this period seemed to benefit women but almost always resulted in pleasing the man. Again, this advert is showing that women stay at the home cook and clean only to satisfy her husband/male partner.
  12. 12. 1980s As can be seen, these two magazines all used beautiful and sexy female models as their magazine covers, which can attract more customers and promote the sales. These models wear very little clothing or even be naked. Male customers are appealed by sexy and glamorous women, and female customers maybe attracted by models’ fashion dressing and want to become as fashionable as them. From decades ago to nowadays, most magazines and brands still use ‘sex sells’ to promote the sales. Advertisements’ coverages are more likely to emphasise on good looking females with symbolic and ‘sexy’ postures. The alcohol industry has a long history with sexism, predominately targeting men by depicting women as objects to be consumed along with their can of beer. This ad for a beer company, Budweiser, is a clear example of the provocative way faceless women were used to carry advertising messages. By fragmenting the ads to use women’s bodies as the vehicle of communication, Budweiser is showing that the models are worth nothing more than their sex appeal. In this way, the ad is positioning women as products in much the same way as the beer they are trying to sell.
  13. 13. 1990s In the 90’s societies expectations of beauty took a big toll on fashion and beauty adverts. For example, in this ad for Revlon the infamous Cindy Crawford is used for a nail polish advertisement however her near ‘perfect’ face is used to sell the product effectively. Definitions of beauty was getting intensified and this then showed in the types of models advertising for companies. This advert for Polo Ralph Lauren illustrates a women in a suit. The representation of women in this ad shows a reverse in gender roles. As this women looks empowered and professional. The choice of mis- en-scene seems to be an office which is something that would be connected to a business-man at the time. Apparition of black women in advertisement but westernized black women with a really slim nose, mouth and smooth hair. This westernization is due to the beauty criteria of western countries where white women represent the “perfect” beauty.
  14. 14. Early 2000s In these advertisements women are bodies and these bodies are objects and sexual objects. Famous luxury brands often use a females body to attract and sexualise a product for the appeal of a man and general sexualisation. Women are arguments to sell, they are marketing objects. The 21st century has created new technology for companies to retouch, an example of this would be Photoshop Creating an unrealistic image of a women that can never be achieved. Adverts in todays day and age never highlight a women’s intellectual or physical abilities. The objectification of women in this burger king advert shows how even products like food, used women to add an accessory to the adverts. This purely targeted men. Sexualisation of women in the media industry is very common and portraying the women as a ‘golden goddess’ instantly degrades her by putting her next to a burger.
  15. 15. 2010s-Present This advert shows a conservative representation of women. Women are less objectified and more appreciated for different aspects of themselves other than their physical beauty. Art is used as a symbolism for most fashion advertisements. In this ad the women is objectified, as her bod is used as a aspiration and false hope to buy these weight loss tablets. The ‘beach body ready’ quote gives a false impression on standards of beauty. The bright yellow background makes it very noticeable and the placement of the women in the middle further centralises and sexualises her as the ultimate female. This advert breaks away from typical stereotypes of females, as it brings them together of all colours and looks and empowers women. Nike uses their sportswear to present this and connote power and independence.
  16. 16. Links • mesmerizing-new-ad-175522/ • • • &tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwje9duvxcLSAhViIcAKHTTNBVUQ_AUIBigB#imgrc=GfcBq-cgL9DRrM: •