The boreal forest

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The boreal forest

  1. 1. The Boreal Forest By Abbas Hassan
  2. 2. Location • Boreal forests are located across North America, Europe and Asia. It lies in the middle of two different biomes, the barren tundra which is located towards the north, and deciduous forests are located farther south of it. • This biome is only located in the northern hemisphere.
  3. 3. Temperature and Precipitation • This biome is known for being in the moderate to cold range. • The temperatures in this biome tend to reach ranges between 5° to -5°C. • There are some cases where temperatures have reached highs and lows of 10 ° C and 10°C, however in different areas. • Rain fall tends to be between 20 and, in some cases, 75cm per year.
  4. 4. Plants • The dominant plant form are coniferous, firs and pine trees. • There are also British Soldiers (a lichen) and Polytrichum Moss • These species are important for the animal species that live in this biome.
  5. 5. Animals • There are bobcats, like Felis Rufus. • Another common species is the brown bear • There are 85 species of mammals, 130 species of fish and an estimated 32, 000 species of insects. • Due to the cold, this biome is challenging for reptiles
  6. 6. Threats • One big threat is the exploration and development of these forested areas. • Another problem is the extraction of resources, which destroy the wildlife. • With some resources becoming more rare and the advancement of technology, areas that were thought un-explorable are being combed for resources. • Because of the humans who invade these ecosystems many strange and harmful substances can enter some organisms, which then spread throughout the ecosystem.
  7. 7. Invasive species • There are not a lot of invasive species, however due to the warming of the Earth the number of species moving into this biome is growing. • Some species include: Alliaria petiolata, Hesperis matronalis, Rhamnus cathartica and Rosa multiflora. • These species push out the native species and compromise the natural balance that has been created in this ecosystem.
  8. 8. Energy Food Pyramid
  9. 9. Relationships in Boreal Forests • Mutualism: Fungi puts nutrients in the soil by decomposition which benefits algae, by helping it grow stronger. In turn, algae create photosynthesized food for the fungi so it can continue growing and the cycle continues. • Commensalism: A tree gives a squirrel a place to burrow and create a home, while the tree is not harmed or rewarded. • Parasitism: Caterpillars eat the leaves of trees and plants. They are benefitted, because they receive energy while the trees and plants are harmed because they are being destoryed.
  10. 10. Succession
  11. 11. Predator and prey • Mammalian predators in this biome, for example the bobcat, prey and small prey such as rodents and hares. • The brown bear prey on smaller animals, although they are capable of taking down virtually any animal that exists in this biome.
  12. 12. Bibliography • http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/boreal.htm • http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/en/Business/OFRI/Publica tion/279209.html • https://sites.google.com/site/borealforestbiomesaba matt/home/boreal-forest-relationships • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga

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