• Boreal forests are located across North
America, Europe and Asia. It lies in the middle
of two different biomes, the barren tundra
which is located towards the north, and
deciduous forests are located farther south of
• This biome is only located in the northern
Temperature and Precipitation
• This biome is known for being in the moderate
to cold range.
• The temperatures in this biome tend to reach
ranges between 5° to -5°C.
• There are some cases where temperatures
have reached highs and lows of 10 ° C and 10°C, however in different areas.
• Rain fall tends to be between 20 and, in some
cases, 75cm per year.
• The dominant plant form are coniferous, firs
and pine trees.
• There are also British Soldiers (a lichen) and
• These species are important for the animal
species that live in this biome.
• There are bobcats, like Felis Rufus.
• Another common species is the brown bear
• There are 85 species of mammals, 130
species of fish and an estimated 32, 000
species of insects.
• Due to the cold, this biome is challenging for
• One big threat is the exploration and development of
these forested areas.
• Another problem is the extraction of resources, which
destroy the wildlife.
• With some resources becoming more rare and the
advancement of technology, areas that were thought
un-explorable are being combed for resources.
• Because of the humans who invade these ecosystems
many strange and harmful substances can enter some
organisms, which then spread throughout the
• There are not a lot of invasive species, however
due to the warming of the Earth the number of
species moving into this biome is growing.
• Some species include: Alliaria petiolata,
Hesperis matronalis, Rhamnus cathartica and
• These species push out the native species and
compromise the natural balance that has been
created in this ecosystem.
Relationships in Boreal Forests
• Mutualism: Fungi puts nutrients in the soil by
decomposition which benefits algae, by helping it grow
stronger. In turn, algae create photosynthesized food
for the fungi so it can continue growing and the cycle
• Commensalism: A tree gives a squirrel a place to
burrow and create a home, while the tree is not
harmed or rewarded.
• Parasitism: Caterpillars eat the leaves of trees and
plants. They are benefitted, because they receive
energy while the trees and plants are harmed because
they are being destoryed.
Predator and prey
• Mammalian predators in this biome, for
example the bobcat, prey and small prey such
as rodents and hares.
• The brown bear prey on smaller animals,
although they are capable of taking down
virtually any animal that exists in this biome.