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Earthquake Intro

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Understanding EQ

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Earthquake Intro

  1. 1. January 1- 30, 2016 EARTHQUAKEEARTHQUAKE AWARENESS MONTHAWARENESS MONTH Earthquake Safety: Don’t be scared…..be prepared District OfficerDervan Dawes Suppression Westmoreland Division JamaicaFireBrigade
  2. 2. Preface The Jamaica Fire Brigade being the first respo nder to all emergencies o n the island, must carry o ut regular training exercise to mentally and physically prepare the o rganizatio n’ s firefighters to dealwith any and every emergency that may arise. The damage that may cause by an Earthquake willundo ubtedly require all firefighters to have an understanding o f its effect and ho w to effectively execute a respo nse. It is also very impo rtant fo r firefighters to kno w ho w to care and pro tect themselves and victims fro m the apparent hazards cause by this natural pheno meno n while carrying o ut their duties. Therefo re, let us no w lo o k at… ..
  3. 3. What is an Earthquake? An Earthquake(EQ) istheshaking of the surfaceof theearth resulting from thesudden releaseof energy in theearth crust that creates seismic waves Earthquakecan beviolent enough to toss peoplearound or so devastating to destroy a wholecity.
  4. 4. EQ aremeasured using Seismometerand variousscales. You havethe… 1. Moment Magnitude Scale (MMS) 2. RichterScale 3. Mercalli Scale At theearth’ssurface, an EQ manifested itself by shaking and most timescausedisplacement of the ground, structural damage, landslideand volcanic activity. When itsepicenterislocated offshore, it may trigger a tsunami.
  5. 5. Theword EQ ismostly usein general senseto describetheshaking of theearth whether its natural or man-made. It ismostly causeby theraptureof a geological faults and generatesseismic waves. (Natural) But also by eventssuch asmineblast and nuclear test (Man-made)
  6. 6. Tectonic Earthquake Thisisanatural occurring earthquake. This happen anywherein theearth wherethereare sufficient stored energy to fractureafault. Most faultshaveirregular surfaces. When these faultspast along each other, thefrictional resistanceincreaseand lead to aform of stick-slip behavior or “lock”. Oncethefaultsare“lock”, relativemotion continued leading to increasestressand therefore strain energy arestorearound thefault surfaces.
  7. 7. Thiscontinued until thestresshasrisen sufficiently to break from itsstick-slip behavior, suddenly allowing sliding over the “lock” portion of thefaultsand releasing the stored energy. Thisenergy releasecausesseismic waves, frictional heat at thefaultssurfaceand cracking of theearth (rock) thuscausing an earthquake.
  8. 8. EarthquakeFaults Therearethree(3) main typesof faults 1. Normal 2. Reverse(Thrust) 3. Strike-Slip Normal and Reverseare dip-slip.
  9. 9. Normal and Reverse(Thrust) faulting isthe displacement of thefaultsin thedirection of a dip and movement on them carried avertical component. Normal faultsoccur in area when thereisacrust extension creating a divergent boundary.
  10. 10. Reverse(Thrust) fault occursin areawherethe crust areshorten. Thesearethemost powerful earthquakes. TheseEQ aremagnitude7 and above. Strike-Slip fault aresteep structurewherethey slidepasseach other horizontally. A fault movement of both Dip-Slip and Strike- Slip isknown as….
  11. 11. OBLIQUESLIP
  12. 12. EarthquakeEffects Theeffectsof EQ includebut arenot limited to thefollowing
  13. 13. Fire • Damageelectrical line • Damagegaspipeline • Damagewater main Soil Liquefaction • Saturated soil become liquefied • Building collapse • Bridgestilt • Other structuresink
  14. 14. Landslide and Avalanche • Slopeinstability NB: A majorhazard to firefighterwhen carrying out rescue operation Tsunami • Largevolumeof water displacement • Long and destructive waves • Travel at an average350 mileper hour
  15. 15. Flooding • Water exceeding its formation capacity • Overflow of water reaching land This is as a result of an earthquake damaging a dam Human Impact • Lossof lifeor injuries • Property damage • Disease • Lack of basic necessity • Mental consequences (depression, anxiety, panic)
  16. 16. Lisbon, Portugal in 1755 Hit by an EARTHQUAKE causing aTsunami, Fires, Collapse Buildingsand Lossof Lives
  17. 17. Glossary • Seismic Wave – wavesof energy that travel through Earth’slayers • Mo ment Magnitude Scale (MMS) – Measurement of an earthquakeby theamount of energy release. • Richter MagnitudeScale– assigned a magnitudenumber to quantify theenergy releaseby an earthquake.
  18. 18. Glossary • Mercalli Scale – measuretheintensity and effect of an earthquakeon theearth surface • Epicentre – thepoint on theearth’ssurface that isdirectly abovethehypocentreor focus • Hypo cetre – originated point of an earthquake, wherethefirst strain energy release.
  19. 19. Glossary • Fault – planar fracture(discontinuity in a volumeof rock. Significant displacement of rock massmovement) • Seismometer – aunit that measurethemotion of theground generated by and earthquake.
  20. 20. Next Topic THANKYOU Preparedness And Protection

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