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first
specifications
l
2
Unit
1
2
3
4
5
Bands and fans
p.6
music
Relative values
p.16
family
Things that matter
p.26
happiness
Battling nature
...
_.
Writing Use of English listening Speaking
Informal email (Part 2) Multiple-choice doze (Part 1) Multiple matching (Part...
The Cambridge English: First examination is made up of four papers, each testing adifferent area of ability in English.
Th...
Listening (approximately 40 minutes)
There are four parts in the Listening paper, with a total of thirty questions. You wr...
6 Unit 1 Bands and fan~
Speaking
D Discuss the questions.
Why do people like listening to different kinds of live music'
2...
ANGUAGE TIP
Adverbs of frequency
(usually, never, hardly
ever, etc.) come before
a main verb and after
auxiliary verbs suc...
Speaking
look at the photos and discuss the questions.
1 When do you think these photos were taken)
2 What kind of music d...
~----~--------------II
D Read the first two paragraphs again and
answer the questions.
In the first paragraph, what do the...
•
Present simple and
continuous
~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.176
o Look at the sentences and decide whether
they should be in the...
Vocabulary
phrasal verbs with take
o Match the phrasal verbs in 1-5 with
meanings A-E.
His career took offas soon as he wo...
•
12 Unit 1 Bands dnd fan:>
Multiple matching (Part 3)
~ EXAM FOCUS p.205
o Tick the statements which are true for you.
Th...
Habit in the past
used to/would
~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.168
look at the sentences and answer the questions.
I used to be obs...
Informal email (Part 2)
using informal language
~ WRITING REFERENCE p.182
o Discuss the questions with a partner.
How easy...
o Complete the second sentence so that it
has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
Use between two and five words, inc...
16 Unit 2 Relative va lues
Speaking
o Discuss the questions.
1 How do you think your friends would describe your personali...
EXAM TIP
It's important to think
about the meaning,
not just the grammar.
Sometimes you
have to decide if an
adjective is ...
Multiple choice (Part 4)
~ EXAM cOCUS ).LOS
Discuss the questions.
What do you think is the ideal number of children in a
...
Adverbs
~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.161
o Underline the adverbs in sentences A-D. Then
answer the questions.
A They will have to...
Colin Firth in The Kings Speech
Speaking
How would you feel if you had a
brother or sister who was gifted
or famous?
Multi...
_~__-----,II
RELATIONSHIPS - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---'----
Fr'end
or Can sibling...
Listening
Work in pairs and discuss the questions.
Do you have a lot of relations?
2 Which ones do you get on well/badly w...
Collaborative task (Part 3)
agreeing and disagreeing
~ EXAM FOCUS p.207
o Look at the photos and the exam task and
discuss...
Essay (Part I)
using Imkers for contrast
~ WRITING REFERENCE p.ISO
Work in pairs. Read the exam task and essay
title and t...
o Complete the second sentence so that it
has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
You must use between two and five w...
EXAM TIP
Read the question stems
and highlight the part of
the text which answers each
question.Then read the four
options...
5 The writer mentions Wimbledon to
show that
A it's not only football which inspires
strong feelings.
B a wide range of pe...
Present perfect and past simple
~ GRAMMAR REFERENCEp.176
Home Archtve News Members Search
I've been mad about horses for m...
Grammar
os and like
~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.164
o Complete sentences 1-6 wit h as or like.
1 Was that fi lm ...................
LI FE-OF-LUXU RY.CO.U K
A()() 10
BASKFT ..
VIEW
[)FlAILS "
Speaking and vocabulary
money
o Match the price tags with the t...
Sentence completion
(Part 2)
~ EXAM FOCUS p.204
D You're going to hear a multi-
millionaire called Gavin Norris
talking ab...
• •
32 Unit 3 Thing:, [r.at n~,J tter
Comparing
~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.165
o 012 Look at sentences 1-3 taken from the liste...
Long turn (Part 2)
comparing
~ EXAM FOCUS p.206
o What do these photographs have in common?
Choose A or B.
A They show thi...
Article (Part 2)
engaging the reader
~ WRITING REFERENCE p.185
o Look at the exam task and answer
the questions.
1 What ki...
o Choose the correct word to complete the
sentences.
1 A ............. standard of living is important to me.
A tall B big...
Speaking
D How much do you know about Antarctica? Do the quiz. Then turn to
page 160 and check your answers.
1 Antarctica ...
Multiple choice (Part 4)
~ EXAM FOCUS p.205
fJ You are going to hear an interview in which
an explorer called Leo Stone is...
Narrative forms
past simple, past continuous and
past perfect
~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.l77
D You are going to read a story ab...
Collaborative task (Part 3)
ranking
~ EXAM FOCUS p20?
o Work in pairs. Look at the examiner's
instructions and underline t...
Speaking
D Look at the paragraph headings in the article.
Discuss questions 1-4 with a partner.
1 Which of these experienc...
Battlingfi~ture
FOUR PEOPLE TALK ABOUT THEIR STORIES OF SURVIVAL
A L ester Morlang was buried in an avalanche in Colorado....
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
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Gold first new edition 2015
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Gold first new edition 2015
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Gold first new edition 2015
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Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
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Gold first new edition 2015
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Gold first new edition 2015
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Gold first new edition 2015
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Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
Gold first new edition 2015
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Gold first new edition 2015

  1. 1. first specifications
  2. 2. l 2 Unit 1 2 3 4 5 Bands and fans p.6 music Relative values p.16 family Things that matter p.26 happiness Battling nature p.36 survival Eat your heart out! pA6 food Progress test 1 p.55 6 7 8 9 10 On camera p.58 entertainment A home from home p.68 places Moving on p.78 work Lucky break? p.88 sport Virtual friends p.98 friendship Progress test 2 p.l 07 11 Living on the edge p 110 adventure 12 Crime scene p.1 20 crime 13 Who are you again? p.130 memory 14 Say what you mean p.1 40 communication Progress test 3 p.149 Exam information pA Contents Grammar Present simple and continuous p.1 0 Habit in the past: used to/would p.1 3 Adverbs p.19 Verb patterns: ~ing/i nfinitive p.22 Present perfect and past simple p.28 as and like p.29 Comparing p.32 Narrative formsp.38 Articles pA2 Countable and uncountable nouns pA7 Expressionsof quantity pA7 Passive forms p.52 Passive reporting verbs p.52 Future forms p.61 Future perfect and continuous p.64 Modal verbs: possibility and certainty p.70 Relative clauses p.74 so. such. too,enough, very p.75 Reporting verbs p.81 Reported statements p.84 Reported questions and imperatives p.84 Conditional formsp.9l Third conditional p.9S Conditionals: alternatives to ifp.l 00 Participles (-ing and -ed) p.l 04 Emphasis with what p.l05 Mixed conditionals p.11 2 Hypothetical meaning: wish and i(only p. 116 Modal verbs:obligation. prohibition and necessity p. l 22 have/get something done p.1 26 Modal verbs:ability p. 132 Reflexive pronouns p.137 it is, there is p.142 SubjectNerb agreement p.146 Paper 5 Visuals for Speaking tests p.152 Vocabulary Free time activities:verb/noun collocations p.6 Deducing words in context p.9 Phrasal verbs with take p. l l Formation of adjectivesp.17 Extreme adjectivesp. 19 Phrasal verbs p.20 -ed adjectives and prepositions p.27 Money p.30 Idioms: the body p.37 Collocationsand idioms: weather pAD Negative prefixespA3 Food around the world pA6 Phrasal verbswith turn p.50 The artsp.59 Word formation: adjectivesfrom nouns; nouns from verbsp.62 Expressions with get p.65 Deducing meaning p.69 Describing places p.72 Travel and expressionswith world p.73 Collocations and phrasal verbs with work p.79 linking words and expressions p.82 Concrete and abstract nouns p.85 Collocations: success and failure p.89 Word-building p.93 Collocations with luck p.94 Adjectives with self p.99 Easily confused adjectives p.l 01 Compound adjectives: personality p.l 03 Using prefixes to work out meaning p. l l 0 Verbs. nounsand adjectives p.11 3 Adjectivesand verbs with prepositions p.l lS Phrasal verbswith off p. ll S Crime p.12l Collocations with catch, follow.reach p.12l Cybercrime p.123 Phrasal verbs with go p.127 Phrasal verbs with come p. 131 Expressions with mind p. 134 Verbs with similar meanings p. 134 Expressions with rime p.136 say. speak, talk and tell p.14l Waysof speaking p.141 Idioms: animals p.144 Communication activities p.157 Reading Gapped text (Part 6) Aremusic 'tribes'a thing of the past? p.8 Multiple matching (Part 7) Friend or enemy? p.20 Multiple choice (Part 5) Allyou need islove (and ascarf) p.26 Multiple matching (Part 7) Battling with nature pAO Multiple choice (Part 5) The most famous restaurant critic in America p.50 Gapped text (Part 6) The future ofentertainment p.62 Multiple choice (Part 5) Novel extract: Brooklyn p.69 Multiple matching (Part 7) To the endsofthe earth p.82 Gapped text (Part 6) Usain Bolt: fast and loose p.88 Multiple choice (Part 5) Virtual people, real friends p.103 Gapped text (Part 6) The kid who climbed Everest p.110 Multiple choice (Part 5) Novel extract: One good cum p.124 Multiple matching (Part 7) Identity crisis p. 130 Gapped text (Part 6) Inside a dog's world p.1 44 Grammar reference p.1 61
  3. 3. _. Writing Use of English listening Speaking Informal email (Part 2) Multiple-choice doze (Part 1) Multiple matching (Part 3) Interview (Part 1) Using informal language Drumming up business My music Listening to and answering questions p.14 p.ll p.12 p.7 Essay (Part 1) Word formation (Part 3) Multiple choice (Part 4) Collaborative task (Part 3) Using linkers for contrast How well do you know yourself? Birth order Agreeing and disagreeing p.24 p. l l p.1S p.23 Article (Part 2) Open doze (Part 2) Sentence completion (Part 2) Long turn (Part 2) Engaging the reader Pixie Lott: What makes me happy Giving it all away Comparing p.J4 p.29 p.31 p.33 Essay (Part 1) Word formation (Part 3) Multiple choice (Part 4) Collaborative task (Part 3) Expressing and supporting ideas Death Valley Journeys to the South Pole Ranking p.44 p.4l p.ll p.39 Review (Part 2) Open cloze (Part 2) Sentence completion (Part 2) Long turn (Part 2) Describing a personal experience Why do people love chilli? The importance ofcooking Comparing and giving a reaction p.54 pA8 pA9 p.53 Report (Part 2) Multiple-choice cloze (Part 1) Multiple choice: short extracts Discussion (Part 4) Text organisation From fiction to reality (Part 1) Giving opinions p.66 p.65 p.60 p.58 Essay (Part 1) Key word transformations (Part 4) Multiple choice (Pa rt 4) Long turn (Part 2) Including a range of structures p.75 Shangri-fa Stating preferences and speculating p.76 p.73 p.7l Letter of application (Part 2) Word formation (Part 3) Multiple matching (Part 3) Collaborative task and discussion (Parts 3 and 4) Using semi-formal language The video game designer Future professions Agreeing and disagreeing p.86 p.85 p.l8 p80 , Essay (Part 1) Word formation (Part 3) Multiple choice (Part 4) Discussion (Part 4) Structuring a paragraph Superstitious athletes Luck in sport Compensation strategies p96 p.93 p.92 p.90 Article (Part 2) Multiple-choice cloze (Part 1) Multip le matching (Part 3) Collaborative task (Part 3) Using a range of vocabulary Need a friend? My closest friend Turn-taking p.106 p.1Ol p99 p.105 Review (Part 2) Word formation (Part 3) Sentence completion (Part 2) Long turn (Part 2) Expressing personal opinions Walk ofa lifetime Risk-taking Responding to your partner's photographs p.ll S p.1 13 p.114 p.lll Report (Part 2) Open cloze (Part 2) Sentence completion (Part 2) Discussion (Part 4) Making recommendations In the footsteps ofthe fictional Prison hotels Assessment p.1 2S detective p.120 p123 p.12l Informal email (Part 2) Multiple-choice cloze (Part 1) Multiple choice: short extracts (Part 1) Long turn (Part 2) Using a range of functional The lost art offorgetting p.136 Useful phrases for Part 2 language p.135 p.133 p.l lS Essay (Part 1) Open cloze (Part 2) Multip le matching (Part 3) Interview (Part 1) Proofreading The animol world's communication Communicating Long turn (Part 2) p.1 48 kings p.140 Dos and don'ts p. 147 p.143 Writing reference p.179 Exam focus p.200 Contents 3
  4. 4. The Cambridge English: First examination is made up of four papers, each testing adifferent area of ability in English. The Reading and Use of English paper is worth 40 percent of the marks (80 marks), and each of the other papers is worth 20 percent (40 marks each). There are five grades. A, Band Care pass grades; D and Eare fail grades. Reading and Use of English (I hour 15 minutes) The Reading & Use of English paper has seven parts. Parts 1-4 contain grammar and vocabulary tasks within texts or as discrete items. Parts 5-7 contain texts and accompanying reading comprehension tasks. You write your answers on an answer sheet during the test. Focus Vocabu!ary/Lexico-grammatical Part 1 Task You read a text with eight gaps. You choose the best word or phrase to fit in each gap from a set Multiple-choice doze of four options (A, 8, Cor D). Part 2 Focus Grammar/LexicQ-grammatica! Open doze Task You read a text with eight gaps. You have to think of the most appropriate word to fill each gap. You must use one word only. No options are prOVided Part 3 Focus Vocabulary/Lexico-grammatica l Word formation Task You read a text with eight gaps. You are given the stems of the missing words in capitals at the ends of the lines with gaps. You have to change the form of each word to fit the context. Part 4 Focus Grammar and vocabulary Key word transformations Task There are six items. You are given a sentence and a 'key word'. You have to complete a second, gapped sentence using the key word. The second sentence has a different grammatical structure but must have a similar meaning to the original. Part 5 Focus Detail, opinion, attitude, text organisation featu res (e.g. exemplification, reference), tone, purpose, Multiple-choice questions main idea, implication Task There are six four-option multiple-choice questions. You have to choose the correct option (A, B, C or D) based on the information in the text. Part 6 Focus Understanding text structure, cohesion, coherence, global meaning Gapped text Task You read a text from which six sentences have been removed and placed in jumbled order after the text. There is one extra sentence that you do not need to use. You must decide from where in the text the sentences have been removed. Part 7 Focus Specific information, detail, opinion and attitude Multiple matching Task You read ten questions or statements about a text which has been divided into sections, or several short texts. You have to decide which section or text contains the information relating to each question or statement. Writing (I hour 20 minutes) The Writing paper is divided into two parts, and you have to complete one task from each part. Each answer carries equal marks, so you should not spend longer on one than another. Part 1 Focus Outlining and discussing issues on a particular topic Task Part 1 is compulsory, and there is no choice of questions. You have to write an essay based on a title and notes. You have to write 140-190 words. Part 2 Focus Writing a task for a particular purpose based on a specific topic, context and target reader. Task Part 2 has three tasks to choose from which may include: · a letter or email •an article •a report •a review. You have to write 140-190 words for Part 2. 4 EXam information
  5. 5. Listening (approximately 40 minutes) There are four parts in the Listening paper, with a total of thirty questions. You write your answers on the question paper and then you have five minutes at the end of the exam to transfer them to an answer sheet. In each part you wi ll hear the text(s) twice. The texts may be monologues or conversations between interacting speakers. There wi ll be a variety of accents. Part 1 Focus Each extract will have a different focus, wh ich cou ld be: main point, detail, purpose or location of Extracts with multiple~ speech, relationship between the speakers, attitude or opinion of the speakers. choice questions Task You hear eight short, unrelated extracts of about thirty seconds each. They may be monologues or conversations. You have to answer one three-option multiple-choice question (A, Bor C) for each extract. Part 2 Focus Specific information, detail, stated opinion Sentence completion Task You hear a monologue lasting about th ree minutes. You complete ten sentences with information heard on the recording. Part 3 Focus Gist, detail, function, attitude, purpose, opinion Multiple matching Task You hear a series of five monologues, lasting about thirty seconds each. The speakers in each extract are different, but the situations or topics are all related to each other. You have to match each speaker to one of eight statements or questions(A-H). There are three extra options that you do not need to use. Part4 Focus Specific information, opinion, attitude, gist, main idea Multiple-choice questions Task You hear an interview or conversation which lasts about three minutes. There are seven questions. You have to choose the correct option (A, Bor Cl. Speaking (approximately 14 minutes) You take the Speaking test with a partner. There are two examiners. One is the 'interlocutor: who speaks to you, and the other isthe 'assessor', who just listens.There are four different parts in the test. Part 1 Focus General interactional and social language Interview Task The interlocutor asks each of you questions about yourself, such as where you come from or what (2 minutes) you do in your free time. Part 2 Focus Organising your ideas, comparing, describing, expressing opinions Individual long turn Task The interlocutor gives you a pair of photographs to compare, and to give a personal reaction to. (4 minutes) You speak by yourself for about a minute wh ile your partner listens. Then the interlocutor asks your partner a question related to the topic. Only a short answer is expected. You then change roles. Part 3 Focus Interacting with your partner, exchanging ideas, expressing and justifying opinions, agreeing Collaborative task and/or disagreeing, suggesting, speculating, evaluating, reaching a decision through negotiation (4 minutes) Task You are given atask to discuss together for 1-2 minutes, based on a written instruction and prompts.You then have a minute to try and reach a decision together. There is no right or wrong answer to the task and you don't have to agree with each other. It is the interaction between you that is important. Part 4 Focus Expressing and justifying opinions, agreeing and disagreeing Discussion Task The interlocutor asks you both general questions related to the topic of Part 3, and gives you the (4 minutes) chance to give your opinions on other aspects of the same topic. For more information see the Writing reference (page 179), the General marking guidelines (page 194) and the Exam focus (page 200). Exam information S
  6. 6. 6 Unit 1 Bands and fan~ Speaking D Discuss the questions. Why do people like listening to different kinds of live music' 2 What do you enJoy doing most: playing a musical instrument, listening to music at home or going to a live gig' 3 Are you a fan of a particular band or musical artist' What makes someone a'fan" Vocabulary free time activities: verb/noun collocations Match the verbs in A with the activities in B. There may be more than one possibility. Example:go to/watch a film A do go (tol out for/on) have play watch ---_. B the computer computer games friends round a gig the guitar shopping the theatre television a DVD a pizza yoga a film football running D Add any other free time activities you can think of to list B. Put the verb it goes with in list A. Listening and speaking asking and answering questions D 001 Read and listen to the questions about free time. Underline the words which are stressed. How do you usually relax when you have some free time? 2 What do you do when you stay in' Where do you go when you go out' 3 Do you like being in a large group or would you rather be with a few close fnends'
  7. 7. ANGUAGE TIP Adverbs of frequency (usually, never, hardly ever, etc.) come before a main verb and after auxiliary verbs such as be. Ihardly evergo shopping. I'm always busy. Longer adverbials(from time to time, every day, now and again, etc.) can come at the beginning or end of a sentence. Igo running every evening.Nawand again Iplay squash. EXAM TIP Answer in full, giving reasons. Avoid one- word answers and don't move away from the question. D 002 listen to the students' answers and complete the gaps, I I usually find.. .............. quite relaxing but it depends on .. 2 I tend to .. ............... on weekdays though I sometimes .. 3 .. .... is good fun. 4 ..................... helps me to switch off. S I'm really into .. 6 Igo out .. ... .... now and again. mWork in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in Activity 4. Interview (Part I) listening to and answering questions ~ EXAM FOCUS p.206 El In Part 1 of the Speaking paper, you answer some questions in which you give personal information and opinions. Match questions 1-7 to topics A- E. What kind of music do you enjoy listening to' 2 Do you have any brothersor sisters? 3 What do you like about the place where you were brought up' 4 What subject did you enjoy most at school' S What do you think you'll be doing in five years' time' 6 Where do you think you'll go on holiday this year' 7 Tell us about your closest friend. A your personal relationships B your home town C your job or studies D your free time activities E your future plans III Add two more questions to each topic A-E. Use question words such as what (kind), when, how (many), who, why, where. m003 listen to Julia and Stefan and answer the questions. , Which of the questions in Activity 7 were they each asked? 2 Did they answer them in enough detail' 3 Did they vary their tone of voice? 4 What did Stefan say when he didn't understand the question' II!l Choose one question from each topic in Activities 7 and 8 and ask your partner. ~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.162 Unit 1 Bands 3nd fan:, 7
  8. 8. Speaking look at the photos and discuss the questions. 1 When do you think these photos were taken) 2 What kind of music do you think the people were into? 3 Why do groups of young people get together like this) Gapped text (Part 6) ~ EXAM FOCUS p.202 fJ You are gOing to read a magazine article about music sub-cultures. Read the text quickly. How does the writer answer the question in the title? 8 Unit 1 Bands and fans
  9. 9. ~----~--------------II D Read the first two paragraphs again and answer the questions. In the first paragraph, what do these impressions and they in line 5 refer back to' What does they refer to in line '2' 2 In the second paragraph, which words in the answer (sentence E) link to the topic and vocabulary' How does neither link back? What does they refer to' Six sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from sentences A-G the one which fits each gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. EXAM TIP Look for linking words and phrases in the options which link to the ideas and language (e.g.connecting words, synonyms, pronouns which link to nouns) in the sentences before and after each gap. A So does that mean that tribes are, in fact, expanding rather than dying) B Another consequence of this is that all kinds of music are now found much more in the mainstream. C However,the freedom of simply listening to whatever you want, whenever you want more than makes up for that feeling. D Which appears to show that, if a pop tribe means anything these days, it seems to be about a setof tastes, rather than a stage of life you go through before reaching adulthood. / Neither have they experienced a time when they were limited to tracks they could hear on the radio or get on a cassette from friends. F Does the lack of very visible teenage tribes matter for the health of pop culture? G And a lot of youngsters are now finding that their taste overlaps with other groups. D Compare your answers and give reasons for your choices. mWhat sub-cultures exist in your country? In what ways can you identify people in these sub-cultures by the way they dress and the music they like? Vocabulary deducing words in context look at these words and phrases and choose the correct meaning. Which clues in the text helped you? Example: 'scooters'and 'all day' might helpyou to understand 'room around: room around (para 1) A cause trouble B travel with no real purpose 2 come across (para 1) A appear to be B find by chance 3 track(option E) A a narrow path or road B a piece of mUSICor a song from a CD 4 make up for (option C) A improve a bad situation B do something to show you are sorry 5 in the mainstream (option B) A conventional B respected 6 tastes (option D) A experiences of something B things you like Unit 1 13ands and fans 9
  10. 10. • Present simple and continuous ~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.176 o Look at the sentences and decide whether they should be in the simple or continuous form. Then discuss why. My sons always downloading/always dawnlaads music instead of getting on with his work. 2 I workl'm working overtime this month while the music editor is on sick leave. 3 Someone plays/s playing the piano. Can you hear it? 4 Did you know that band comes/s coming from my home town? S I get/m getting better at recognising classical music. 6 I take/m taking my iPod everywhere. fI Match the uses of the present simple and present continuouswith the examples in Activity 1. A a repeated action/habit B a permanent situation/fact C an activity happening at the moment of speaking D an activity in progress but not at this exact moment E a changing or developing situation F emphasises repetition of typical (often annoying or surprising) behaviour 10 Unit 1 Bands and fans LANGUAGE TIP Verbs such as believe, own, belong, like, understand, know, hear are not usually used in the continuous form because they describe states, not actions. Some verbs can be used in both the simple and continuousform with different meanings. Isee whatyou mean (see = understand) I'm seeing her next week. (see =meet) D Look at the pairsof sentences and say why the speaker has used the present simple or continuous in each case. A I have a ticket to see Lady Gaga. B I'm having a shower. 2 A That singer appears to be doing well. B Eminem's appearing at the V Festival. 3 A He's being really kind. B He:,. really kind. 4 A He's thinking about joining a band. B Ithink that band is really good. S A It depends on how much money I've got. B I'm depending on her to organise everything. 6 A This soup tastes good. B Joe's tasting the soup. D Complete the sentences with the present simple or present continuous form of the verbs in brackets. 1 ......................... (not like) pop music. 2 The band ......................... (appear) in Manchester all week. 3 I can't hear what you ......................... (say). It's too loud. 4 I ......................... (think) it's dangerous to listen to your iPod when you're riding a bike. S You can never have a conversation with her - she ......................... (always check) her phone for messages. 6 That band ......................... (get) more and more popular. 7 We ......................... (often go) to ajazz club on Friday nights. 8 You ......................... (be) very difficult today! g Write sentences about three things that you do on a regular basis. 2 you are doing now (but not at this exact moment). mCompare your sentences in pairs. Do you have anything in common?
  11. 11. Vocabulary phrasal verbs with take o Match the phrasal verbs in 1-5 with meanings A-E. His career took offas soon as he won the prize: he's so talented. 2 He takesafter his father, who's also really musical. 3 I took up the saxophone last year. 4 Tom took over asthe band's manager when Sam left. 5 I made him take back what he said about my taste in music A have similar characteristics B become responsible for something C start an activity o admit you are wrong E become successful Multiple-choice doze (Part I) ~ EXAM FOCUSp.200 fI Read the text about a musician quickly and say what isdifferent about Josh Freese's relationship with his fans. Don't worry about the gaps yet. D Look at the example. Why are options A, Band D wrong? D Now look at the options for gap 1 and answer the questions. Which of the verbs A- Dcan be followed by of! 2 Choose the phrase which means familiar with. D For questions 2-8, decide which answer (A, B, Cor Dj best fits each gap. EXAM TIP Think about which word might fit the gap before looking at the options. Check each side of the gap to make sure that the option you choose goes with the other words. mLook at questions 4 and 8 again and check you have chosen the correct phrasal verb. o Discuss the questions. 1 Do you think thisisagood way for artists to promote their music' 2 Would any of these offers attract you' 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Drumming up business lash Freese is a very successful session drummer (0) ..c..b.as.d.... in Los Angeles. You probably won't have (1) .................. of him but he's played with some very successful bands.When Freese (2) .................. his first solo album, called Since 1972, he decided to set up a system where fanscould buy something unique. By (3) .................. with fansdirectly, he hoped to sell more of his music. The CD didn't cost much but if you paid $50 for it, you would also get a personal five-minute 'thank you' phone call. Sales of the album quickly took (4) ................... But there were other limited options which gave fans the opportunity to meet Freese in (5) ................... The option to have lunch with Freese for $250 (6) ............ ..... out in about a week. Fans could also (7) .................. an individual drum lesson from Freese for $2,500. There were other offers ranging from $10,000 to $75,000. Not all of these were taken (8) .................. by fans, but a teenager from Florida actually purchased the $20,000 option and spent a week on tour with Freese. A situated B located C based A recognised B noticed C heard A released B sent C presented A joining B discussing C contacting A after B back C off A person B front C life A stayed B gave C sold A achieve B receive C collect A over B back C off o lived o known o brought D communicating o up o face Diet o gain o up Unit 1 Bandsand b ns 11
  12. 12. • 12 Unit 1 Bands dnd fan:> Multiple matching (Part 3) ~ EXAM FOCUS p.205 o Tick the statements which are true for you. Then compare with a partner. A I like following band members on Facebook and Twitter. B These days I only download music that's free. C I think the videos a band makes are just as important as their music. D Most people haven't heard of the music I like. E My music tastes are quite varied. F I spend a lot of time listening to music at home with friends. G I often discover new bands through personal recommendations. H I prefer listening to live music. fI 004 You will hear five people talking about listening to music. Listen to Speaker 1. Which things does he mention? his taste in music new bands Twitter video D Look at extracts from Speaker 1 (1-4). Which one matches one of the statements A-H in Activity 1? Now I'm just into the same stuff as my friends - hip hop mainly. 2 I don't usually bother with Twitter or Facebook. 3 My group of friends are always sharing music files and telling each other about new discoveries. I've found a lot of new bands that way. 4 They'll only listen to new bands that no one's heard of. It'sjust a way of showing off, I think. D 005 Now listen to Speakers 2-5. Match statements from the list A-H in Activity 1 with what each speaker says. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need to use. EXAM TIP Listen for words and phrases that are synonyms or paraphrases of the key words in the statements. D Compare your answers in pairs. Then listen again to check. Speaking mWork in pairs and discuss the questions. 1 Which speaker's opinions are the most similar to yours? 2 How are your listening habits and attitudes to music similar to or different from your partner's?
  13. 13. Habit in the past used to/would ~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.168 look at the sentences and answer the questions. I used to be obsessed with music videos. When I was growing up, my mum would play 19705'music and dance around the kitchen. , Is she still obsessed with music videos' 2 Did her mother often listen to 1970s' music' 3 Which underlined verb describes a past state' 4 Which underlined verb describes a past habit? 5 Which of the underlined verbs can you use to describe both past states and habits' LANGUAGE TIP Be careful not to confuse used to do (describing past habit) with belgetused to doing (be accustomed to something in the present). I used to hate classical music (= but now I like it) I am used to being alone. (= It's something that happens a lot and I don't mind it) look at sentences 1-4. Is it possible to use both would and used to? My parents would always listen to classical music while we were having dinner. 2 My parents used to go to ajazz festival every year 3 My dad used to have a really old radio. 4 My mum used to know all the words to every song by Madonna. Complete the text with the present simple, present continuous, used to or would forms of the verbs in brackets. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. Speaking Discuss the questions with a partner. How do you think the writer's children feel about her taste in music? 2 What kind of music did you use to listen to when you were younger' What did your parents think of it? 3 How do you think your taste in music will change as you get older' My life as a Insurance broker Sarah Collins might have a boring day job, but she's a punk at heart. I always say that the best time of my life was when I (1) ............................... (be) a punk. It's a time that I look back on fondly and I still (2) ......... ....... (smile) when I think of those wonderful people, their fantastic haircuts and clothes and their great personalities. On Saturdays I (3) ............................. (go) down the Kings Road in London. 1(4) ............................... (meet) punks from all over and we (S) ..... ........ . . (just walk around), sit in the pubs, look in the shops and get searched by the police. That was a very good way to spend a Saturday. Now I'm in my fifties. I (6) .................... (work) in insurance and I've got three children. But just recently I've started to return to my punk roots.Although I (7) ............................... (get) older, I've realised I still (8) . ..... .... .. ......... (love) going to gigs and hanging around with punks. I (9) .. ............... (discover) fantastic new bands and I (10) ............................... (enjoy) myself so much! Unit 1 B;md" and fans 13
  14. 14. Informal email (Part 2) using informal language ~ WRITING REFERENCE p.182 o Discuss the questions with a partner. How easy is it to see live music where you live? 2 Would you travel abroad to go to a music festival or concert? 3 What advice would you give to someone who is visiting your country about where to see live music? El Read t he exam task and answer the questions. 1 Who do you have to write to' 2 Why are you writing' 3 What kind of style do you have to write in' You've received an email from your English friend Josh. Read this part of the email and write your email to Josh. I'm really looking forward to visiting you this summer. If possible, I'd really like to see some live music. Can you tell me what kind of music is popular with you and your friends? How easy is it to get tickets for concerts? Thanks Josh Write your email in 140- 190 words in an appropriate style. o D Look at the model email and choose the word or phrase which is most appropriate for an informal email. Hi Josh Yes, I'm really looking forward to your visit too! It's good you want to see some live music while you're here because in my town (1) there's a music festival every summer/an annual music festival takes place and (2) you will have the opportunity/you'lI be able to see lots of local bands play. None of them is very famous but there's I a fantastic atmosphere there and I always (3) find it very enjoyable/ enjoy going a lot. The tickets are very reasonable and you can spend the whole day there. Of course, like all my friends, I'm (4) mainly interested inlhave a preference for rock bands but you can find reggae and traditional music there too (5) - you won't be disappointed because there's something for everyone!; it offers something for everyone, which means no one will be disappointed. There aren't any large music venues near where I live, so it's not that easy for me to go to big concerts very often. (6) But/However, one of my favourite bands, Mystery Jets, is playing in the nearest city on 22 August, so (7) if you like, I could/if you're interested, I'd be willing to get tickets for us to go to that. IS} Let me know what you think./Please reply as soon as possible. Alice 14 Unit 1 Bands and fans mWhich of the expressions 1- 4 could you use to end the email to Josh? Hope to hear from you soon. 2 I look forward to hearing from you. 3 Can't wait to see you in the summer. 4 Don't hesitate to get in touch if you have any more questions. LANGUAGE TIP You can use punctuation to make your writing more informal. Dashes (-) are ohen used instead of commas, for example, and exclamation marks (!) are ohen used. D Read the exam task and tick the information you could include in your email to Max. You have received an email from a student called Max. Read this part of the email and write your email to Max. g I'm moving to your town soon to go to college, I Can you tell me what kind of things there are to do in the evening for students and what you like doing best? Thanks Max Write your email in 140-190 words in an appropriate style. J 1 recommend some places to go 2 offer to take Max out one evening 3 tell him about the most expensive restaurants in your town 4 complain about the lack of entertainment venues 5 describe a typical evening out in detail 6 describe your favourite kind of evening out and why you like it mWrite I (informal) or F (formal) next to the phrases 1-6. 1 I would advise you to . 5 You should definitely 2 The best place to eat is .. try .. 3 You really must go to . 6 I'd highly recommend 4 If you feel like dancing, visiting. there's a good club in . D Write your email.using some of the language from Activities 3 and 6. Then check your work using the writing checklist on page 179. EXAM TIP Don't mix informal and formal styles in your email. Learn some different ways of starting and ending informal emails.
  15. 15. o Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use between two and five words, including the word given. Example: I was given responsibility for booking gigs for our band OVER Last month I Jf.~k~Y~r..b.~~*i"3!Ji3~..for our band 1 I enjoyed learning to play the guitar and I'd like to take it up again one day. USED ................................ learning to play the guitar and I'd like to take it up again one day. 2 We always went to the jazz festival every July. WOULD We.. ............ to the jazz festival every July. 3 I perform in front of people all the time, so I don't mind doing it. USED I .. ..... in front of people, so I don't mind doing it. 4 Her career was an instant success as soon as she appeared on aTV advert. TOOK Her career .............................. as soon as she appeared on aTV advert. S Unfortunately, I'm not like my grandfather, who could play the piano really well. AFTER Unfortunately, I ............................... my grandfather, who could play the piano really well. 6 When we started going out, I hated my boyfriend's taste in music but it'sbecoming less of a problem. USED ................................ my boyfriend's taste in music but it's becoming less of a problem. El Complete the sentences with the present simple or present continuous form of the verbs in brackets. I .. ........... (not like) classical music. 2 I don't understand what you.. .. ..... (soy). Can you say it again, please? 3 I ........................... (not think) it's a good idea to learn an instrument when you're too young. 4 She's never at home. She ... ..................... (always do) something in the evening. S Traditional music.. . ........... (get) more and more popular. 6 You.. .... ............ (play) really well today. IJ Choose the correct word to complete the sentences. I try and ........................... running as often as I can. A go B do C doing D going 2 I often have friends ........................ in the evening. A in B round C along D down 3 Let's go ........................... the theatre soon. A out B for C to D at 4 He's always .......................... on the computer to check his messages. A doing B having C going D watching D Complete the text with the words in the box. available collection fans once released concerts tastes downloaded Unit 1 Bands and faIlS 15
  16. 16. 16 Unit 2 Relative va lues Speaking o Discuss the questions. 1 How do you think your friends would describe your personality? 2 What personality characteristics do you share with other members of your fami ly? El Do the personality quiz. How likely are you to ... a conversation Bstranger? advice to change your mind aboutthings? 5 organise social events? 6 worry about being late? Very likely Quite likely t- Neither likely I Quite Very nor unlikely ~elY unlikely -~ - t- -t- D Turn to page 157 to get your results. Then complete sentences 1-4 so they're true for you. 1 I'm (very/quite) (un)likely to . 2 I tend to . 3 I'm good at .. . -in9. 4 I find it difficultto .. fI Compare your sentences with a partner's and discuss the questions. How much do you have in common? 2 What did you learn from your results? 3 Do you think this is an accurate test of personality?
  17. 17. EXAM TIP It's important to think about the meaning, not just the grammar. Sometimes you have to decide if an adjective is positive or negative. Vocabulary formation of adjectives g Copy and complete the table with the adjective forms of the nouns in the box. caution comfort love meaning drama person emotion pessimist generosity prediction harm reliability hope sympathy -able -ous -ic -01 -Iul sociable adventurous realistic practica l thoughtful m006 Mark the stress on each adjective, then listen and check. Practise saying the words, Which ones stress different syllables from the noun form? D Which adjectives use the suffix -less or the prefix un- to form the negative? Examples: hopeless, uncomfortable Word formation (Part 3) ~ EXAM FOCUS p.20 I mRead the text quickly without worrying about the gaps. What problem with describing people's personalities is mentioned? How well do you know yourself? When trying to understand our own or other people's (0) ..I!~h.'!~i~~r., we tend to over-simplify things. We use one or two adjectives to sum each other up. We think of one friend as having a generally (1) ....... ...... and positive outlook, while another friend is considered (2) ........................ and negative. Of course, in (3) .......... ............., none of us is so easily defined. The truth is that we are all made up of inconsistent and contradictory (4) ................ ...... ; we can be serious and reliable with our colleagues at work but in our personal relationships at home we are more (5) ........................ and emotional. With some friends we can be very cautious, while we are (6) ........................ thrill-seekers with other friends. So can people be neatly divided into personality types? Or do we alter our personality according to the (7) ........................ in our changing moods and situations? Perhaps the idea of a fixed personality is just a (8) .... ................... misconception. Maybe we can never truly understand ourselves or other people. BEHAVE HOPE PESSIMIST REAL CHARACTER PREDICT ADVENTURE DIFFERENT MEANING III What part of speech goes in each gap? If it's a noun, is it singular or plural? iI!l Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line, Unit 2 Relative valups 17
  18. 18. Multiple choice (Part 4) ~ EXAM cOCUS ).LOS Discuss the questions. What do you think is the ideal number of children in a family?Why? 2 Are older children more or less independent than their younger siblings' Why? You're going to listen to a radio interview with a psychologist called Max about birth order. Read the first question in Activity 4 and underline the key words in the statement and the options. 007 listen to the first part of the interview. Which key words, or words with a similar meaning to the statement and options, did you hear' 2 Which option correctly completes the statement' 008 Read through questions 1- 7 and underline the key words. Then listen and choose the best answer, A, B or C. EXAM TIP The radio presenter's questions will help you to follow the discussion, so you know which question you should be listening for. Max says that people mistakenly believe that oldest children A are likely to do well in the future. B will be happier than their siblings. C are often very independent at a young age. 2 According to Max, what is the reason for oldest children's results in intelligence tests' A Parents expect more from the oldest child. B Oldest children spend more time alone. C The oldest child benefits from teaching younger siblings. 3 What typical characteristic of oldest children does Max share' A He is very competitive. B He experienced jealousy of a sibling. C He always wanted to please his parents. 4 Max says that youngest children can often be A confident. B creative. C cautious. 5 What do some psychologists believe is likely to increase the 'birth order effect" A a large age gap between siblings B fa milieswith three or more siblings C having siblings of the same sex 6 Max suggests that the best combination for a successful marriage is between people who are both A oldest children. B middle children. C third-born children. 7 According to Max, why should we be cautious about the 'birth order effect" A Personality can also be affected by other things. B Personality can change when people are away from their families. C Personality is too complicated to define simply. 1:1 Compare your answers with a partner. Then listen again to check. Speaking mWork in pairs. How well do you get on with your siblings? What impact has the 'birth order effect' had on your family?
  19. 19. Adverbs ~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.161 o Underline the adverbs in sentences A-D. Then answer the questions. A They will have to work very hard to make their marriage work. B It could be difficult for them to get on welL C They are allowed to grow up more slowly. D It can have hardly any impact on large families. Which adverbsare irregular? 2 Which words can be both an adverb and an adjective? 6 Choose the correct adverb. 1 I hardly/ hard know my brother because he's so much older than me. 2 It ry hard/hardly to get on with my brothers and sisters. 3 He's been feeling depressed late/lately 4 My mother had children lately/late in life. 5 My parents live e/osely/ e/ose to me. 6 We studied the results of the test e/ose/e/osely. Vocabulary extreme adjectives D Match adjectives 1-6 with extreme versions A-F. difficult 2 intelligent 3 angry 4 frightened 5 tired 6 big A enormous B terrified C exhausted D impossible E brilliant F furious D Which adverbs in the box give the sentence a similar meaning? absolutely very a bit 1 He's quite intelligent 2 He's really cautious. completely 3 She's really impossible to get on with. 4 She's a really good person. 5 He'sa really amazing person. 6 He can be quitedifficult fairly D Choose the correct adverb(sl to form the rules. 1 ReallyNery can be used with any adjective in order to intensify meaning. 2 Completely and absolutely/ Really and very are only used with extreme adjectives. 3 QU/te/Abit isonly used when making a criticism with adjectives with a negative meaning. Speaking III Complete sentences 1-3 with phrases A-C to make statements you agree with. Discuss your sentences with a partner. Do you agree? 1 It's fairly easy . 2 It's quite hard . . 3 It's absolutely impossible .. A . to judge a person's character from their appearance. B ... to get on with everyone in your family. C ... for parents to treat all their children equally. 19
  20. 20. Colin Firth in The Kings Speech Speaking How would you feel if you had a brother or sister who was gifted or famous? Multiple matching (Part 7) ~ EXAM FOCUS p.203 You are going to read an article in which four people talk about their relationship with their brother or sister. Read the text quickly and find out which person is a twin. 2 the oldest 3 a middle child. 4 the youngest of four. 20 Unit 2 Rt>larivt: v,ilue5 D Look at the underlined words in Activity 4, question 1. What information would you expect to find in the text? Check your answer in extract A. EXAM TIP Underline the key words in the options and then read through the texts quickly to find a similar word or expression which says the same thing in a different way. D For questions 2-10, choose from the people (A-DJ. The people may be chosen more than once. Which person remembers having mixed feelings about the success of a sibling) used to try not to get involved when a sibling was badly behaved) I once stopped doing something because of sibling rivalry? I now finally appreciates the value of a sibling relationship? I felt rather irritated on the birth of a sibling7 I could depend on a sibling for practical advice as a child? thinks people can get labelled too easily7 noticed how a sibling was treated differently as a child7 was too cautious to take up a much-wanted career) regards a sibling as the most efficient person in the family7 I':J Which sibling relationship in the article did you find most interesting? Why? Vocabulary phrasal verbs mMatch the underlined phrasal verbs in the article with meanings 1-8. organise something 2 escape 3 succeed 4 make (someone) leave 5 be determined 6 suddenly become successful 7 admire 8 arrive unexpectedly fJ Work in pairs and discuss the questions. 1 Who do you look up to7 2 Have you ever set your heart on something? 3 Do you sort out your possessions regularly and get rid of things you don't need7 4 Where would you like to get away t07 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I A
  21. 21. _~__-----,II RELATIONSHIPS - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---'---- Fr'end or Can siblings ever really be friends? enemy? A Kate Firth, voice coach; sister to film star eoHn As the older brother, Colin was protective of me. As a teenager, I looked up to him because he was much more capable and confident than I was. I was jealous of his arty friends because I felt I had to be safe and conventional and go to university as our parents expected us to. Gclin could have gone but he had set his heart on drama school. I desperately wanted to act too but never had his courage, although I did act for a while, as did my younger brother, Jonathan. OUf parents didn't think that success as an actor was a real possibility but Colin and I shared a strong belief that one day we would make it. In my first year at university he did Hamlet and I sat there feeling terribly proud and jealous at the same time because he was doing exactly what I wanted to do. After that his career took off. B Jonathan Self, journalist and author; brother to novelist and broadcaster Will When Will was three, he packed a suitcase with toys and ran away from home. I think he only got about four kilometres down the road before he was found but I remember feeling delighted that we had finally got rid of him. I hadn't been at all pleased, at the age of two, when a new child turned 1ll!. Even so, we played a lot together as kids and I remember finding him very lovable. But I saw how he became the favourite as soon as my parents, who valued intellect enormously, discovered what an incredible brain he had. When I started working on my first book, I found out that he was doing the same. I felt very competitive and when I read his, I thought '1'11 never be as good as that' and gave up. Now I've established myself as a writer, I don't feel like that any more and I'm pleased with Will's success. 21 C Zoa Helier, author and journalist; sister to headhunter, Emily Unlike me, Emily has always been grown up for her age. She's only three years older than me but she looked after me a lot when we were growing up. She taught me how to write a cheque and would rescue me when I got lost on the underground. And even today, if I or my two other older siblings need a document or a family photograph, she's the one you'll call. "When she visits me, she still tidies my flat and sorts out my filing system. I've come to understand the importance of family rather late in life. During my twenties I just wanted to get away. I've lived in New York for years, yet no~ the first thing I do when I get back to London is have dinner with Emily. D Will Young, singer-songwriter and actor; brother to Rupert, founder of a charity which helps people with depression The problem with being twins is that you constantly get compared, and one twin can suffer. I remember when we went to school, it was decided that I was the clever one and Rupert was the sporty one. But we ended up getting more or less the same exam results - it's just that people put you in a certain box and it's difficult to get away from that. Rupert was more of a tearaway than me and I'd get annoyed by teachers who tried to make me responsible for him. As we got older, Rupert was more sociable. He'd get on the dance floor, whereas I was very self-conscious. It's funny that I'm now the performer. • Unit 2 Relative vdlue:, 21
  22. 22. Listening Work in pairs and discuss the questions. Do you have a lot of relations? 2 Which ones do you get on well/badly with? 6 009 Listen to five people talking about one of their relations. Match Speakers 1-5 with comments A-E. A We'd like him to move house.... B It's a waste of time saying anything to him. .. C l ance felt worried about being alone with him. D We enjoy doing the same things..... E I've offered to teach him a sport. Verb patterns: -ing/infinitive ~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.178 IJ Match examples A-E in Activity 2 with rules 1-5. Use -ing 1 after some verbs (... J2.... ) 2 after prepositions ( .. ....... ) 3 after some expressions ( .. ........... ) Use infinitive 4 after some verbs ( .. ............. ) 5 after some verbs + object ( ... ........ ) LANGUAGE TIP Some verbs (e.g.make, let) are followed by object + infinitive without to:I made her tidy up. Some verbs (e.g. love) can be followed by -ing or infinitive with little or no change in meaning: I love riding/to ride. To form a negative, use not before the verb: Ihate not going/He told me not to go. 22 Unit 2 RelJtive va lues verbs with -ing or infinitive with a change of meaning D For sentence pairs 1-5, choose the correct options and explain the difference in meaning between each pair. A My mother stopped making/to make lunch because the phone rang. B My mother stopped making/to make lunch because we were hungry. 2 A Dad tried phoning/to phone but nobody answered. B Dad tried phoning/to phone but he couldn't remember the number, so he gave up. 3 A The kids remembered buying/to buy Grandma a present and write a card for her. B The kids remembered buying/to buy Grandma a present but couldn't find it again later. 4 A My father went on having/to have children until he was in his sixties. B My father went on having/to have children with my stepmother. 5 A I regret telling/to tell you that all train services have been cancelled. B I regret telling/to tell you because now you're upset g Read the article quickly. What did Ben like and dislike about having famous parents? mComplete the text with the -;ng or the infinitive form of the verbs in brackets. fJ Work in pairs. Imagine you have become a celebrity. Talk about what you love, can afford, regret, don't mind, can't stand, etc.
  23. 23. Collaborative task (Part 3) agreeing and disagreeing ~ EXAM FOCUS p.207 o Look at the photos and the exam task and discuss the question. a grandparent a teacher El 0 10 Listen to Alana and Federico. Which of the relationships do they discuss? Why do they think they're important? D Copy and complete the table with the phrases in the box. Which of the expressions of agreement are uncertain? So do I./Neither do I. I'm not convinced. That'svery true. Good point. I'm not sure about that. I see what you mean, but .. . OK, but ". I suppose so What about you? What's your view on that? I hadn'tthought of that. Exactly! Well, actually " . Agreeing Disagreeing politely Asking opinions B Work in pairs and decide which person might have the most influence on a young person's life. You have a minute to do this. EXAM TIP Give your opinions but make sure you also listen to your partner. Ask about their opinions and respond to what they say. III Discuss the following questions. 1 Which people do you think have had the most infi uence on different stages of your life' 2 Do familiessometimes get closer as they get older' WhylWhy not' 3 What are the advantages and disadvantages of belonging to a big family?How important are relationships with these people when you are a twin sister/ brother _----I.IC-_9rOWing up? a boyfriend! girlfriend a father 11 Unit 2 Relative values 23
  24. 24. Essay (Part I) using Imkers for contrast ~ WRITING REFERENCE p.ISO Work in pairs. Read the exam task and essay title and think of some advantages and disadvantages of both situations. In your English class you have been discussing family relationships. Now your teacher has asked you to write an essay. Write an essay using all the notes and give reasons for your point of view. Write 140-190 words. 1 I I I , I I I I Is it better to have a small or a large age difference between siblings? Notes Write about: 1 competition 2 friendship 3 le.9J.!lL"9_tO'"0,<__ (your own idea) Match 1-6 with A-F to make sentences. Then decide with a partner which sentences you agree with. 1 Even though siblings who are close in age may argue, 2 Despite being born eight years apart, 3 I wish I had a much older brother to give me advice. On the other hand, 4 A small age gap between sisters can be a good thing, whereas 5 There is likely to be less competition between siblings born several years apart. However, 6 While having a sibling of a similar age may seem deSirable, A in my experience, boys may become too competitive. B my younger brothers are happy to share a bedroom. C they are more likely to grow up with many shared memories. D forming a close bond depends much more on personality than age. E they may find it difficult to develop a lasting relationship. F I expect I'd get tired of him telling me what to do all the time. In which of the sentences in Activity 2 is it also possible to use although? 24 Unit 2 Relative values o Read the essay and find where the three points from Activity 1 are mentioned. I, it better t. hove 0 ,moll .r 0 lorge 0ge differeoce betloleeo,ibli09'? Jthiok it', hord t. ,ay "'hetherit', better t. have ,ibli09' of a ~imjlar age or rYJVCh older orYOIJ"ger becallse all families are differeot. We cao'tj"dge properly "'hat it ",."Id be like to be io a differeot ,it"atioo. (1) f/ofVeverlEven tho"9h "'e mi9ht like the idea of havi09 a baby brother or ,i,ter, "'e cao'tj"dge "'hatthat",o"ld be like io realii)'. B"tJthiok the 9reate,t advaotage of havi09 a 'mall age 9ap i, that"'heo yo,,'re a Child, yo" have ,Omeooe to play ",it!" A, ",ell a, thi" yo" haVe to learo to ,hare YO"r toy" io,tead ofj",t keepi09 them to yo"rrelf. Thi, make, playi09 ",ith other childreo o"t,ide the family ea,ier. (2) Altho"9hlf/ofVever, there', likely to be "lOCh more competitioo",ith a ,ibli09"'ha" cio,e ioage beca",e they may be jealo", of eaCh other. The da09er ",ith havi09 a large age 9ap i, thatyo" may oat have a close relationShip when YOI/re 9,oWn up because yOIJ dOI)Jt haVe the ,ame ,hared memorie,. (~) On the other haod/While the age 9ap become, le" importaot a, yo" get older, ,0 it', al"'ay, po" ible to make frieod, ",ith yo"r ,ibli09 a, ad"lt,. Speaki09 from my 0"'0 experience} havin9 a sister Who's onlytwo yearsYOIJfl9er has been ideal. (q) WherearlDerpite bei09 q"ite differeot, ",e've al",ay, 90t on andWelre 900d friends nOW weh·advlts. D Underline the reasons the student gives for her point of view. Decide whether you agree and compare with a partner. mRead the essay again and choose the correct linking word or phrase. LANGUAGE TIP Some linking words can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence, e.g, although, though, even though, while. James is good friendswith his brother, although theres a big age difference between them. Although theres a big age difference between them, James is good friends with his brother However usually comes at the beginning of a sentence and is followed by a comma. El Work in pairs.Turn to page 157 and do the exam task. EXAM TIP There are no right or wrong answers to the question. The important thing is to make sure you include all three points in your essay and explain your point of view.
  25. 25. o Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. I'm going to throwaway all those old newspapers tomorrow. RID I'm going to ............................................ all those old newspapers tomorrow. 2 Peter has always admired his uncle for everything he has achieved. LOOKED Peter has always ............................................. his uncle for everything he has achieved. 3 She didn't know I was coming - Ijust arrived unexpectedly on her doorstep. TURNED She didn't know I was coming - Ijust ............................................. on her doorstep. 4 After fifteen years, the company suddenly became successfuL TOOK The company suddenly ............................................ after it had been running for fifteen years. 5 Not many people become successful in the world of acting. MAKE Not many people ............................................. in the world of acting. 6 Olivia has told me she wants to escape to a hot country thissummer GET Olivia has told me she wants to ............................................. to a hot country this summer. fJ Correct the mistake in each of the sentences. He's tried really hardly to get tickets for you. 2 The cinema is fairly closely to the station. 3 The football results were absolutely close. 4 She finished late and I was very furious with her 5 They spoke free about their difficult childhood. 6 It was hardly dark but he was completely frightened. 7 It would be a bit brilliant if we won the Cup FinaL 8 She's been working very hardly lately. Complete the sentences with the adjectives in the box. cautious confident independent practical creative sociable Whereas I'm quite shy about speaking in public, my brother's always been .. 2 Even at the age of eighty-five, my gran never likes relying on other people. She's very .. 3 My husband's not very good at doing things with his hands. He's not at all .. 4 I prefer my own company but my sisters are the opposite; they're all really .... 5 My father paints and writes really welL He's always been really .. 6 I am not prepared to take risks any more. I'm getting more and more "' . IJ Complete the sentences using the correct form of the word in capitals. My new car isn't as ............................................. as I hoped it would be. RELY 2 Molly's story is very ......................................... .. . I don't know where she gets her ideas from. IMAGINE 3 My children will never try any new food.They aren't very.. ADVENTURE 4 I don't think you're being very .... about how much we can fi nish. REAL 5 I'm absolutely .. . ............. at languages. Ijust can't do them. HOPE 6 I explained I'd been ill but the boss wasn't at all.. SYMPATHY D Complete the sentences with the correct alternative. 1 I regretted not having/to have a car to drive. 2 He'd like us working/to work late this evening. 3 I'm not very good at running/to run 4 Have you remembered locking/to lock the door' 5 Melanie has promised inviting/to invite us to stay. 6 She stopped working/to work and had a rest 7 The teacher made me to finish/finish my work before I left 8 Jim asked me norto/to not speak. Unit 2 Relative values 2S
  26. 26. EXAM TIP Read the question stems and highlight the part of the text which answers each question.Then read the four options very carefully and decide on the answer. Unit 3 Thingsthat niatter Multiple choice (Part 5) ~ EXAM FOCUS p.202 D What matters to you? Put the things in the box in order of importance. education/career family friends interests possessions fJ Read the title and first paragraph of the newspaper article and guess what it will be about. Then read the rest of the article and check. Read the article again. For questions 1-6, choose the answer (A, B, Cor D) which you think fits best according to the text. What is the writer's attitude towards football fans at matches' A She's impressed by their behaviour. B She's astonished by how they can afford tickets. C She'sembarrassed by how irresponsible they are. D She's sympathetic towards the strength of their emotions. 2 What does itreferto in line 14' A an ugly side B passion C football D a penalty shoot-out 3 The writer thinks everyone should have a passion because A it puts them in touch with their basic emotions. B it encourages affectionate behaviour. C it gives them an excuse to take time off work. D it makes everything else in life seem unimportant. 4 What does thin on the ground mean in line 77' A unimpressive B infrequent C infiexible D unexpected
  27. 27. 5 The writer mentions Wimbledon to show that A it's not only football which inspires strong feelings. B a wide range of people enjoy this kind of event C spons spectators can behave uncharacteristicalIy. D people often behave badly to get on TV 6 The writer's main purpose is to encourage her readers to A become sports fans. S have an enthusiasm for something. C show their emotions openly. D enjoy themselves more. Work in pairs. Do you know anybody who has a passion for something? Have you ever had a passion in common with a member of your family? Vocabulary -ed adjectives and prepositions o Choose the correct preposition. Then ask your partner these questions. What are you interested in/at' What do you find boring? 2 Who are you frightened with/or What do you find frightening' 3 What do you sometimes feel worried obout/in' 4 Who or what do you get annoyed of! by? 5 What do you sometimes feel embarrassed in/by' Who do you find embarrassing? 6 What do you get excited with/about? LANGUAGE TIP ·ed adjectivesdescribe how you feel about something. I'm bored with this TVprogramme. -ing adjectives describe the noun. This programme's so boring. - - - - - - - - - - All you need is love (and a scarf) Grown men with their heads buried in each other's shoulders or hidden behind shaking hands. Young mothers shouting with joy. This is what last Saturday's penalty shoot-out for the European Cup produced. If you missed the semi-final, then try and catch the European Cup Final on television tomorrow. Then you'll see what passion does to people. And, while having an fine 14 ugly side, it is, in fact, more likely to enrich our lives and make us better people. Today, supporters are gathering for the big match. Fans who could not afford the fare to travel abroad have sold their car. Others have borrowed from relatives they once promised themselves they would never borrow from again. And many will turn up without any accommodation or even a match ticket. Despite this, they will be relieved just to be there, to be part of it all. It might sound like madness but, as one who is going and is incredibly excited about it, I can tell you I feel extremely fortunate. Passion should not be confused with obsession. There are those who live in a dream state,madly in love with someone they will never meet - because he is a dead singer or a famous actor who is unlikely ever to visit their hometown - and therefore unable to form real relationships. However, there are also ordinary people - sensible parents, husbands, employeesandemployers- whose interests are much more healthy and straightforward. Their emotions are also linked to forces they cannot control, but they are to be admired for it. Maybe some people are incapable of finding a passion, but if so, they are missing out. Passions are deep, full of joy and pain, teaching you how to sob when you feel hurt, how to deal with disappointment, how to sing with enthusiasm in public (not easy). Because of them you might end up hugging a complete stranger or making new friends. They help you to feel part of a community and have something to tease your neighbour about. They are a great way for families to bond together; many dads insist that they are spending their time fishing or playing chess because their child is keen, when, actually, they are delighted to become absorbed by something outside home, job or money worries. Explosions of joy are normally thin on the ground. line 77 The birth of your child, your wedding day, a pay rise are all lovely and a reason to do something special, but they do not happen every week. If you happen to follow a football or rugby team, there are celebrations all the time. For some, a passion can be switched on and off - which is better than not having a passion at all, I suppose. Witness the behaviour that tennis brings about at the annual two-week UK tennis tournament at Wimbledon. Calm, controlled middle-aged women are suddenly prepared to camp overnight on damp pavements in London and squeal encouragement. Otherwise cool, fashionable students are happy to wave at the TV cameras while wearing silly hats and sunglasses that spurt water, In the end, what defines us as human is not only language. It is the ability to care about something that does not directly affect our bealth or wealth or importance. Passions are a rehearsal for life, a distraction from boredom and, most of all, they are fun - even when they let you down. Unit 3 Tl1: ,:r that matter 27
  28. 28. Present perfect and past simple ~ GRAMMAR REFERENCEp.176 Home Archtve News Members Search I've been mad about horses for most of my life. I've never owned one, but my friend and I used to help out eveny weekend at the local riding stables and then the owner would let us ride the ponies. But I haven't been back there since I left home to go to college five years ago Last month a colleague at work persuaded me to take up riding again so I've been having lessons with her. I've only had four so far but I've just got my confidence back, so I'll definitely keep it up D Read Anna's blog, in which she talks about her passion. Answer questions 1- 5. 1 How long has Anna loved horses? 2 Does she still help out at the stables? 3 When did she start riding again?Why? 4 How long has she been riding again? S How many lessons has she had? fl Look at the underlined verb forms in the text. Which ones describe 1 completed actions in the past? 2 past habits which are now finished? o Look at the highlighted example of the present perfect simple in the blog. Circle four more examples. o Match examples 1-3 with uses ofthe present perfect described in A-C. I've just got my confidence back. 2 I've never owned one. 3 I've been mad about horses for most of my life. A began in the past and is still continuing B has recently happened and is relevant to the present C refers to indefinite time in the past 28 Unit 3 Tl1ing~ th:'lt matter D Look at the sentences. Which of the time expressions underlined refers to a period of time and which to a point in time? I've been mad about horses fur most of my life. 2 I haven't been back there ~ I left home to go to college five years ago. mDivide these time expressions into those which are usually used with the past simple. 2 the present perfect. yet so far already in2010 never once just last month ago this month at lunchtime present perfect simple or continuous? El Match the sentences from the blog (1 and 2) with the uses of the present perfect (A and B). I've been having lessons. 2 I've had four lessons. A acompleted activity B an activity over a period of time (which may or may not be finished) III Complete the sentences below with the past simple, present perfect simple or present perfect continuous form of the verbs and phrases in brackets. There may be more than one possibility. .......................... (ride) a motorbike since I was seventeen. 2 .......................... (once witness) acrime. 3 ...... (live) abroad when I was achild. 4 .......................... (have) an operation a few yearsago. S i .......................... (never go) camping. 6 I ....................... (just win) acompetition. fJ Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions with Have you ever ... ? and How long ... ? Use the ideas in Activity 8 to help you. If appropriate, ask for more details, using When? Why? etc.
  29. 29. Grammar os and like ~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.164 o Complete sentences 1-6 wit h as or like. 1 Was that fi lm ................. all his other ones? 2 Shall we still have lunch together, ................. we said yesterday? 3 I've always regarded you ................. a friend. 4 A job ................ that one takes a long time to finish. 5 He's working ................. a waiter in the holidays. 6 Please do it carefully, ................. I asked you. LANGUAGE TIP as + noun, for a role or purpose: She worksas a musician. Iusethat room as a study. as + noun clause, for manner: I treated him as my son. like + noun, for comparison: You'rejust like Tony.;Like Jane, Ilovejazz. like + noun for informal examples: Food like that risotto is worth waiting for. Open doze (Part 2) ~ EXAM FOCUS p.20 I B Work in pairs and discuss the questions. What do you do to cheer yourself up when you're depressed? 2 What makes you really happy? D Read the text quickly. Underline three things that make Pixie happy. Are you like her? D Look at the example (0). What part of speech is it? Now look at gaps 1-8. What kind of word is missing? o Read the text again and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. EXAM TIP Read the whole sentence, especially the words before and after each gap.Think about what kind of word is missing (e.g. a preposition, a pronoun). IlJ Compare your answers with a partner. Pixie Lott: What makes me happy The London-based singer tells us about the things that make her smile. I'm at my happiest when I'm (0) . ...li!J....... . stage ar writing music. Music, for me, is medicine and writing songs is a kind of therapy. And, (1) . ..... lots of people, even just listening to music makes me happy If I'm fed up or worried (2) ... my family or something, I just put my iPod on loud. I use music (3) . .. ........ a way of relaxing and there's always a song that matches my mood. But the song I like best is a 1980s tune, (4) . ...... my friends and I play at full volume (5) ...... .... we're getting ready to go out. I've got some very happy memories associated with that song. When I (6) . ......... had a bad day or feel unhappy, I usually go to the p,ana and write o song. Sometimes I'm almost crying at the time but I always feel much (7) .. cheerful afterwards. The emotion IS real and it really helps me. I'm not really sure why music connects so strongly With me but it always (8) . ....... these days. Unit 3 Things th3t matter 29
  30. 30. LI FE-OF-LUXU RY.CO.U K A()() 10 BASKFT .. VIEW [)FlAILS " Speaking and vocabulary money o Match the price tags with the things in the pictures. Then see if your partner agrees. Decide whether each thing is worth the money. 2 good value for money. 3 a waste of money. £675 $102.3 million £35,000 €4,200 $158,500 f) Match the two halves of the expressions. Then discuss what they mean with a partner. Do you have similar expressions in your language? 1 He's got more money A to burn. 2 Put your money where B not made of money. 3 I'm a bit short C afortune. 4 Money's a bit D your mouth is. 5 She's got money E tight at the moment. 6 He's worth F to make ends meet. 7 My mum always says she's G of money this month. S It's sometimes hard H than sense. 30 Unit 3 Thin<;ls that m;3tt('r """ 10BASKEl • Vt!:W ~FTAI s. VII:.W OFTAlt S ... Complete the sentences with the prepositions in the box. Which of the statements do you agree with and why? away in of on to within -_._----- ---_._---- It's difficult to live ................. your means when you're a student. 2 You should always avoid being ..................... debt. 3 Having to live .................... a tight budget is boring. 4 Very rich people should give most of their money .. 5 It's not agood idea to lend your credit card ...... a friend. 6 Young people today have a higher standard .. living than their grandparents' generation.
  31. 31. Sentence completion (Part 2) ~ EXAM FOCUS p.204 D You're going to hear a multi- millionaire called Gavin Norris talking about his life. Read t he gapped sentences. Which of A-E do you expect to hear? A how he made his fortune B his attitude to money C his typical working day D what he spends his money on E where he lives D 011 Listen and check. III Look at the gap in each sentence. Where do you think you can put a number? 2 a noun? 3 a plural form? 4 only one word? EXAM TIP Usually, you only have to write one or two words or a number in the gap. Occasionally, you may need to write three words. D Listen again and complete the gapped sentences. III Compare your answers in pairs. Then listen again to check, Make sure you have spelt the words correctly. mWork in pairs and discuss the questions. 1 How do you think Gavin's children feel about his decision to give all his money away? 2 What problems can people have if they inherit a lot of money? 31 BUSINESS Gavin Norris started his business career by selling (1) ................................... in a market in 1984. Before Gavin sold his first company in 1998, he had 250 (2) ................................... . Gavin became interested in helping (3) ................................... learn about business. In 2004 Gavin decided to lend money to (4) ................................... in Africa who needed help. Gavin realised that as little as (5) £ ................................... was enough to change a person's life. The project to build a (6) ................................... was very special for Gavin. Being involved in charity work has helped Gavin t o value his (7) ................................... more. Now Gavin gives the profits from his (8) ................................... companies to development projects. Gavin believes money can't bring happiness but it can bring (9) ................................... . Gavin intends to give his children money for a (10) ..............................,'-~..,,: Unit 3 Things that matter 31
  32. 32. • • 32 Unit 3 Thing:, [r.at n~,J tter Comparing ~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.165 o 012 Look at sentences 1-3 taken from the listening on page 31 and complete them with the correct comparative or superlative form of the adjectives in brackets. Then listen and check. , I'm ...................... (interested) I used to be in holidays. 2 Building the hospital was ....... ... (satisfying) experience of my life. 3 I'm ... ........... (happy) I was twenty years ago. El Decide which pairs of sentences have a similar meaning, and which have a different meaning. , A I've never been as happy as I am now. B I'm just as happy now as Iever was. 2 A My car was by far the most expensive thing I've ever bought. B My car was a lot more expensive than anything else I've ever bought. 3 A My grandfather is one of the most generous people I know. B There aren't many people who are as generous as my grandfather. D Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first, using the word in bold. Example: Ascooter isn't nearly 05 expensive 05 0 sports cor LOT Asports cor is .q.kJ,t..n:rpr~. expe."s.ir~..th.(/t1.. 0 scooter. , Our standard of living is a bit lower than it was. QUITE Our standard of living is not.. .. it was. 2 There aren't many cities which are as exciting as Rio de Janeiro. ONE Rio de Janeiro is ..... .......... exciting cities. 3 She doesn't have nearly as much free time now. LESS She has .......................... free time than before. 4 Not many people earn such a high salary as he does. THAN His salary is ......................... most people's. 5 He's almost as wealthy as she is. BIT She's. ... him. 6 It's getting much more difficult to get a bank loan. AS It is.... .......... to get a bank loan now. Speaking comparing quantities D Use the table to make six sentences that are true about you. most Ispend a large amount quite a lot of my money on .. . hardly any of my time -ing. much Idon't spend any D Compare your answers in groups and write a paragraph about how your group spends time and money. Example: The thing we spend mosVleast time/money on is ... More/Less than halfof us spend 0 large amount on .
  33. 33. Long turn (Part 2) comparing ~ EXAM FOCUS p.206 o What do these photographs have in common? Choose A or B. A They show things which are important to people. B They show people in unusual situations. El Make a list of the similarities and differences between the two photographs. IJ 013 Listen to a student comparing the two photographs. Does she mention any of the points on your list? IJ Complete the sentences with like or as if/as though. In which sentences is it only possible to use like? Why? 1 It looks .............. a graduation ceremony. 2 The man looks ............ he's very proud of his car. 3 It looks .............. hard work. 4 He looks ........... he's a bit obsessive. 5 She looks .......... she's having more fun than the man. ~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.164 11 Look at sentences A and Band answer questions 1-3 about whereas and while. A While the man may have a passion for his car, it's probably not something that will last for his whole life. B The first picture is celebrating an achievement whereas the second picture shows someone who values an important possession. Which sentence is making a comparison and showing how the two things are different? 2 In which sentence is it possible to use both whereas and while' 3 In which sentence could you use although instead of while/whereas? mMake sentences with both, too or a/50. Where can you put these words in the sentence? There may be more than one possibility. the pictures show an achievement (bath) 2 the man looks happy (also) 3 the man seems to be enjoying himself (too) D Work in pairs. Student A, look at the photos on page 152. Student B, look at the photos on page 154. Take turns to compare your photos. Try to use expressions with whereas, while, bath, a/so, too, like, as if/as though. EXAM TIP Don't describe what's in the pictures. Focus on the main topic and compare the main similarity and any differences between the pictures. IlJ Work in pairs. Do you agree with this statement? Happiness is not having whatyou want but wanting what you have. Unit 3 Things that matter 33
  34. 34. Article (Part 2) engaging the reader ~ WRITING REFERENCE p.185 o Look at the exam task and answer the questions. 1 What kind of style will you write it in7 How do you know7 2 What information do you need to include7 You see this advertisement in a magazine for young people. What I'd save in a fil'e Write us an article describing something you own and explaining why it's important to you. The best artIcle will be published ill :..t.~:.~.~q~~;r:~.~:~!.t;1.~r;~...............: Write your article in 140-190 words. fJ Look at opening paragraphs A and B. Which one is most effective? Think about how appropriate the style is. 2 how varied the language is. 3 whether it engages the reader. EXAM TIP Try to 'speak' directly to the reader for maximum impact A What I~ rave io a fire Have yov eVer thov9M about which po~~e~sion yO(J~ choo~e to rave if yovr house WaS" 0/"1 tire? Well, for me it wovld definitely be my laptop. ObViously, I!:l reScue my family aod pets tirst but after that it would be my precious compvter. B What I'd save In a fire My laptop 15 very Important to me and I would be very upset If It got lost or damaged. I 5pend hours every day uSing my laptop and I would be 105t Without It. I think m05t people feel the same way about their laptops. 34 Unit 3Things that matter D Look at notes A-H and choose whether to . include them in paragraph two (a simple description ofthe object) or paragraph three (the reasons why it's special to you). A ei9Meenth birthday present from parents B I'lot expet)ive Ql)d very ordinary to look at c two years old o vS'ed to have to Share my brotherJ , computer E all my phot09raphs are on it F made by Toshiba G user-friendly H co"toin> friends'! detailS' D Work in pairs. Write paragraphs two and three, using the ideas in Activity 3. D Look at possible concluding sentences A and B. Which one would have the most positive effect on a reader? A 50 for all these reasonS, the first thin9 I would think of takin9 with me is my laptop. B The main reason I'd grab my laptop first In a fi re IS because I'd be heartbroken to lose all my photos, which have so many happy memOries for me. mMake notes on your own response to the advert. Choose a favourite possession and divide your notes into four paragraphs: 1 Introduction (an introduction to get the readers' attention) 2 Background (a description of the object) 3 Opinion (the reasons why it is important to you) 4 Conclusion (a brief conclusion) LANGUAGE TIP Use extreme adjectives such as amazing, and extreme adverbs such as ab50lurely and incredibly for emphasis. D Write your article in 140-190 words.Then check it for spelling and punctuation.Write another draft if necessary. III Read other students' articles and choose which ones to include in the magazine.
  35. 35. o Choose the correct word to complete the sentences. 1 A ............. standard of living is important to me. A tall B big C great D high 2 The house they live in must be worth a .. A treasure B fortune C resource D wealth 3 When I was at college I had to learn to live ....... a budget. A on B in C from D at 4 I'm afraid I can't come because I'm ............. of money. A low B lacking C short D tight 5 She is always ............. debt at the end of the term. A on B at C with D in 6 I'm still learning to live ............ my means. A between B within C under D at fJ Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first sentence using the word given. Use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 Rebecca started living here five years ago. FOR Rebecca .................. ..................five years. 2 I last saw Mike in 2006. SINCE 1 ............................. .... ... 2006. 3 This is my first visit to India. TIME This is the first ..................................... to India. 4 It's kind of you but I had a coffee earlier. ALREADY It's kind of you but I .................................... a coffee. 5 I don't spend much money on clothes ANY these days. I ................................... money on clothes these days. 6 This hotel isn't nearly as expensive as the other one. The other hotel is ................. ........... this one. 7 Both Tom and Zak are equally friendly. Tom is ...................................Zak. 8 There aren't many fashion designers that are as FAR JUST expensive as Prada. ONE Prada is ............................. ...... fashion designers. 11 Complete the sentences with a word formed from the word in capitals. I haven't got much money but I'm not .. about it. WORRY 2 Golf is not a very .. ........ sport to watch on TV. INTEREST 3 Having a passion can make life more EXCITE 4 I'm really ....................... by my obsession with that actor. EMBARRASS 5 What isthe most . ..................... film you have ever seen? FRIGHTEN 6 I'm . ............. that the Cup Final is over at last. RELIEF D Complete the gaps with one word. W hen I was younger, I used to worry (1) ............ all kinds of things. I knew I would never look (2) ... .... my sister, who was (3) ........... more attractive than me and just (4) ........... intelligent as me, but I still felt jealous. I was also embarrassed (S) my father, who worked (6) ............ an actor, instead of having a 'normal' job. However, I have always (7) ............. very close to (8) ............. of my parents and know I am very lucky to have them. Unit 3 Things that matter 35
  36. 36. Speaking D How much do you know about Antarctica? Do the quiz. Then turn to page 160 and check your answers. 1 Antarctica has the world's largest A volcano. B desert. C mountain range. 2 Has Antarctica always been cold? A No, it used to be tropical. B Yes, it's always been covered in thick ice. C Yes, but the ice used to be a lot thinner. 3 Which of these animals do you NOT get in Antarctica? A penguins B seals C polar bears 4 Who led the first team to reach the South Pole in 1911 7 A Roald Amundsen B Robert Falcon Scott C Ernest Shackleton 5 Why is Ernest Shackleton's 1908 expedition famous7 A Everyone except Shackleton survived the trip. B The men survived but they didn't get to the South Pole. C All the men died on the way back from the South Pole. I ~- " 50
  37. 37. Multiple choice (Part 4) ~ EXAM FOCUS p.205 fJ You are going to hear an interview in which an explorer called Leo Stone is talking about a book by Henry Worsley on his expedition to the South Pole. Before you listen, read the questions and underline the key words. What does Leo say about Henry Worsley's team' A They had never considered doing a trip to the South Pole before. B They had personal reasons for wanting to complete the journey. C They were trying to break a world record. 2 What does Leo say was the hardest thing for Worsley's team before the expedition' A organising the finance B preparing mentally C getting physically fit 3 What does Leo say was easier for the twenty-first century expedition than for Shackleton's expedition? A planning their daily route B doing the cooking C carrying their equipment 4 What problem did both expeditions experience? A running out of food B a serious illness C bad weather S How did Worsley feel when he was crossing the Antarctic plateau' A He hadn't expected it to be so difficult. B He was worried they wouldn't reach the South Pole. C He doubted his skills as a leader 6 The part of the book Leo enjoyed most was when Worsley A reached the South Pole. B arrived at the point Shackleton had got to. C completed the trip. 7 What does Leo admire about Shackleton' A his determination B his ambition C his bravery EXAM TIP The information on the recording will be in the same order as questions 1-7. D 0 14 listen to the review and answer questions 1-7. mCheck your answers in pairs. Then listenagain. What words or phrases did you hear to justify choosing A, B or C for each question? D Discuss the questions. What would you find hard about a trip like this' 2 Shackleton is considered a hero and a role model by many people. Who are your heroes and role models' 3 Where would you most like to travel to' Why? Vocabulary idioms: the body mMatch the underlined idioms 1-10 with meanings A-J. The hardest part was getting their heads around doing a 900-mile journey. 2 When he came face to face with conditions there, Shackleton began to doubt he'd ever reach the Pole. 3 He's always Dutting his foot in it. He just doesn't know when to keep his mouth shut. 4 My father and I don't see eye to eye. Perhaps our relationship will improve when I leave home. S Something in the distance caught my eye. 6 I must keep an eye on the time. I don't want to be late. 7 It was really difficult to keep a straight face; he looked so silly. 8 I'm beginning to get cold feet about the whole idea. 9 I can't face going to work. I feel terrible. 10 You need to put your foot down. Don't agree to working late every evening. A pay attention to B look serious C attract your attention D change your mind E get on with each other F feel unable to G very close to H say the wrong thing say no to something J understand/accept an idea D When was the last time you put your foot in it? 2 couldn't face doing something' 3 put your foot down? 4 couldn't keep a straight face' Unit 4 Battling nature 37
  38. 38. Narrative forms past simple, past continuous and past perfect ~ GRAMMAR REFERENCE p.l77 D You are going to read a story about a man who was shipwrecked on a desert island. Read paragraph 1 and predict what happens next. Last October, 79-year-old Mark Richards set off from Florida in his cabin cruiser. He had planned to sail to Nassau in the Bahamas in twelve hours. However, while he was sailing there, a storm blew up and he was shipwrecked on a small island. fJ Read paragraph 1 again. Which ofthe underlined forms is 1 past simple? 2 past continuous? 3 past perfect? D Which one 1 refers to a finished event? 2 describes a situation which happened before another past action? 3 describes an action already in progress when something else happened? 11 Read the rest of the story quickly. Don't worry about the gaps yet. How well did you predict the ending? D Now complete the story with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. His family realised he (1) ............. (miss) and a massive search was launched. But they (2) ............. (have to) wait for three long days before they finally (3) ............. (hear) that some fishermen (4) ............ (rescue) him. Mr Richards survived for three days on a mixture of dried noodles and snack bars which (5) ...... .... (jIoat) ashore from his boat. Mr Richards knew he would be rescued eventually because there were a lot of boats in the area. 'I wasn't frightened but r was pleased to be rescued on the third day because r (6) .............(start) to feel quite hungry,' he said. past perfect simple and past perfect continuous mComplete the sentences with the past perfect simple or past perfect continuous form ofthe verbs in brackets. Then match the examples with one of the statements, Aor B. 1 He.. ....... (work) as a lifeguard for ten years but .............. (never need) to rescue anyone until last week. 2 Andy's leg .............. (hurt) for ages before he went to the doctor. 3 We ............ (never see) a glacier before. 4 I.. .... (not hear) the news until Sophie rang me. A Only the simple form is possible here. B It is more natural to use the continuous form here because the action continues over a period of time (although it isn't wrong to use the simple form). D Complete the sentences so that Bhas the same meaning as A. Sometimes more than one form is possible. 1 A Jack was hoping to compete in the Olympics. Then he hurt his back. B Before he ............................. (hurt) his back, Jack ......................... (hope) to compete in the Olympics. 2 A Luke spent six months in hospital. He studied to be a lawyer during this time. B While Luke ............................. (recover) in hospital, he .. ...... (study) to be a lawyer. 3 A During his swim to the island, Lewis cut his knee badly on a rock. B Lewis .............. (swim) to the island when he .............................. (cut) his knee on a rock. 4 A Fauzia didn't feel well all day, so she decided not to go to Zhara's party last night. B Because she... ...........((een well all day, Fauzia ............................... (decide) not to go to Zhara's party last night.
  39. 39. Collaborative task (Part 3) ranking ~ EXAM FOCUS p20? o Work in pairs. Look at the examiner's instructions and underline the two things you have to discuss. I'd like you to imagine that you are going on a college expedition to a desert island. Here are some survival skills you might need on the island. Talk to each other about how difficult it would be to learn these survival skills. (after a two-minute discussion) Thank you. Now you have about a minute to decide which two survival skills would be the most useful on the island. finding water making a shelter How difficult would it be to learn these survival skills? making a fire fI Look at the exam task in Activity 1 and discuss the question with a partner.Talk about: what in particular you think would be easy/difficult about each skill. why you personally might find a particular skill difficult. 11 0 15 Look at Activity 1 and listen to two students doing the second part of the task. Do you agree with their opinions? D Complete the sentences and then listen again to check your answers. ............. ... .. of the ..... ............ for me would be finding water. 2 I'd ........................ making a fire.. ....... making a shelter. 3 I think learning how to make a fire would be the ........................ for me. 4 So ....................... five skills, making a fire and finding water would be the most useful. g Change the sentences in Activity 4 so that they have the opposite meaning. mDecide with a partner which two survival skills you think would be the least useful on the island. Include some of the expressions from Activity 5. EXAM TIP Use all of the time (about one minute) you have to decide something together - don't reach a decision too quickly Discussion (Part 4) ~ EXAM FOCUS p.20? fJ Work in pairs and discuss the questions. , What kind of person do you need to be to survive on a desert island' 2 How essential is it for people to know how to survive in the wild? 3 Do you think most people today have lost touch with nature' 4 In what ways can the natural world be a threat to humans' building a boat/raft fishing without a rod Unit 4 Battling nature 39
  40. 40. Speaking D Look at the paragraph headings in the article. Discuss questions 1-4 with a partner. 1 Which of these experiences do you think would be the most frightening? 2 Which of these experiences might give you shock, frostbite or hypothermia? 3 Which could give you injuries such as broken bones? 4 What other kinds of extreme weather conditions can you think of? Multiple matching (Part 7) ~ EXAM FOCUS p,203 fJ Read the article. Did anyone have serious injuries as a result of their experiences? 11 Read the questions in Activity 4 and underline the key words and phrases.Then scan the texts for words and expressions which have the same meaning. The first one is done for you. EXAM TIP Be careful' There might seem to be similar information in more than one text Make sure the word or expression you choose has the same meaning as in the question, D For questions 2-10, choose from the people A-D. The people may be chosen more than once. Which person remembers panicking about the situation A he was in? describes his efforts to stay awake? 2 mentions being in pain all over after the incident? 3 assumes he must have been thrown up into the air? 4 believes that crying helped him to survive? 5 describes the multiple injuries he received? 6 remembers the long wait before being rescued? 7 mentions the temporary deafness he suffered? 8 says he was unable to relate to his rescuers? 9 talks about experiencing big variations in body temperature? 110 1 40 Unit 4 Battling nature 1:1 Work in pairs and discuss the questions. 1 Which person do you think had the luckiest escape? 2 How do you think you would react in these situations? 3 Do you know of any disaster films connected to the weather? What happens? Vocabulary collocations and idioms: weather mMatch the words in column A with their collocations in column B. ColumnA Column B 1 freezing A wet 2 boiling B black 3 soaking C frozen 4 pitch D cold 5 absolutely E hot 6 thick/dense F wind/sun 7 torrential/heavy G sea 8 strong H frost 9 a rough I rain 10 a hard J fog D Work in pairs and discuss the questions. Which of the weather conditions in Activity 6 have you experienced? 2 Where were you and how did you feel? El) How would someone be feeling if 1 they froze when they saw something? 2 they stormed out of somewhere? 3 they moved like lightning? 4 they were icy with someone? 5 their face clouded over? 6 their face was like thunder?
  41. 41. Battlingfi~ture FOUR PEOPLE TALK ABOUT THEIR STORIES OF SURVIVAL A L ester Morlang was buried in an avalanche in Colorado. There was no warning. It was instant. AI! of a sudden I was curled up in a ball. Then it was over and I was buried under about fifty feet of snow. It was totally dark. My mouth was packed with snow and the pressure was enormous. It was hard to breathe and Ididn't know which direction was up. I thought I was already dead. Luckily I had my hands over my face so I cleared the snow out of my mouth and then I started screaming. I absolutely lost it -I was out of my mind I and then 1noticed my tears were running across my face so 1realised I must be lying kind of upside down. Now I felt determined to get out. I dug for twenty-two hours, and when [ fjnal1y saw the first little bit of light I was over the moon, although it was fourteen hours before anyone found me.• B Rod Herd was on a boat with the New Zealand Police Search and Rescue team when he nearly drowned. When we hit the wave, I was thrown against the window, which smashed and let in a tremendous volume of water. There was no air, just pitch darkness, noise and violent movement. I had no idea the boat had overturned. I felt sad, anxious and despairing, and the fear of drowning was unbearable. I couldn't hold my breath any longer and at this point I had a vision of my wife and sons waving me goodbye, and I felt at peace. But then I grabbed a stair rail and found myself back in the real world. I managed to pull myself up to the surface and then had to deal with the shock and hypothermia. Trying to stay afloat kept my mind off it, although I had to fight the desire to go to sleep. When the helicopter arrived soon afterwards, I vividly remember feeling disconnected from the people who were there to save me.• C John Neidigh survived a tornado in Mississippi. I heard the warning on the television and had just enough time to lie down and cover my head with my arms. The feel of a twister approaching is like a goods train - that low, ever·louder howl and the shuddering ground. First, a sheet of rain sprayed against the side of my trailer like machine-gun fire. I could hear trees snapping, and the roof began to come off as the trailer started moving up and down. Just as I felt the entire trailer lift off the ground, I lost consciousness and woke up twenty minutes later face-down outside. The evening was completely quiet, no wind, no cars, no insect noises. I had gone through the trailer wall, ended up thirty feet up in a tree, and then dropped to the ground. I had concussion, a collapsed lung, cracked ribs and a shattered leg. These things should have killed me but the surgeons sewed me back together again.• D Max Dearing was on the golf course in North Carolina when lightning struck. It happened on a lovely July afternoon while I was playing golf with friends from work. When it started to drizzle, we decided to get under a shelter. We were standing there teasing each other and I remember the air had an unusual sweet smell. When the lightning struck, I felt absolutely frozen but then part of me was boiling hot too. I saw these flashing lights and there was such an incredibly loud noise that I couldn't hear anything for a while. My arms and legs felt heavy. Every bit of my body - including my hair, my eyelashes - hurt. It was a dull ache and yet so sharp at the same time, like a bad headache and needles being stuck in every part of your body.• 11 Unit 4 Ban ling nature 41

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