Research project


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Research project

  1. 1. KNITTING Research project
  2. 2. HISTORY  The history of knitting is quite a mystery, guessed at from fragments kept in museums around the world. Knitting is a process using wool, silk, and other fibres that decay rapidly, even under perfect conditions therefore making it extremely hard to date it accurately.  There are many sites and books on the history of knitting, many of them refer to knitting as a fairly knew craft. On carrying out my research I have found others to contradict this theory.
  3. 3.  There is the idea that knitting may be connected to the ancient skill of knotting fishing nets. The similarity in spelling is tempting enough. The historical view is that knitting was introduced by Arabian seafarers sailing and trading in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. This would tie in well with the next theory on how knitting travelled throughout the world. THEORIES  Many textile historians commonly trace hand-knitting back to Dura Europos in the Middle East around 200 AD. Around 600 AD it is said to have travelled with the wool trade to Europe, where it was quickly adopted and spread to the colonized world.
  4. 4. THE OLD WAY How to make a fishing net (Doing the knot) =unc2m4s_6Z8
  5. 5.  One view, expressed by The Columbia Encyclopaedia says that knitting was unknown in Europe before the 15th, but throughout the world, including Europe, archaeologists have unearthed “knitted” articles from various cultures in ancient times that don’t match cleanly with this timeline. THEORIES  It has also been thought that the Spanish spread hand-knitting to areas of Central and South America, knitted items in these regions have been discovered dating to around 1100 BC, which far predates the arrival of the Spanish, and the articles found in the Middle East and Egypt. Also, knitted items from these areas have had native patterns and colours of their ancient traditions
  6. 6. H ISTORY OF SPIN N IN G AN D KN ITTIN G T E X T I L E T I M E L I N E F O R A N C I E N T H I S T O R Y Very interesting timeline found at The New World Encyclopaedia site:  c. 8000 B.C.E. – Evidence of flax cultivation in the Near East.  c. 6500 B.C.E. – Approximate date of Naalebinding examples found in Nehal Hemar cave, Israel. This technique, which uses short separate lengths of thread, predated the invention of spinning (with its continuous lengths of thread) and requires that all of the as-yet unused thread be pulled through the loop in the sewn material. This requires much greater skill than knitting in order to create a fine product.  c. 6000 B.C.E. – Evidence of woven textiles used to wrap the dead at Çatalhöyük in Anatolia.  c. 5000 B.C.E. – Production of linen cloth in Ancient Egypt, along with other bast fibers including rush, reed, palm, and papyrus.  4200 B.C.E. – Date of Mesolithic examples of Naalebinding found in Denmark, marking spread of technology to Northern Europe.  c. 3000 B.C.E. – Breeding of domesticated sheep with a wooly fleece rather than hair in the Near East.  200 B.C.E. to 200 C.E. – Approximate date of earliest evidence of “Needle Knitting” in Peru, a form of Naalebinding that preceded local contact with the Spanish.
  7. 7. EARLY EXAMPLES?  British Victoria and Albert Museum. Claim these are the oldest knitted article in their collection and date to Coptic Egypt in the 3rd to 5th c. AD but many historians claim they are not “true” knitting but are made by a craft called nalbinding which is often talked about as the predecessor to knitting and crochet.  Often mentioned as Viking knitting it was in fact also a technique also used by the Romans.  They look very much like crossed-stitch or twisted-stitch knitting
  8. 8.  The oldest example of socks I found were 'Coptic socks' from Egypt, dating to around the year 1000 CE.  Many of them have blessings knitted into them in decorative Arabic script or symbols to ward off evil. FIRST TRUE EXAMPLE
  9. 9. SUMMARY IN BRIEF  From the Elizabethan period in Britain, knitting history is easier to determine. The development of knitting was driven by the fashion of the time.  As we approached more modern times with the industrial revolution and the two world wars, the history of knitting, particularly in Britain, is better documented.
  11. 11.  The story of wool began before recorded history when primitive man first clothed himself in the woolly skins, of the wild sheep he killed for food.  Man soon realized that to kill sheep for its meat alone was a waste of food and material. And once he became a shepherd with the help of his friend the dog (probably the only animal to be domesticated before the sheep) he soon devised a method of producing clothing from the fleece.  The art of spinning wool into yarn developed about 4000 B.C. and encouraged trade among the nations in the region of the Mediterranean Sea. IN THE BEGINNING
  12. 12. SPINNING INTO THE REVOLUTION  After the art of spinning was developed the loom was invented for weaving spun wool. Over time both of these systems were improved upon and used for thousands of years.  The growth or the British wool industry fluctuated from around 55BC until the industrial revolution in the 18th century, due to multiple invasions and political strife.
  13. 13.  The older industries in such areas as East Anglia, where opposition had been most bitter, declined and never recovered.  They were overtaken by Yorkshire where machinery was more readily accepted. The younger industry jumped ahead and never lost its lead.  Other important manufacturing centres developed in Scotland, famed for its tweeds; and in the West Country which specialized in production of high quality woven carpets. These are the industry's we recognise today. MACHINERY WINS THE DAY
  14. 14. OOR WOOLIE, YOUR WOOLIE, A’BODY’S WOOLIE  SHEARING: Once a year, usually in the warmer months, sheep are gathered for shearing. A professionally trained shearer is able to shear one sheep in less than two minutes - 250 sheep in one day.  GRADING: Assessing, by eye and touch, each individual fleece and placing into groups of the same type and quality, ready for sale by auction.  AUCTION: The Wool Board holds regular auctions throughout the year at its Bradford headquarters. The wool is sold electronically and bidding is in pence and half pence per kilo.  SCOURING: Washing the wool to remove the grease and dirt.
  15. 15. MORE WOOLIE  CARDING: Turning clean, wools from staple to sliver form and separating the fibres.  COMBING: Straightening long fibres and removing the shorter ones.  SPINNING: Pulling out the fibres and adding twist to make a continuous, strong thread.  WEAVING: Creating cloth from yarn. One set of threads is interlaced with another set which are lying in the opposite direction.  DYEING: Adding colour between any of the stages in wool processing. Copyright © 2006 British Wool Marketing Board
  16. 16. CAN I HAVE ONE?  ORIGINS: The Cheviot Sheep Society was founded in 1890 but it is reported there have been small, hardy white sheep running in the Cheviot Hills in the Scottish Borders since records began.  CHARACTERISTICS: A white-faced hill sheep, with a distinctive ‘ruff’ behind the ears and crisp, white, lustrous wool. The rams can have horns.  LOCATION: Cheviot Hills, Southern Scotland, Northumberland, Northern England and South Wales.  MAIN USES: Carpets, tweed cloth, knitwear, blankets. Cheviot
  17. 17.  ORIGINS: Takes its name from the Romney Marsh area of South East England, where this breed has been kept since the 13th century.  CHARACTERISTICS: A hardy, large-framed lowland sheep, well adapted to tight grazing and bleak conditions. It has a broad white face and a woolly ‘top knot’ and heavy white fleece which contains some lustre.  LOCATION: Mostly in South East England.  MAIN USES: Versatile because of its characteristics and used in knitwear, blankets and carpets, depending on its fineness. WHY NOT? Romney
  18. 18. TOOLS OF THE TRADE  Straight needles: are generally used for flat knitting — knitting on the right side, and then turning and knitting on the wrong side.  Circular needles: are simply a pair of straight knitting needle tips joined by a flexible cable. You can use a circular needle to knit in the round — knitting in a continuous, spiral-like fashion without turning your work.  Double-pointed needles: have a point at each end and are sold in sets of four or five needles. They work the same way as a circular needle — in rounds.