Unit 4Chimpanzees I Love, Deep Sea Danger and Inventing the Future
Pronouns and Antecedents A pronoun takes the place of a noun or nouns. An antecedent, is the noun or nouns to which the pronoun refers. The pronoun and antecedents MUST agree in number and gender. Jay and I walked to the zoo, and we saw the new exhibit. Jay called Carla to pick him up from the zoo.
Author’s Purpose The Author’s purpose is the reason the author has for writing. Authors may write to persuade (convince), inform (tell) , express ideas or feelings (verbalize), or entertain (amusement). If you know the author’s purpose, you can adjust the way you read. If the purpose is to entertain, you may choose to read faster. If the purpose is to inform, you may want to read more slowly.
PersuadePersuasive writing: states the opinion of the writer and attempts toinfluence or convince the audience. It is intended to convince thereader that a certain point of view is the right one to have, or thatsome action should be taken. Book or film review Restaurant reviews Editorial articles Political position papers Advertisements and commercials
Inform Informational writing: shares information about a topic or explains how to do something . Informational brochures/articles Newspaper articles Research summaries TextbooksNon-fiction trade books and picture books How-to manuals Cookbooks
ExpressDescriptive writing: paints a picture in the reader’s mind often making use ofsensory details (what the writer sees, hears, smells, feels) Menus Catalogs Travel brochures Some poetry
EntertainNarrative writing: tells a story. Creative narrative writing has a plot, setting,and characters who have motives for what they do. Trade books and picture books Novels Plays Diaries
Indefinite and Reflexive Pronouns Indefinite These are pronouns that dont refer to a specific person or thing. The prefix "in" means "not." That will help you to remember that these pronouns are not definite. Singular Indefinite Pronouns: someone, somebody, anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, something, no one, either, each. Plural Indefinite Pronouns: few, several, both, others, many, all, some
Indefinite and Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive These pronouns end in -self or -selves, and they always refer the action to the subject of the sentence. Singular Reflexive Pronouns: myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself Plural Reflexive Pronouns: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Draw Conclusions When you draw conclusions, you form reasonable opinions about what you have read. Use what you know about real life to help you draw conclusions. Be sure that there are enough facts or information in the text to support your conclusions.
Follow and Clarify Directions Following directions involves doing or making something. Clarifying directions means writing clear directions for others to use. Directions usually are numbered. The numbers tell you the sequence of the steps. Read all directions before starting to act on the first direction given. Visualize the purpose or the end result of the directions while reading.
Writing a Summary Key Features: Tells what a selection is about Includes the most important ideas and details Leaves out unnecessary details
Using Who and Whom The pronoun who is used as a subject Who planted the garden? (who is the subject of the sentence) The pronoun whom is used as the object of a preposition, such as to, for, and from) and as a direct object. Whom did you invite? (whom is a direct object)