Smart Gardens for A Dry Climate - Coliban, Australia


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Smart Gardens for A Dry Climate - Coliban, Australia

  1. 1. Smart Gardensfor a Dry Climate
  2. 2. Cover: main photograph: Chocolate Lily, Arthropodium strictum © Copyright Coliban Water, City of Greater Bendigo and Department of Primary Industries First published 2003 Revised edition 2007 Disclaimer The information contained in this publication is of a general nature only. This publication is not intended to provide a definitive analysis, or discussion, on each issue canvassed. While Coliban Water, the City of Greater Bendigo and the Department of Primary Industries believes the information contained herein is correct, they do not accept any liability whatsoever/howsoever arising from reliance on thispublication. Therefore, every reader should make their own enquiries, and conduct their own investigations, concerning every issue canvassed herein.
  3. 3. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATEIntroductionUnderstanding more about your soil, carefulselection of plants and the introduction of Contentswater conservation principles to your garden Waterwise garden design. ...........................2 .will mean that the time, money and effort youput into your garden will result in a healthier, Understand and improve your soil. .............5 .more interesting one that is appropriate forour dry climate. Your waterwise garden will Mulching your garden..................................8also provide multiple environmental benefitsincluding: Watering your garden.................................11 • preserving water, which is our most Plant selection for Waterwise gardens......20 . precious resource; • reducing the spread of environmental Some environmental weeds.......................22 weeds through careful plant selection; • lowering groundwater levels, thus References and further reading.................24 helping to control urban salinity; and • reducing the amount of pesticides Key to Plant List.........................................25 used on the garden, through healthier Plant List....................................................26 soil and plants.This booklet is brought to you by Coliban Water, the City of Greater Bendigo and the Department ofPrimary Industries. It provides a wealth of practical information about waterwise plants and gardendesign and offers practical advice about how to maintain your garden in a dry area.Special thanks to Greg Guy of the Horticultural Department at BRIT (Bendigo Regional Institute of TAFE),Anthony Sheean, Mitch Kemp and Roger Barbetti of the City of Greater Bendigo, and Kevin Walsh,author of Waterwise Gardening (2004) for their contribution to this book. We acknowledge the assistanceof staff from the Department of Primary Industries and the Department of Sustainability and Environmentin the development of the plant list.We also acknowledge the ongoing support and assistance of Coliban Water, the City of Greater Bendigo,the Department of Primary Industries, and Bendigo Regional Institute of TAFE. Photogaphy by GeofGerdsen, Richard Gibbs and Norm Stimson. This edition was edited by Kevin Walsh. 1
  4. 4. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘an area of plants will use less water than the same area of lawn’ Waterwise garden design Designing your garden to be waterwise is not Remove unsuccessful lawn as hard as you might think. There are a few It is no use trying to grow lawn in areas that simple principles to keep in mind and after are too shady, such as under established that it comes down to using drought-tolerant trees. Use drought-tolerant plants instead. plants. Worn patches such as around barbecue areas or under clotheslines should be paved. Areas under children’s swing sets should be Reduced lawn areas replaced with a thick layer of soft-fall mulch Watering of lawns is one of the first things to available from landscape suppliers. be affected by water restrictions, so it makes Have a straight-edged and sense to have as little of it as possible if you level lawn want to keep your property looking green The lawn you decide to keep should be and attractive. straight-edged and of a regular shape such Remember, too, that an area of plants will as a rectangle or even ‘L’ shaped. These use less water than the same area of lawn, shapes are much more efficient to water than and the more drought-tolerant the plant, the curved or non geometric lawns. Also, try to less water is used. So replacing lawn with make the lawn relatively level, as this will hard surfaces and waterwise plants will also mean water gets a chance to soak in rather reduce your water bill. than just run off the surface. Have a very Front lawn slight slope though, to shed excess water The front lawn really serves no purpose when those big downpours happen. except to help show off the house and this could also be achieved by using drought- tolerant groundcovers such as Creeping Boobialla (Myoporum parvifolium), Ruby Saltbush (Enchylaena tomentosa), Matted Bush Pea (Pultenaea pedunculata) or ground covering Grevilleas. Alternatively, a mixture of shrubs and perennials could be grown to add year-round colour. Side lawns Reconsider the need for side lawns. Generally side lawns do not grow well because of too much shade from houses and fences. They are also affected by wear and tear. It would be better to replace side lawns with proper paths and colourful waterwise garden plants. Photo courtesy Continuing Education Bendigo.2
  5. 5. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘waterwise gardens can be as interesting and colourful as you want to make them’Waterwise garden designDivide the garden into Understand your sitevarious watering ‘zones’ If you understand your garden and theDivide your garden into four watering zones climate that affects it, you can takeby grouping plants together according to advantage of it, or take steps to reduce thetheir water needs. This way you can water a worst aspects. For example, if you havewhole garden bed when required and not just a wet area or a low area where rain tendsbecause one plant in the garden is thirsty. naturally to run, then you could put the mostDividing your garden into watering zones water loving plants there to take advantagewill also make it easier to cope with water of the situation. If you suffer hot winds thenrestrictions. a windbreak of drought-tolerant plants will reduce the drying effects of the wind. If anOne zone will be the areas that need no area remains shady and does not dry outwatering at all and include paths, paving rapidly this may be a good watering zone forand garden beds that feature a selection of some of the water guzzlers that like shade.extremely drought hardy indigenous, nativeand exotic plants. You should also take the effort to understand the soil you have in your garden – see theYou could then set aside garden areas for following section.plants with medium drought-tolerance,which may need to be watered about oncea month, and ones of low drought-tolerancethat might be watered once a fortnight.Try to keep areas of heavy water users toa minimum. ‘Water guzzlers’ include lawns,ferns and vegetable gardens.Photos courtesy Continuing Education Bendigo. 3
  6. 6. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘there is a huge range of drought- tolerant plants for all types of gardens’ Waterwise garden design Use drought-tolerant plants There is a huge range of drought-tolerant plants for all types of gardens – from local indigenous plants to Australian natives, as well as plants from other parts of the world that do very well on minimal amounts of water. They come in all types and effects too, so that you should be able to choose just the right plant for the situation, as well as creating the look you are after. For further information on Waterwise Plants, please refer to page 20. Waterwise gardens come in all styles A waterwise garden should not limit the type of garden you have, or the range of plants you can use. Your garden can be formal or informal, cottage garden or very contemporary, native plants or all bold foliage. Remember that waterwise gardens can be as interesting and colourful as you want to make them. Photo courtesy Glen Loddon Homes.4
  7. 7. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘good soil is the basis of a good garden’Understand and improve your soilGood soil is the basis of a good garden. By A simple test to determine your soilunderstanding, managing and improving your typesoil you will be able to use less water, while Take a handful of your soil and make it justmaintaining an attractive looking garden, damp. Try forming it into a ball or sausage ineven in the toughest times. Understanding your palm. If it forms a ball that readily staysyour soil will also help you choose the right in shape then your soil is clay. If it tends toplants for your conditions. hold its shape, but is a bit crumbly, then it is loam. A sandy soil will not hold shape but fall apart very quickly.Understanding soil LoamThe water holding capacity of a soil directly A loamy textured soil with a crumblyrelates to the soil type, especially its structure structure and with good pore space will allowand texture. water to move through it by capillary actionSoil structure and soil texture similar to how water moves when it soaksA good soil consists of peds (soil particles through blotting paper.held together by humus) with spaces Well-structured clays and sandy loams withbetween them called ‘soil pore space’. lots of organic matter are the best soils forThese spaces can accommodate air, water, holding the largest amounts of water for plantmicro-organisms and roots of plants. The growth.amount and type of pore space varies withsoil texture and structure. A good soil has up Clay soilto 50 per cent pore space by volume. If your soil is clay you may want to add gypsum to help break it up. This helps waterSoil structure relates to the arrangement of get in more easily, and also breaks up thesoil particles and their pore space. crust that often forms and makes water runTexture relates to the soil particle sizes from off the surface, rather than soak in. Gypsumgravels through to coarse sands, fine sands is available in both a powder and spray-onthrough to silts, and finally clays which have formula.the smallest of soil particles. Clay soils may need deep-ripping or breakingThe infiltration rate of the soil relates to the up when almost dry to help with initialrate at which water will soak into soil. A good aeration, but it is bad practice to cultivatetextured and structured soil should have a wet or very dry clay soils.good infiltration rate. Sandy soil Sandy soils lose their moisture very quickly. Many are also hard to wet again once they have dried out. With sandy soils it is important to constantly add old organic matter. 5
  8. 8. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘always work with the existing soil’ Understand and improve your soil Indigenous Plants and soil Improve your soil Our local flora has evolved over many Always continually improve your soil by thousands of years to thrive in our local adding lots of composted organic matter. soils. One of the advantages of growing This is best done in winter and spring. indigenous plants is that you don’t need to Organic matter in the soil helps to feed the import foreign soil and apply large amounts plants, keeping them healthy and healthy of fertiliser. This also reduces the risk of plants cope much better with less water. It introducing weeds and other soil-borne pests also encourages earthworms, whose little and diseases. Some local native plants will tunnels form great conduits to allow water adapt to soils which have been altered or to penetrate into the soil. The organic matter improved in some way, for example by the also holds the moisture in the root zone of addition of organic matter or clean clay or plants where they can use it. sand. Humus (organic matter broken down by In an established garden where the soil micro-organisms and other soil life) acts has been dramatically altered, careful plant as a binding agent in the formation of soil selection is required. While many indigenous peds (crumbs), ensuring good water holding plants will adapt to changed soil some may capacity as well as good drainage. Humus struggle in the altered conditions. Potential can hold several times its own weight in problems include too many nutrients, poor water and helps prevent plant nutrients from drainage leading to water-logged soil, leaching away. Humus gradually breaks competition from weeds, and changes to the down, releasing nutrients to plants. A humus- natural make-up of micro-organisms in the rich soil will also help keep a more constant soil. temperature throughout the year. In new development areas always work with the existing soil. If you need additional soil – for example, you want to create some mounds for interest and improve drainage – then determine your soil type and try to purchase the same type of soil from a location close by. An adjoining site cut for a new house is often a good option. Melaleuca decussata - Totem Poles.6
  9. 9. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘healthy plants cope much better with less water’Understand and improve your soilWater and soils Other soil additives to hold water Another example of a soil additive that helpsWe need to ensure that water will soak into to hold water are water crystals. These swellthe soil when we water the garden or when up to a jelly-like consistency, and while theyit rains. do not overcome hydrophobia in soils, theyImprove water penetration with are useful for holding moisture in the rootterracing zone of plants. This is particularly useful forCreating flatter ground by terracing slopes, reducing transplant shock in newly-plantedas well as adding organic matter, allows plants and seedlings, and for keepingmuch better water penetration as the water moisture in potting mixes that dry-out rapidly.gets a chance to infiltrate the soil, ratherthan just run off. Make the ground as level as Coco peat or copra peat is an organicpossible, but ensure there is a gentle slope material made from the husks of that in very wet periods, or times of heavy Incorporated into the soil, it is also able todownpours, excess water can get away. hold large amounts of water. It can be used in the same situations as water crystals,Improving hydrophobic soils and as a general aid to moisture retention inIf you find your soil does not take the water garden easily and it tends to sit on the surfacethen the soil is referred to as ‘hydrophobic’.In this case it may pay to add one of thesoil-wetting agents. There are a numberavailable and they can be bought in powderor liquid form. They are often a special typeof detergent that acts by breaking up surfacetension, allowing water to spread throughthe soil particles. Wetting agents are bestapplied at the start of the dry season, as theyare biodegradable and only last for aroundsix months. Don’t use these types of wettingagents near waterways as they have beenknown to affect aquatic creatures such asfrogs. Photo courtesy PepperGreen Farm. 7
  10. 10. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘mulching helps to reduce the number of weed problems in your garden’ Mulching your garden Mulching is a wonderful way to improve soil condition. Mulch reduces soil water loss, Types of mulches keeps soils cooler in summer, and helps to A mulch cover can be formed from a wide reduce the number of weed problems in your range of materials. They can be cheap or garden. expensive and formed from either organic or inorganic materials. Quick rotting mulches, such as pea straw and compost, have the Why we use mulches benefit of adding organic matter rapidly, Mulching is the single most important thing but need to be replaced regularly. Long you can do to help your garden survive in our term mulches, while lower in maintenance, dry climate. do not give much benefit beyond reducing evaporation. Mulches reduce evaporation The principle reason for mulching is to Compost reduce evaporation of water from the soil. In Compost is the best mulch you can use as fact, it has been shown that a 70 mm thick it has plenty of nutrient, good evaporation layer of mulch will reduce soil evaporation by control, and quickly improves soil texture as much as 70 per cent. and water-holding. It is also a great worm encourager, and it is easy to make your own. Other benefits of mulching As well as reduced evaporation, mulching Pea straw or lucerne hay has a number of other benefits. As the Both pea straw and lucerne hay have plenty mulch breaks down it improves the soil’s of nitrogen and break down well to supply structure and its ability to hold moisture in nutrients to plants. They are ideal for heavy the root zone of the plant. At the same time feeders like roses and vegetable gardens, it is adding nutrient to the soil. A mulch will especially where their quick decay improves also reduce the number of weeds, and this soil texture. Avoid using in very windy areas. is important as weeds use precious water. Shredded green waste You will also find that any weeds that do Council landfills and private operators often germinate in the mulch are very easy to have shredded green waste for sale at very remove. Importantly, mulches can prevent or reasonable prices. As this material can often delay the formation of water repelling crusts contain weeds or seeds it is essential that that often form on our soils. you compost it first before using it as a mulch or soil improver.8
  11. 11. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE Make your own compost Good compost makes a great mulch. Just about anything organic can be added to a compost. BuildMulching your garden it up in thick layers of carbon rich material like straws, garden wasteGrass clippings and autumn leaves, alternating withHigh in nitrogen content, these are best thin layers of nitrogenous materialmixed with leaf litter, straw or twiggy like manures and fresh grassmaterial to prevent it forming soggy, water clippings. Avoid adding problemimpenetrable layers. Ideally, it is best to weeds like couch and oxalis, andcompost grass clippings before using. keep the heap just damp. After aPaper or cardboard month turn it so that the materialIdeal to use under bark or stone. Paper that was on the outside is now onshould be several layers thick and have holes the inside and vice versa. A monthpunched in it to allow water through. It is later repeat this to ensure that allbest to wet the paper or cardboard before matter spends some time in thelaying it. hottest part of the heap, to kill any seeds. In this way your compostBark or wood chip will be ready in just a few months.Some bark and wood products containsubstances that inhibit plant growth, andshould be left for several months in theweather to leach out toxins prior to using Weedmatas a mulch. Most of these products can be Better than plastic because it lets air andused around established plants. Think about moisture through. If using an irrigation systemthe source of the material and try to make it is best to have drip irrigation under theenvironmental choices, like using pine bark weedmat.rather than red gum. PlasticMushroom compost This is best avoided as it reduces availableMushroom compost is often available. This air for the soil to breathe, often making thehas great moisture holding ability and makes soil turn ‘sour’. While plastic does reducea fantastic soil improver as well as a mulch. evaporation it also sheds water, oftenGenerally it is weed free, but be aware that meaning that less water gets into the has lime added to it, and so is no good for Living mulcheslime sensitive plants such as Camellias. Many people use low and ground coveringStone, pebbles or rocks plants as a living mulch. These probably useStone, pebbles or rocks are examples of up any water they save, but do create angood long-lasting mulch material, especially interesting and green garden. Make sure youfor storing heat through the day and releasing use plants with low water requirements.warmth at night, which is great for frostyareas. Again, avoid using unsustainablematerials and choose by-products orrecycled materials like crushed bricks. 9
  12. 12. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘mulch should be checked every November and then topped up if necessary’ Mulching your garden Using mulch Mulch thickness The depth of a mulch layer depends on Mulches are essential in our dry climate to the material you are using. If it is fine, like help create a more waterwise garden. Here compost, or a mixture with a lot of fine are a few tips on their correct use. material in it, such as shredded green waste, How to mulch then it needs to be put on thinner, say Always thoroughly remove any weeds before 30 mm thick. This is because the fine mulching. Then give the soil a light forking material holds moisture and reduces the over to break up any crust that might have amount of rain and irrigation that can formed. get through it. Chunkier and more open materials, such as pebbles, wood chips and Organic mulch, particularly long-term ones barks, should be used at around 70 mm such as bark and wood-chips, can develop thick. Do not use it any thicker as it will be nitrogen deficiency in plants, causing them too hard for water to get through. to turn yellow. This is caused by bacteria taking nitrogen out of the soil to break down Apply mulch in early summer the organic matter. If using these types of As the principal role of mulch is to reduce mulches it is important to add nitrogen to evaporation, the best time to mulch is early the soil. Blood and bone or any type of summer. The idea is to allow as much winter animal manure is a great way to counter this and spring rain to enter the soil as possible problem. Add this after you have broken up before placing the mulch on, to reduce the crust and then give it a water in. Then the loss of that moisture. If you are using put your mulch on top. Mulch should be kept a quick-rotting mulch then this will be an clear from the stem or trunk of a plant to annual task. Long-term mulches should still prevent collar rot disease, and ring-barking be checked every November, then topped up from frost. if necessary.10
  13. 13. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE The difference between water restrictions and the permanent water saving rules.Watering your garden Water Restrictions are a specific drought response measure to limitWater is a precious resource that should the use of water during times ofalways be used as efficiently as possible. By shortage. The Permanent Waterfollowing the guidelines set out in this booklet Saving Rules are a set of long-term,you could halve the amount of water used on permanent water conservationyour garden. measures which apply when water restrictions are not in place.Water restrictions andpermanent water savingrulesIn recent years residents of North-Central Public education and water restrictions inVictoria have had to manage their gardens recent dry years have raised our awarenesswithin the constraints of high levels of water of the value of water, and the importancerestrictions. These have been necessary of saving water wherever we can. Ourbecause of an extended succession of dry challenge when water restrictions are liftedyears, with rainfall patterns resulting in little is to continue to be conscious of how werunoff into our catchments, and additional use water, and to change our usage habitsdemand from increased development and forever.population growth. Success is a matter of making a few simpleColiban Water, together with other regional actions part of our everyday routine, just likestakeholders, is working towards improved wearing a seat belt in our car or putting onwater security for our region. Refer to a bike helmet before we go for a ride. TheseWaterPlan 2055 on the Coliban Water are actions we no longer consciously thinkwebsite for further details.. about doing – they have become secondFor website details, please refer to page 24. nature. So will the Permanent Water Saving Rules.However, further projected populationgrowth, and the likelihood of less rainfall Future constraints on the way in which wein the future as a result of climate change, use water in the garden are governed bymean that we all need to permanently change a new Water Restrictions By-law (from 1the way we use water. July 2006) and the Permanent Water Saving Rules, which are not part of the waterAs we move out of water restrictions in restrictions by-law, but apply at all timessome towns in our region, we move onto when water restrictions are not in place.Permanent Water Saving Rules. Thesecommon-sense rules are both responsibleand practical water saving actions. 11
  14. 14. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE Watering your garden Odds and Evens Watering Calendar The Permanent Water Saving This ‘Odds and Evens’ watering system Rules applies to customers on Permanent Water Savings Rules, as well as Stages 1 and 2 Gardens and lawns and 4A of the Water Restrictions By-law. Applies to private gardens, public gardens, sports grounds/ For information about the current level of recreational areas: water restrictions in your area, and more • use a hand-held hose with a information on the permanent water saving trigger nozzle, watering can or rules, refer to Coliban Water’s website at bucket to water gardens or lawns, or call our Contact at any time; Centre on 1300 363 200 (cost of a local call). • a sprinkler, micro-spray, drip system or any other watering system can only be used on alternate days before 10am and Odds & Evens Calendar after 5pm – use the Odds and Evens system listed at right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Vehicles Hoses used to clean a vehicle by 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 hand must be fitted with a flow shut-off device. Paved areas 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Paved areas can only be cleaned using water from a hose in the 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 event: • of an accident, fire, health or safety hazard, or other 29 30 31 emergency; or Watering days for all odd numbered • the paved area is under properties are marked brown. construction or renovation. Watering days for all even numbered Construction industry and un-numbered properties are Hoses must be fitted with flow marked dark green. shut-off devices. On the 31st day of the month anyone Fountains may water Fountains not recirculating water must not operate. Note: Applicable to street numbers12
  15. 15. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATEWatering your gardenSome tips to help your garden throughStage 4 Water RestrictionsDuring Stage 4 Water Restrictions you cannot use potable water on the garden;however, you can use rainwater or greywater.• Use the greywater from rinsing the vegetables and from the bath, shower and laundry.• Greywater can vary considerably in quality. If you intend to use greywater on your garden, refer to EPA Greywater reuse guidelines. See EPA website page 24.• Be very selective about which plants you water. Use the greywater on plants you particularly want to keep. Some plants may die, but you often find that many will get through the summer with little or no water.• Scrape aside mulch before watering, break up any soil crust and apply the water gently so it soaks in.• Make a ‘dam’ around plants so that any water you deliver gets a chance to soak in.• Make sure the garden is mulched. If it is a coarse mulch it should be 70 mm thick. If it is a fine one then about 30 mm thick is good.• Cull the number of potted plants you have down to just the important ones.• Plant out potted plants into the ground if the plants are suitable for garden beds.• Ask family and friends living in areas with low water restrictions, or alternative water sources, to ‘adopt’ some of your precious pot plants (like orchids and bonsais) for the summer.• ut remaining pot-plants together in the shade where they will be easier to monitor. P• Use manageable containers to catch the cold water that first comes out of the hot tap, then use that water on the garden.• Install a rainwater tank or an EPA-approved greywater system as an alternative water source. Permanent greywater systems require permission from the City of Greater Bendigo.• Remember to save water in the house too. 13
  16. 16. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘always check under your mulch to see if the soil is dry before watering’ Watering your garden When to water Change your watering to suit the seasons Over-watering and other incorrect methods Remember too, that water requirements of watering are responsible for a large change with the seasons. You will need to number of plant losses, as well as the waste water much less in autumn and spring, when of our water. cooler weather means less evaporation Check the soil first and less plant growth, as well as periods of Always check under your mulch to see if the natural rainfall. In winter the only watering soil is dry before watering. Often the mulch you will probably need to do might be plants looks dry on top, but underneath it can still in pots, and some gardens in areas missed be quite moist. Also, by putting off watering by natural rain, like under the eaves of the as long as possible you train the plants to house. put their roots down deep in search of water. Don’t water in the middle of the day A simple test is to take a handful of soil from Never water in the middle of the day as it where you think you need to water and roll it can burn plants, and most of the water will into a ball in the hand. If it adheres together be lost in evaporation. In fact, under the new then there is usually adequate moisture for Permanent Water Saving Rules watering with plant growth. If the soil falls apart when sprinkler, micro-spray, drip or other system rolling it into a ball then there is usually is only allowed on alternate days before insufficient moisture. 10am and after 5pm. With hand-watering these times also make waterwise sense. A Check the weather report before watering copy of the Permanent Water Saving Rules is You may well be able to put off watering if included on page 12. rain is predicted in the forthcoming days, so The best time to water is either late at night always check the weather forecast before or early in the morning. There will be little watering. In the height of summer it is better evaporation at this time, so the water gets a to water prior to a forecast hot day, rather chance to really soak in. than water during hot weather. This is much more efficient and reduces the stress on plants. Photo courtesy Macdonalds Plants Plus Nursery.14
  17. 17. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE Urban salinity An urban salinity problem has developed due to excessive garden watering, over fertilising, and the replacement of nativeWatering your garden vegetation with shallow-rooted garden plants and lawns. Urban salinity occursHow to water when the groundwater level rises and the capillary action draws the water toIt is important that any water you apply to the surface. As the water evaporates ityour garden actually gets to the part of the leaves the salt behind in the soil. Signsplant that needs it: the roots. of urban salinity include waterloggedSlow and deep watering is best soil, growth of salt-tolerant plant species,Water should be delivered at a rate that and unhealthy or dead trees. For furtherthe soil can absorb. That is, never water information contact the Department ofto the point where water is running off the Primary Industries, the City of Greatersurface. If the water runs off the soil almost Bendigo or Coliban Water for a copy ofimmediately you start watering then you will the Urban Salinity in Bendigo brochure.need to work on the soil’s ability to take inand retain moisture. See the section on soilsfor tips on improving your soil. Make your plants less water dependantIt is important to make sure that the water Try gradually increasing the length of timeis getting deep into the soil. After watering between watering. You may be surprisedyou might even want to dig a small hole to to find that most plants will survive quitecheck how far the water has penetrated. The happily on much less water than you haveidea of deep watering is to make sure that been applying. This technique will alsothe plants’ roots grow down into the soil. In show you the water requirements of variousthis way they become used to searching for plants, allowing you to shift them into themoisture deeper in the ground. appropriate watering zone.Plants that are used to shallow watering An effective way to keep garden wateringwill keep their roots close to the surface. to a minimum is to allow establishedThis means they are more likely to die when ornamental gardens to become moderatelywatering is reduced. water stressed. Moderate stress to many ornamental plants will not cause problems, and may actually help reduce diseases that can be found in over-wet gardens. ‘water should be Put the water where the plants need it delivered at a rate Remember to water the root area of the that the soil can plant and not the leaves. Watering this way absorb’ will also help reduce the incidence of fungal diseases among your plants. 15
  18. 18. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘plants with similar watering needs are grouped together to enable efficient watering’ Watering your garden Watering and soil types Watering systems Water will readily penetrate a good soil and A well-designed automatic or semi-automatic fill-up the pore spaces between the soil watering system can help create an efficient, particles. The depth of water penetration waterwise and attractive garden. An ideal depends upon the soil type and structure. watering system is one that will deliver water For example, when 2 cm of water is applied directly to the plants’ roots in the required to soil (excluding run-off) the following results quantity needed by those specific plants. will occur: Gardens need to be set-up in such a way • sandy soil will be penetrated by that plants with similar watering needs are approximately 20 cm; grouped together to enable efficient watering. • loam soils will be penetrated by It is important that different watering systems approximately 10 to 15 cm; and should be on different lines. That is, don’t • clay soils will be penetrated by mix drippers with sprayers on the same line approximately 5 to 10 cm. as they deliver water at different rates. The wetting pattern also changes, with the Dripper systems water in clay soils tending to spread out Drip-watering systems are by far the most horizontally, while minimum horizontal spread efficient way to water a garden, and are occurs in sandy soils. preferred over other watering systems. The If the average root depth of most plantings multiple benefits of drip-watering include is 30 to 40 cm, then approximately 6 cm of the fact that no water is lost to wind-drift. water must be applied to reach this depth in Water is also delivered at a slow rate, which an average loam soil. means little or no run-off. As the foliage of plants does not get water on it there is much reduced incidence of fungus diseases on the leaves. Drippers require much less water pressure than other systems, so larger areas can be watered at the one time. Drip watering is also the way that greywater must be delivered when used on a garden.16
  19. 19. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE How to hand water Whenever you are hand-watering – and particularly during periods of water restrictions – it is important toWatering your garden make sure your watering is as effective as possible. Do not try to water theSprayers and sprinklers , whole garden in the one session asSprinklers and sprayers that deliver water in this will only lead to shallow watering.large droplets are best if you water with these Instead, pick a garden area or two anddevices. Fine spray that comes from many concentrate on giving these a thoroughsprinklers, and micro-sprays in particular, is soaking. Use a gentle spray until theeasily carried by the wind away from where water starts to run off the surface, thenthe water is meant to go. They also tend to move to another area. After a whilewet the foliage, and can thus increase the return to the previous areas and againincidence of fungal disease. Keep the sprays water to the point of run-off. Do thislow to avoid this, and also to deliver the several times until you are sure thewater to the root zone where it will be used. areas you are concentrating on have been thoroughly soaked. You couldHand-watering even dig a small hole to see how far theWhen hand-watering with a hose always use water has penetrated.a nozzle with a flow shut-off device, suchas a trigger. Remember to turn the hose off In the next watering session you canat the tap as well as at the nozzle. This will switch to a different area of garden.prevent water-waste if the nozzle should leak Remember to match your watering toor even blow off the end of the hose. Use a the water requirements of the plantnozzle that will deliver the water gently and grouping. That is, some garden areasin larger droplets to avoid wind-drift. Long may get a soaking once a week, whilewatering ‘wands’ are useful for getting the others may go two to four weekswater close to the ground. between waterings.Similarly, watering cans should have a rosethat allows the water to be applied gently.Buckets are probably best avoided as therapid delivery of the water usually means itjust runs off the surface rather than soakingin. Photo courtesy Macdonalds Plants Plus Nursery. 17
  20. 20. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE Understanding water stress in plants Stress management of plants is an important part of waterwise gardening. Watering your garden The following symptoms are common signs of what is referred to as water or Controlling watering drought stress in plants: Various types of garden water controllers • wilting or drooping of foliage and help take the guesswork out of watering and stems; can save water and money. Water controllers • lack of leaf gloss on plants; can be manual, fixed program or variable • colour tinting of leaves (a bit like program timers. These devices are usually autumn foliage); available at hardware and irrigation outlets. • partial fruit, flower or leaf drop from Of course every hose should be fitted with plants; a flow shut-off device such as a trigger • curling of leaf edges; nozzle. A simple tap-timer will make sure the • small stunted growth; and hose switches off after a set period of time. • footprints left behind on a lawn. Automatic controllers can be programmed In some plants the signs of drought to maximise the efficiency of your system. stress are only temporary and may Remember to change the settings as the just be the plants’ response to hotter seasons change, as less water is needed in weather. For example, some plants droop autumn and spring. their leaves on hotter days to conserve Remember too, that all automatic watering moisture. By night-time the leaves have systems installed from 1 July 2006 must often returned to normal. So keep an have a rain sensor or soil moisture sensor eye on your plants and give them water as part of their control system. Even if your if the symptoms of stress continue for automatic system was installed before 1 more than a day or so. The exception July 2006 it is easy to have one of these are plants that need water to produce a devices fitted, and they will save you water. crop, such as your fruits and vegetables. They work by preventing a system coming These should not be allowed to stress on when there has been rain, or the soil is too much, or production will drop and still moist. For example, if you have your fruit will split or be distorted. Remember system set to come on every seven days and though, that on many plants a little bit the device detects plenty of soil moisture of drought stress is OK. However, if you or recent rain on day seven it will tell the are finding certain plants are easily and controller not to come on for another seven constantly stressed, then these probably days. should be removed from the garden. Over-watering of plants, or poor soil drainage that results in roots dying of ‘wet feet’, will result in the same symptoms as listed above, so always check the soil to verify the cause of the stress before watering.18
  21. 21. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATEWatering your gardenChecking how much water is delivered GreywaterYou should check to see how much water Greywater is the waste water from theyour lawn or garden beds are receiving laundry, kitchen and bathrooms, and while itduring an irrigation period. You can simply can be a great help in helping your gardendo this by putting a few containers within the survive in dry times, it must be used withsprinkler area or under drippers to catch the caution. Below are some greywater doswater. Time how long it takes to deliver 10 and don’ts. For more information checkto 15 cm of water into the container as this the Environment Protection Authority (EPA)should be adequate for a good watering for guidelines on its website loamy soils. This will help you set a limitfor your watering times. Greywater Dos & Don’tsFor further information on watering and soiltypes, please refer to notes on page 16 to Doswork out more accurate watering times for Only use low phosphorus, environmentallydifferent soil types. In addition, it is a good friendly detergents and soaps.idea to dig a hole in your soil to see how Use the greywater immediately.far the water has penetrated after you havewatered. Deliver the greywater by sub-surface drip irrigation only.Alternative water sources Ensure greywater goes into the sewer whenever you are not using it, such as inIn our dry climate it is definitely worth wet times.considering using alternative sources for yourgarden water. Always wash your hands after gardening near greywater areas.Rainwater tanksConsider installing a rainwater tank to collect Only use the greywater in dry times.water for use on the garden. Nowadays Don’tstanks come in a wide range of sizes and Never allow the greywater to leave yourcolours to suit every situation. There are even property, and only use it in dry times.‘bladder’ style tanks that can be positionedunderneath a house that is on stumps. If you Never store greywater for more than 24are considering using a hose or irrigation hours.system from your tank you will need to Don’t use greywater on vegetables orhave a power-point nearby to run a pump. other edible plants.Information on rainwater tank guidelines and Do not use the kitchen water fromthe State Government’s rebate is available washing dishes as it will contain fats andfrom Coliban Water. vermin attracting food particles. 19
  22. 22. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE Plant selection for waterwise gardens One of the keys to a successful waterwise garden is to choose and use plants that Native plants have low watering requirements. The most Many Australian native plants are adapted waterwise and environmentally friendly are to dry conditions. These include Eucalypts, indigenous plants, but there are also many Bottlebrushes (Callistemon spp), Banksias other colourful plants from other parts of and Wattles, but also a range of smaller Australia and overseas that survive and thrive plants that are showy as well as great for on small amounts of water. Waterwise plants attracting birds, such as Grevilleas, Native come in an amazing array of colours, shapes Fuchsias (Correa spp), Hakeas, Mint Bushes and sizes. There is a waterwise plant for (Prostanthera spp), Emu Bushes (Eremophila every spot in the garden and for every style spp), Swan River Daisy (Brachyscome spp) of garden you want to create. and Waxflowers (Philotheca spp). Indigenous plants Succulents and foliage The publishers of this booklet strongly plants encourage the use of indigenous plants, The last few years have seen a real rise in the particularly in areas adjoining or close to popularity of succulents, ornamental grasses bushland. Indigenous plants are those that and other foliage plants, especially for use in grow in the local area, and are uniquely containers and contemporary style gardens. adapted to grow in the soil, climate and other Some of the best include Black-anther Flax conditions of the area. A garden planted with Lily (Dianella admixta), Cane Spear-grass indigenous plants is considered ecologically (Austrodanthonia breviglumis), Agaves, sustainable. The Bendigo district has a Common Tussock Grass (Poa labillardieri), fantastic range of interesting and colourful Bird of Paradise (Strelitzia reginae), Cabbage indigenous plants that can be grown in our Palms (Cordyline spp), New Zealand Flax gardens, and the plant list indicates which (Phormium spp) and Yuccas. plants are indigenous. Growing local native plants will attract wildlife to your garden. Some, such as the Whirrakee Wattle, are rare. The planting of rare species helps ensure their survival. Growing indigenous plants helps maintain the unique visual character of the local area. Xerochrysum viscosum - Sticky Everlasting.20
  23. 23. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE ‘waterwise plants come in an amazing array of colours, shapes and sizes’Plant selection for waterwise gardens contGrey leaf plants Environmental weedsPlants with grey or silvery leaves cope well Some garden plants are escaping andwith heat and drought. Examples include becoming environmental weeds.the Clustered Everlasting (Chrysocephalum An environmental weed is a plant thatsemipapposum) Lavenders, Wormwoods invades natural areas, like a piece of local(Artemisia spp), Lambs Ears (Stachys bushland, choking out the local nativebyzantina), Bearded Iris, Yellow Daisy plants, changing the natural environment and(Euryops pectinatus), many Wattles, Ruby destroying the homes and food of our nativeSaltbush (Enchylaena tomentosa), Daisies, animals.Silverbush (Convolvulus cneorum), CushionBush (Leucophyta brownii) and Snow in Across Australia governments andSummer (Cerastium tomentosum). These are communities are spending millions of dollarsgreat plants for waterwise gardens as the and countless volunteer hours controllingfoliage colour also adds interest. environmental weeds. Care should be taken when selecting plants for the garden asTried and true favourites many exotic and some native plants areEarly Australian gardens survived with very environmental weeds and should be avoided.little water and it is still possible to find Gazanias and Cootamundra Wattle are two ofmany old favourite plants growing with little our most common environmental weeds thator no extra water in such places as old began as ornamental garden plants.cemeteries. Old fashioned roses, bulbs suchas Belladonna Lilies, Daffodils and Jonquils,English Box, Native Fuchsia (Correa reflexa),Wattles (Acacia sp.) Japonica (Chaenomelesjaponica), Rosemary, Sacred Bamboo(Nandina domestica) and Red Hot Pokers areamongst the great survivors. 21
  24. 24. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE Some Environmental Weeds The following list of environmental weeds is intended as a general guide only and is constantly being updated. Some plants listed are Declared Noxious Weeds, proclaimed under the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994, but many are not. Dispose of all garden waste properly. Dispose of any environmental weeds by putting them into sealed bags and disposing at a council approved landfill. BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME STATUS Acacia baileyana Cootamundra Wattle Undeclared Acacia iteaphylla Flinders Ranges Wattle Undeclared Acacia longifolia Sallow or Coast Wattle Undeclared Rosa rubiginosa Briar Rose Undeclared Chrysanthemoides monilifera Bitou Bush / Boneseed Declared Asparagus asparagoides Bridal Creeper or Smilax Undeclared Zantedeschia aethiopica Arum Lily Undeclared Vinca major Blue Periwinkle Undeclared Gazania linearis Gazania Undeclared Genista monspessulana Cape Broom Undeclared Watsonia meriana Bulbil Watsonia Undeclared Cytisus scoparius English Broom Undeclared Cortaderia selloana Pampas Grass Undeclared Salix spp. Willow species Undeclared Foeniculum vulgare Fennel Undeclared Ulex europaeus Gorse or Furze Declared Crataegus monogyna English Hawthorn Undeclared Erica lusitanica Portuguese Heath Undeclared Oxalis pes-caprae Oxalis or Sour Sob Undeclared Moraea flaccida One-leaf Cape Tulip Declared Moraea miniata Two-leaf Cape Tulip Declared Allium triquetrum Angled Onion Undeclared22
  25. 25. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATESome Environmental WeedsBOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME STATUSNassella neesiana Chilean Needle Grass UndeclaredPhalaris aquatica Phalaris UndeclaredJuncus acutus Spiny Rush DeclaredHedera helix English Ivy UndeclaredTradescantia fluminensis Wandering Jew UndeclaredPinus radiata Radiata Pine UndeclaredDisa bracteata South African Weed-orchid UndeclaredFraxinus angustifolia ssp. angustifolia Desert Ash UndeclaredCotoneaster glaucophyllus Large-leaf Cotoneaster UndeclaredCotoneaster pannosus Silver-leaf Cotoneaster UndeclaredFreesia leichtlinii Freesia UndeclaredBriza maxima Shell Grass UndeclaredEchium plantagineum Paterson’s Curse DeclaredPrunus cerasifera Cherry Plum UndeclaredSchinus molle Peppercorn Tree UndeclaredLonicera japonica Japanese Honeysuckle UndeclaredLigustrum lucidum Broad-leaf Privet UndeclaredLycium ferocissimum African Boxthorn DeclaredAcacia saligna Golden Wreath Wattle UndeclaredHypericum perforatum St John’s Wort DeclaredMarrubium vulgare Horehound DeclaredRubus spp. Blackberry Declared 23
  26. 26. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATE References & further reading Waterwise Gardening Useful websites Walsh, Kevin Reed New Holland 3rd Edition (2004) Indigenous Plants of Bendigo – A Gardener’s Guide to Growing and Protecting Local Plants Available from early 2007 from the City of Greater Bendigo and the Bendigo Native For more information Plant Group Inc. Coliban Water Plants and Animals of the Box-Ironbark Area 1300 363 200 of Central Victoria (CD Rom) Viridians, Bentleigh East, Vic, 2005 City of Greater Bendigo Available for purchase from the Bendigo Field (03) 5434 6000 Naturalists’ Club Inc., PO Box 396, Bendigo, Victoria, 3552 Department of Primary Industries Eucalypts of the Bendigo District. (03) 5430 4444 Franklin, D., Lindner, J., Robinson, J. Bendigo Field Naturalists’ Club Inc. (1991) North Central Catchment Management Gardening Down-Under Authority (03) 5448 7124 Handreck, Kevin CSIRO Publication Australia (1993) Environment Protection Authority (EPA) Native Trees and Shrubs of South Eastern (03) 5442 4393 Australia Costermans, L.F. Greening Australia Victoria Weldon, Sydney (1992) (03) 9450 5300 Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants, Vol 1 – 8 Bendigo Native Plant Group Inc. Elliot, R.W., Jones, D.L. PO Box 669 Lothian, Melbourne (1980 – 2002) Bendigo, Victoria, 3552 Bush Invaders of South-East Australia. Bendigo Field Naturalists’ Club Muyt, Adam. PO Box 396 R.G and F.J. Richardson, Victoria. (2001). Bendigo, Victoria, 3552 Environmental Weeds – A Field Guide For SE Australia. Blood, Kate. CH Jerram Science Publications (2001).24
  27. 27. SMART GARDENS FOR A DRY CLIMATEKey to Plant ListBotanical name Watering Needs Without Rain (watr)Gives the current botanical name. Old names 0 = watering not required once established.are included in the comments column. 1 = water once a month. 2 = water twice a month.Common nameGives the most accepted common name. Shade/Sunny (Shd/Sun) Sh = shady position. Sun = sunny position.Width (Wdth)Indicates the spread a plant will reach. Frost Tolerant (Frst)No width has been indicated for climbers or Y = yesfor lawn grasses. N = no Y/N = Tolerates light frosts only, or will tolerateDeciduous/Evergreen (D/E) frosts once established.D = deciduous. This has also been applied tobulbs or perennials that die down. CommentE = evergreen. This gives a brief comment on the plant.Exotic/Native (E/N)Ex = non-Australian plant.N = a plant native to Australia.Indigenous (Indg)Y = plant that is indigenous to the City ofGreater Bendigo.Flower Colour (Flr Colour)Indicates the colour of the flower.Flowering Time (Flr time)A = autumnW = winterSp = springSu = summer 25
  28. 28. Botanical name Common name Wdth D/E E/N Indg Flr Colour Flr time Watr Shd/Sun Frst CommentTrees, Over 10mAcacia dealbata Silver Wattle 4 E N Y Yellow W/Sp 1 Sh/Sun Y Very quick growingAcacia mearnsii Late Black Wattle 4 E N Y Yellow Sp 0 Sp Y Good shade tree but needs roomAcacia melanoxylon Blackwood 6 E N Y Yellow W/Sp 0 Sh/Sun Y Keep away from pipesAngophora costata Smooth-barked Apple Gum 10 E N White Sp 0 Sun Y Large tree with smooth pink barkCallitris glaucophylla White Cypress Pine 3 E N Y - - 1 Sun Y Bluish foliage upright conifer. Great in containers. Best grown in sandy soilsCasuarina cunninghamiana River Sheoak 6 E N Cream Sp 1 Sun Y Slightly weeping foliageCorymbia citriodora Lemon scented Gum 6 E N Cream W 0 Sun Y Beautiful smooth, pink bark and weeping lemon-scented foliage. Syn. Eucalyptus citriodoraCupressus sempervirens ‘Stricta’ Pencil Cypress 1 E Ex - - 0 Sun Y Narrow upright conifer often used in formal gardensEucalyptus astringens Brown Mallet 3 E N Yellow Sp/Su 0 Sun Y Upright stiff, hardy, all soilsEucalyptus burdettiana Burdett’s Gum 2 E N Yellow W 0 Sun Y Nectar attracts birdsEucalyptus goniocalyx Long Leaved Box 8 E N Y Cream A 0 Sun Y Bird attractingEucalyptus leucoxylon ssp pruinosa Yellow Gum 10 E N Y Cream W-Su 0 Sun Y Local form is a large tree for most soilsEucalyptus melliodora Yellow Box 10 E N Y White Sp/Su 0 Sun Y Bird attracting, dense canopy koala food treeEuc. polyanthemos ssp. vestita Red Box 12 E N Y Cream Sp/Su 0 Sun Y Good shade treeEucalyptus tricarpa Red Ironbark 8 E N Y Cream/Pink A/W 0 Sun Y Interesting black bark, bird attracting winter flowersEucalyptus maculata Spotted Gum 10 E N White W/Sp 0 Sun Y/N Smooth trunk with beautiful bark. Too large for most properties
  29. 29. Eucalyptus woodwardii Lemon-flowered Gum 5 E N Yellow W/Sp 1 Sun Y/N Grey foliage, large yellow flowersGleditsia ‘Sunburst’ Golden Honey Locust 8 D Ex - - 0 Sun Y Light green leaves turn yellow in autumn. Keep away from paving. Can suckerKoelreuteria paniculata Golden Rain Tree 5 D Ex Yellow Sp 0 Sh/sun Y Shade tree with interesting seed pods and good autumn colourLagunaria patersonia Norfolk Island Hibiscus 4 E Ex Pink Su/A 0 Sun Y/N Dense grey foliage is good for windbreak. Hairy seedpods can cause irritationQuercus canariensis Algerian Oak 10 D Ex - - 0 Sun Y Large, semi-deciduous tree for avenues and shadeUlmus parvifolia Chinese Elm 10 D Ex - - 0 Sun Y Broad shade tree that develops interesting bark as it agesTrees, Under 10mAcacia howittii Sticky Wattle 5 E N Yellow Sp 0 Sh/Sun Y Good plant for screeningAcacia implexa Lightwood 3 E N Y Yellow Su/A 0 Sh/Sun Y Drought hardy and long livedAcacia podalyriifolia Mt. Morgan Wattle 4 E N Yellow W 0 Sun Y Showy in winter. Use instead of Cootamundra WattleAcacia pravissima Ovens Wattle 3 E N Yellow Sp 1 Sun Y Prune to keep compactAcacia pycnantha Golden Wattle 3 E N Y Yellow W/Sp 0 Sun Y Floral emblem of AustraliaAcacia retinoides Wirilda 3 E N Y Yellow Sp 0 Sun Y Long flowering, quick screenerAcacia verniciflua Varnish Wattle 3 E N Y Yellow Sp 0 Sh/Sun Y Bushy. Will grow on embankmentsAgonis flexuosa Weeping Myrtle 5 E N White Sp/S 0 Sun Y/N Graceful, new tips are bronzeAllocasuarina luehmannii Buloke 4 E N Y - - 0 Sun Y Tolerates mild salinity, weeping habit, grey foliage, rareAllocasuarina verticillata Drooping Sheoak 6 E N Y - - 0 Sun Y Rounded, drooping canopy suitable for avenues. Syn. Casuarina stricta
  30. 30. Botanical name Common name Wdth D/E E/N Indg Flr Colour Flr time Watr Shd/Sun Frst CommentTrees, Under 10mArbutus unedo Strawberry Tree 4 E Ex White Sp 1 Sun Y Fruits resemble strawberry. Glossy foliageBanksia ericifolia Heath Banksia 4 E N Orange A 0 Sh/Sun Y Bushy, small tree with bird attracting flowersBrachychiton populneus Kurrajong 6 E N White Sp 0 Sun Y Excellent shade, very slow growingCallistemon citrinus Crimson Bottlebrush 2 E N Red Sp 0 Sun Y Small tree or large shrub with bird attracting flowers. Many forms availableCallistemon viminalis Weeping Bottlebrush 4 E N Red Su 1 Sun Y Showy with weeping habit, attracts birdsChamaerops humilis Fan Palm 4 E Ex - - 0 Sh/Sun Y Palm foliageCordyline australis Cabbage Palm 3 E N White Sp/S 0 Sh/Sun Y Narrow upright palm with strappy leavesCorymbia ficifolia Flowering Gum 4 E N Red Su 0 Sun Y/N Short gum tree with very showy flowers. Syn. Eucalyptus ficifoliaCydonia oblonga Quince 4 D Ex White Sp 1 Sun Y Spring blossom, scented fruit used in jamsElaeagnus angustifolia Russian Olive 5 D Ex Yellow Sp 0 Sun Y Looks very similar to olive but is deciduousEriobotrya japonica Loquat 4 E Ex Cream W 1 Sh/Sun Y Dark green leaves, edible fruitEucalyptus behriana Bull Mallee 3 E N Y Cream Su 0 Sun Y Rare small trees of the Whipstick ForestEucalyptus caesia Silver Princess 3 E N Pink A/W/Sp 1 Sun Y Weeping tree with large bird attracting flowers. Prefers good drainage
  31. 31. Eucalyptus forrestiana Fuchsia Gum 3 E N Cream A 0 Sun Y Very showy red buds and fruitsEucalyptus froggattii Kamarooka Mallee 4 E N Y White Su 0 Sun Y Rare, suits small gardensEucalyptus lansdowneana Crimson Mallee 4 E N Pink Sp 0 Sun Y Mallee type eucalypt with showy flowersEucalyptus lehmannii Bushy Yate 4 E N Yellow W/Sp 0 Sun Y/N Smaller eucalypt with showy flowersEucalyptus leucoxylon ‘Rosea’ Yellow Gum 6 E N Pink W/Sp 0 Sun Y Nectar attracts birds, make sure to ask for the dwarf formEucalyptus polybractea Blue Mallee 3 E N Y Cream A/W 0 Sun Y Bird attracting and can be used as informal screenEucalyptus spathulata Swamp Mallet 4 E N White Sp 0 Sun Y Shiny silvery bark and fine foliageEucalyptus viridis ssp. viridis Green Mallee 3 E N Y White Su 0 Sun Y Adaptable to a range of conditionsFeijoa sellowiana Pineapple Guava 3 E Ex Red Su 1 Sun Y Edible fruit, dense foliage makes an informal hedgeFicus carica Fig 5 D Ex Purple A 2 Sh/Sun Y Edible fruitGarrya elliptica Silk Tassel Bush 3 E Ex Green W 2 Sh/Sun Y Delightful pendulous catkins in winterHakea laurina Pincushion Hakea 3 E N Red W/Sp 1 Sh/Sun Y/N Neat dense growth habit. Interesting round flowers are good bird attractorsLagerstroemia indica Crepe Myrtle 3 D Ex Pinks Su 2 Sun Y/N Attractive bark, flowers can be affected by late frostsMelaleuca lanceolata Moonah 3 E N Y Cream Sp 1 Sun Y WindbreakMelaleuca linariifolia Snow-in-summer 4 E N White Su 0 Sun Y Covered in white flowers in summerMelaleuca styphelioides Prickly Paperbark 5 E N White Su 0 Sun Y Small dense tree, prickly leavesPittosporum angustifolium Weeping Pittosporum 3 E N Y Yellow Sp 0 Sun Y Very attractive weeping habit. Needs good drainagePrunus amygdalis Almond 4 D Ex White Sp 0 Sun Y Good fruiting varieties availablePunica granatum Pomegranate 3 D Ex Orange Su 1 Sh/Sun Y Decorative edible fruit in autumn
  32. 32. Botanical name Common name Wdth D/E E/N Indg Flr Colour Flr time Watr Shd/Sun Frst CommentTrees, Under 10mPyrus calleryana Callery Pear 5 D Ex White Sp 2 Sun Y Many forms with good autumn colour are availablePyrus ussuriensis Manchurian Pear 6 D Ex White Sp 0 Sun Y Large, spreading shade tree with good autumn colourRobinia ‘Frisia’ Golden Robinia 5 D Ex Cream Su 0 Sun Y Light green, almost yellow foliage. Can suckerRobinia ‘Umbraculifera’ Mop Top Robinia 2 D Ex - - 0 Sun Y Prune annually in to maintain ball shape. Can suckerSophora japonica Japanese Pagoda Tree 4 E Ex Yellow Sp 2 Sun Y Attractive flowersTrachycarpus fortunei Windmill Palm 4 E Ex - - 0 Sh/Sun Y Tough palm tree with hairy trunkTall Shrubs, Under 3mAbelia x grandiflora Glossy Abelia 3 E Ex Pink Su 1 Sh/Sun Y Bushy arching shrub. Good screenerAcacia acinacea Gold-dust Wattle 2 E N Y Yellow Sp 0 Sun Y Quick screening plantAcacia aspera Rough Wattle 2 E N Y Yellow Sp 0 Sh/Sun Y Will grow under tall treesAcacia ausfeldii Ausfeld’s Wattle 2 E N Y Yellow Su 0 Sun Y Rare. Prefers good drainage out of windsAcacia boormanii Snowy River Wattle 3 E N Yellow Sp 2 Sun Y May sucker, needs a little waterAcacia brachybotrya Grey Mulga 2 E N Y Yellow W/Sp 0 Sun Y Prefers sandy soilAcacia euthycarpa Wallowa 2 E N Yellow Sp 0 Sun Y Tall rounded shrub needing good drainageAcacia flexifolia Bent-Leaf Wattle 2 E N Y Yellow W 0 Sh/Sun Y Good low hedge, adaptable to various soilsAcacia floribunda White Sallow Wattle 4 E N Yellow Sp 1 Sh/Sun Y Gold screen, fine foliageAcacia genistifolia Spreading Wattle 2 E N Y Yellow W/Sp 0 ShSun Y Prickly, good hedge, bird haven
  33. 33. Acacia montana Mallee Wattle 2 E N Y Yellow Su 0 Sun Y Good dense fence screenerAcacia verniciflua Varnish Wattle 2 E N Y Yellow Sp 0 Sun Shiny foliage and upright growthAcacia williamsonii Whirrakee Wattle 3 E N Y Yellow Sp 0 Sun Y Rare. Makes a good informal hedgeAgonis flexuosa ‘Nana’ Dwarf Willow Myrtle 2 E N White Sp 2 Sh/Sun N Graceful, weeping smaller formAllocasuarina muelleriana Slaty Sheoak 3 E N Y Red - 0 Sun Y Attractive, very dryArgyranthemum frutescens Marguerite Daisy 1.5 E Ex Many A 2 Sun Y/N Many forms and colours. Long flowering quick fillerBabingtonia behrii Broom Baeckea 1 E N Y White Sp/Su 0 Sun Y Good drainage is essentialBaeckea linifolia Baeckea 2 E N White Su 1 Sh/Sun Y Compact, weeping habit. Does best in full sun. Withstands poor drainage.Banksia marginata Silver Banksia 3 E N Y Yellow Sp/Su/A 1 Sun Y Rare in our area, but long flowering periodBanksia spinulosa Hairpin Banksia 2 E N Yellow A/W 1 Sh/Sun Y Nectar attracts birdsBerberis thunbergii Purple Japanese Barberry 3 D Ex Yellow Sp 2 Sh/Sun Y Dense, thorny, good hedge with‘Atropurpurea’ great autumn colourBoronia anemonifolia Sticky Boronia 1 E N Y Pink Sp/Su 0 Sh Y Showy in flower and good container plantBoronia heterophylla Red Boronia 1 E N Pink Sp 2 Sh Y Perfumed flowers. Needs good drainageBoronia megastigma Brown Boronia 1 E N Brown Sp 2 Sh Y Highly scented, needs drainage.Buddleja davidii Butterfly Bush 2 D Ex Purple Sp/Su 2 Sun Y Attracts butterflies, many varietiesBursaria spinosa Sweet Bursaria 2 E N Y White Su 0 Sun Y Small fragrant flowers, attract butterfliesCallistemon ‘Captain Cook’ Captain Cook Bottlebrush 2 E N Red Sp 1 Sh/Sun Y/N Very floriferous but frost tender when youngCallistemon phoeniceus Fiery Bottlebrush 1.5 E N Red Sp/Su 1 Sun Y Showy, bird attracting flowersCallistemon sieberi River Bottlebrush 3 E N Y Cream Su/A 2 Sh/Sun Y Local bottlebrush useful for screening