ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA
1
ABBREVIATIONSABBREVIATIONSABBREVIATIONSABBR...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA
2
1111 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONIN...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA
3
• Section 6 provides an overview of the fin...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA
4
2222 BACKGROUNDBACKGROUNDBACKGROUNDBACKGROU...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA
5
Table 2.1Table 2.1Table 2.1Table 2.1 Total ...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
6
Figure 2.1 Map of Ethiopia iFigure 2.1 Map of Ethi...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
7
Table 2.2Table 2.2Table 2.2Table 2.2 Population of...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
8
FigureFigureFigureFigure 2222.2.2.2.2 Map showing ...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
9
The food and beverage and textile manufacturing se...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
10
2.22.22.22.2 OOOOVERVIEW OF LOCALVERVIEW OF LOCAL...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
11
Key issues relating to the development of the PSP...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
12
3333 WASTE GENERATION ANDWASTE GENERATION ANDWAST...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
13
reliability in order to inform the development of...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
14
• There are often inconsistencies in the point of...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
15
The solid waste generation in Addis Ababa is expe...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
16
Arba Minch 3909 11038
Awasa 6763 19097
Gambella
G...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
17
3.23.23.23.2 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE CCCCOOOOLLECTIO...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
18
There is a shortfall in collection points / conta...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
19
revealed that most of the towns do not have waste...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
20
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
21
FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.2.2.2.2 Waste Colle...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
22
Table 3.4 provides an indication of the number of...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
23
IllegIllegIllegIllegal dumpingal dumpingal dumpin...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
24
FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.5.5.5.5 Street Litt...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
25
3.2.23.2.23.2.23.2.2 Organisations involved in Wa...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
26
Table 3.5Table 3.5Table 3.5Table 3.5 Case studies...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
27
Sub-city does not have enough resources for
effec...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
28
Future plans for extending pre-collection service...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
29
Several NGOs are also participating in practices ...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
30
• Large – the pre-collection companies that also ...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
31
3.2.33.2.33.2.33.2.3 Contracts and Arrangements f...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
32
are collecting valuable materials at the Rappi du...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
33
of the city, namely: Bole Arabssa (15 Ha), Filido...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
34
by people for re-use. Open burning, open dumping ...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
35
Waste disposal / management practices in regional...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
36
Waste Disposal in Nazreth
In Nazreth (population ...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
37
Waste Disposal in Dire Dawa
There is only one sol...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
38
Waste Disposal in Dukem Woreda Town (Oromiya Regi...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
39
o Study to be commissioned on waste composition a...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
40
Box 3.6Box 3.6Box 3.6Box 3.6 Outline CasOutline C...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
41
o Planning guidelines, standards, system developm...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
42
3.5.13.5.13.5.13.5.1 Key Points on Current Waste ...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
43
Key Issues Relating to the Development of the PSP...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
44
4444 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINST...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
45
4.1.24.1.24.1.24.1.2 The National Conservation St...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
46
• development of partnerships with local citizen ...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
47
Municipal solid waste management is not covered i...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
48
4.24.24.24.2 FFFFEDERAL ANDEDERAL ANDEDERAL ANDED...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
49
4.34.34.34.3 RRRROLES ANDOLES ANDOLES ANDOLES AND...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
50
Figure 4.1Figure 4.1Figure 4.1Figure 4.1 Illustra...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
51
Table 4.1Table 4.1Table 4.1Table 4.1 Overview of ...
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA
52
• Sanitation and Parks Unit ofSanitation and Park...
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Wb swm  psp- main report final
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Wb swm psp- main report final

749 views

Published on

Published in: Environment, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
749
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Wb swm psp- main report final

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 1 ABBREVIATIONSABBREVIATIONSABBREVIATIONSABBREVIATIONS AA Addis Ababa C&D Construction and Demolition (waste) CMA Central Municipal Account CRA Central Regional Account CSA Central Statistical Authority CSE Conservation Strategy for Ethiopia EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EPA The Environmental Protection Authority EPB Environmental Protection Bureau ERM Environmental Resources Management Limited GTZ German Development agency HSE Health, Safety and Environment MEDAC Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation MFA Ministry of Federal Affairs MFI Micro Finance Institutions MSW Municipal Solid Waste MSWM Municipal Solid Waste Management NGO Non-Government Organisation PR Public Relations PSP Private Sector Participation PPP Public Private Partnership PWC PricewaterhouseCoopers SBPDA Sanitation Beautification and Parks Development Agency SWM Solid Waste Management TOR Terms of Reference USD United States Dollars ($) WB World Bank
  2. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 2 1111 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION 1.11.11.11.1 BBBBACKGROUND TO THE PROACKGROUND TO THE PROACKGROUND TO THE PROACKGROUND TO THE PROJECT ANDJECT ANDJECT ANDJECT AND AAAAIM OF THISIM OF THISIM OF THISIM OF THIS RRRREPORTEPORTEPORTEPORT This report is for the project: Regulatory and Institutional Reform in the Municipal1 Solid Waste Management Sector, Ethiopia, which is for the Federal Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) of Ethiopia sponsored for by the World Bank (Contract Number 8001837). The aim of this project is to improve the enabling environment for private sector participation (PSP) in municipal SWM in Ethiopia. This report presents a summary of the current SWM practices in Ethiopia, and also contains an indicative waste inventory of selected cities / towns in the country. Some socio-economic indicators for Ethiopia are also listed. The objective of the report is to identify sufficient information on current practices in order to be able to develop the PSP strategy. The report is therefore more of an overview of current practices rather than a detailed review. There is a strong commitment to the improvement of solid waste management and the strengthening of PSP from the EPA and other key stakeholders. 1.21.21.21.2 LLLLAYOUT OF THE REPORTAYOUT OF THE REPORTAYOUT OF THE REPORTAYOUT OF THE REPORT The report is divided into seven sections: • Section 2 provides an overview of the socio-economic situation in Ethiopia and the regional administrative structure; • Section 3 presents an overview of waste generation and current practices in solid waste management (SWM), including an indicative waste inventory of selected towns; • Section 4 summarises the institutional frameworks relating to SWM; • Section 5 contains an overview of SWM / environmental legislation; (1) 1 Municipal Solid waste in the context of this project is: generally, non-hazardous solid waste generated from households, commercial and business establishments, institutions and industry (non-process waste only). In this context, municipal solid waste excludes domestic waste from sanitary facilities, i.e. sewage and human excreta.
  3. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 3 • Section 6 provides an overview of the financial and cost recovery aspects of SWM in the country; • Section 7 summarises the public awareness and community relations activities in SWM; • Section 8 provides a general overview of the key issues and other activities related to the development of a framework for PSP in SWM; • Section 9 contains a list of the reference materials /working meetings that have been used in producing this report. Annexes: The report is supported by the following annexes: • Annex 1 – Socio-Economic Data; • Annex 2 – Summary of Waste Management in Selected Regional Cities of Ethiopia; • Annex 3 – Typical example of Waste Pre-Collection Service Agreements with customers; • Annex 4 – Summary of Federal and Regional legislation relating to SWM; • Annex 5 – Glossary of Solid Waste Management Terms.
  4. 4. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 4 2222 BACKGROUNDBACKGROUNDBACKGROUNDBACKGROUND This section presents an overview of the socio-economic situation in Ethiopia, and the regional administrative structure. Figure 2.1 contains a map of Ethiopia and its Regions. 2.12.12.12.1 SSSSOCIOOCIOOCIOOCIO----EEEECONOMICCONOMICCONOMICCONOMIC BBBBACKGROUND ONACKGROUND ONACKGROUND ONACKGROUND ON EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA 2.1.12.1.12.1.12.1.1 Overview of the Economy of EthiopiaOverview of the Economy of EthiopiaOverview of the Economy of EthiopiaOverview of the Economy of Ethiopia Ethiopia is a developing country with a gross domestic product (GDP) of USD 6 billion in 2002 and per capita average income of USD 100/year. The economy of the country is dominated by agriculture. About 90% of the population earn their living from the land, mainly as subsistence farmers. Agriculture is the backbone of the national economy and it accounts for about 45% of Ethiopia’ s GDP. The principal exports from this sector are coffee, oil seeds, vegetables, sugarcane, animal hoof, hides and skin, and beeswax. Up to 60% of the country’ s foreign earnings come from coffee. Another major export earner is the chat plant (an evergreen shrub that produces a natural and mildly intoxicating stimulant). Other socio-economic indicators relating to Ethiopia are listed in Annex 1. 2.1.22.1.22.1.22.1.2 PopulationPopulationPopulationPopulation The estimated population of Ethiopia in 2003 was over 69 million persons of which 58 million (84%) live in rural areas and 11 million (16%) live in urban areas. Of the total urban population, over 2.7 million (25%) live in Addis Ababa, the capital city. Currently the country is divided into 11 Regions. Table 2.1 provides information on the population in each region, as well as the number of towns and cities. Table 2.2 provides data on the population of the major cities of Ethiopia.
  5. 5. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 5 Table 2.1Table 2.1Table 2.1Table 2.1 Total Population of the Regions of Ethiopia (2003)Total Population of the Regions of Ethiopia (2003)Total Population of the Regions of Ethiopia (2003)Total Population of the Regions of Ethiopia (2003) ((((1111)))) PopulationPopulationPopulationPopulationRegionRegionRegionRegion NumberNumberNumberNumber of townsof townsof townsof towns / cities/ cities/ cities/ cities MaleMaleMaleMale FemaleFemaleFemaleFemale TotalTotalTotalTotal PopulationPopulationPopulationPopulation PPPPopulationopulationopulationopulation densitydensitydensitydensity (persons /(persons /(persons /(persons / sqKm)sqKm)sqKm)sqKm) Tigray 74 1,972,000 2,034,000 4,006,000 - Affar 28 726,000 575,000 1,301,000 - Oromiya 375 12,174,000 12,221,000 24,395,000 69 Somali 69 2,157,000 1,845,000 4,002,000 - Benishngul - Gumuz 13 292,000 288,000 580,000 - Southern N/N & People 149 6,802,000 6,884,000 13,686,000 122 Gambella 7 116,000 112,000 228,000 8.8 Harari 1 90,000 88,000 178,000 572 Amhara 208 8,835,000 8,834,000 17,669,000 - Addis Ababa 1 1,310,000 1,415,000 2,725,000 5140 Dire Dawa 2 179,000 178,000 357,000 294 TotalTotalTotalTotal 927927927927 34,653,00034,653,00034,653,00034,653,000 34,474,00034,474,00034,474,00034,474,000 69,127,00069,127,00069,127,00069,127,000 (1) Central Statistics Authority (CSA), Statistical Abstract Ethiopia,2002 - published March 2003: Figures are based on the October 1994 National Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia, which have been projected to the period 1997 – 2003.
  6. 6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 6 Figure 2.1 Map of Ethiopia iFigure 2.1 Map of Ethiopia iFigure 2.1 Map of Ethiopia iFigure 2.1 Map of Ethiopia illustrating the Regions and Zones (September 2003)llustrating the Regions and Zones (September 2003)llustrating the Regions and Zones (September 2003)llustrating the Regions and Zones (September 2003) ((((1111)))) (1) http://www.reliefweb.int/w/map.nsf/Country?OpenForm&Query=Af_Ethiopia
  7. 7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 7 Table 2.2Table 2.2Table 2.2Table 2.2 Population of the Main Cities of Ethiopia (2003)Population of the Main Cities of Ethiopia (2003)Population of the Main Cities of Ethiopia (2003)Population of the Main Cities of Ethiopia (2003) ((((1111)))) CityCityCityCity Total PopulationTotal PopulationTotal PopulationTotal Population NotesNotesNotesNotes Mekele 147,858 Capital of Tigray Region Ayisaita 20,197 Capital of Affar Region Gondar 170,372 Capital of North Gondar Zone Dessie 147,927 Capital of South Wello Zone Bahir Dar 146,322 Capital of Amar Region Debre Markos 74,875 Capital of East Gojam Zone Nekemte 73,376 Capital of East Wellega Zone Jimma 138,070 Capital of Jimma Zone Ambo 42,911 Capital of West Shoa Zone Nazreth 198,513 Capital of Oromiya Debre Zeit 113,883 Capital of Aada Woreda Shashemene 80,887 Capital of Shashemene Asela 73,494 Capital of Tiyo Woreda Zewaye 31,201 Capital of East Shoa Zone Jigjiga 85,654 Capital of Somali Region Asosa 17,616 Capital of Benishangul Region Awasa 108,828 Capital of South People Dilla 53,073 Capital of Wenago Woreda Arba Minch 62,968 Capital of Arba Minch Gambela 27,290 Capital of Gambela Region Harari 109,000 Capital of Harari Region Addis Ababa 2,725,000 Capital of the Country Dire Dawa 248,434 Capital of Dire Dawa A map of the main regional cities is shown in Figure 2.2 below. (1) Central Statistics Authority (CSA), Statistical Abstract Ethiopia, March 2003.
  8. 8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 8 FigureFigureFigureFigure 2222.2.2.2.2 Map showing main regional cities of EthiopiaMap showing main regional cities of EthiopiaMap showing main regional cities of EthiopiaMap showing main regional cities of Ethiopia 2.1.32.1.32.1.32.1.3 IIIIndustry and Agriculturendustry and Agriculturendustry and Agriculturendustry and Agriculture The most important industry sectors to Ethiopia are listed in Box 2.1. The proportion of public and private sector owned enterprises varies for the different sectors. Manufacturing accounts for about 5% of the GDP. Box 2.1Box 2.1Box 2.1Box 2.1 Main IMain IMain IMain Industry Sectors in Ethiopiandustry Sectors in Ethiopiandustry Sectors in Ethiopiandustry Sectors in Ethiopia • Food and beverage • Tobacco • Textiles • Leather • Footwear • Wood • Furniture • Paper and printing • Chemicals • Non-metal and metal processing • Other manufacturing • Cement
  9. 9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 9 The food and beverage and textile manufacturing sectors are important in terms of production volume; and the food, beverage and metal manufacturing sectors are the most important in terms of contribution to the gross value of production. Agriculture, services, construction, mining and tourism are important sectors for the future economic development of the country. The main products of mining are gold and tantalum, where gold contributes the highest value of mineral production 1 . The agriculture sector, which includes crop production, animal husbandry, livestock, forestry, fisheries, and apiculture, remains by far the most important sector of the country. Agriculture generates about 90% of the export earnings and supplies around 70% of the raw material requirement of agro-based domestic industries 2 . It is also the major source of food for the population of the nation and hence a priority. 2.1.42.1.42.1.42.1.4 Infrastructure (Transport and Communications)Infrastructure (Transport and Communications)Infrastructure (Transport and Communications)Infrastructure (Transport and Communications)3333 Roads There are about 4,100 kilometres of asphalt roads in Ethiopia with a further 19,000 kilometres of gravel and dry-weather roads. In 2002, the road density was just under 27 Km per 1000 sqKm, and the national network covers just 35% of the country. There is an ongoing major ‘ Road Sector Development Program’ , in partnership with 13 international developers and donors, with an overall target implementation date of June 2007. Railways A 778-kilometre railway line links Addis Ababa with Djibouti and carries both freight and passengers. 2.1.52.1.52.1.52.1.5 WelfareWelfareWelfareWelfare Ethiopia gets the most relief aid and the least development aid of any poor country in the world 4 . The population is estimated to be increasing by about 2.7% each year. (1) 1 Central Statistics Authority (CSA), Statistical Abstract Ethiopia, March 2003 (2) 2 National Meteorological Service Agency (NMSA), Initial National Communication of Ethiopia to the UNFCCC, June 2001 (3) 3 www.ethiopar.net/English/basinfo/Baicifo.htm (4) 4 BBC News – Ethiopia Fact File (http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/l/hi/programmes/th..)
  10. 10. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 10 2.22.22.22.2 OOOOVERVIEW OF LOCALVERVIEW OF LOCALVERVIEW OF LOCALVERVIEW OF LOCAL //// REGIONALREGIONALREGIONALREGIONAL SSSSTRUCTURES INTRUCTURES INTRUCTURES INTRUCTURES IN EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA There are 11 regions in Ethiopia (including Addis Ababa and the Dire Dawa Provisional Administration). These regions report to the Ministry of Federal Affairs (MFA) of the Federal Government (Figure 2.3). Figure 2.3Figure 2.3Figure 2.3Figure 2.3 Regional AdministrationsRegional AdministrationsRegional AdministrationsRegional Administrations The institutional structures are regularly changing in Ethiopia and Addis Ababa. In Addis Ababa there are now 10 zones (sub-cities) and 203 Kebeles. Administratively, Kebele is the lowest organ with about 500 – 1000 houses (each house typically containing 5 – 8 people). Figure 2.4Figure 2.4Figure 2.4Figure 2.4 Administration Structure in Addis AbabaAdministration Structure in Addis AbabaAdministration Structure in Addis AbabaAdministration Structure in Addis Ababa Federal Government Tigray Affar Oromiya Somali HarariGambella Southern N/N & PeopleBenishngul Gumuz Addis AbabaAmara Dire Dawa Addis Ababa Municipality 10 Sub City Administrations 203 Kebele Administrations
  11. 11. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 11 Key issues relating to the development of the PSP strategy • A significant proportion of the Ethiopian population (about 84%) live in rural areas – Any PSP approach for these areas will need to be tailored to suit the specific characteristics of this group. • The type of farming practices prevalent in the rural areas could influence the selection of SWM disposal / management operations. • The average income in Ethiopia is very low so the development of SWM improvements and the PSP strategy will need to include detailed analysis on affordability of options. • The size and distribution of the towns and cities will influence the scale and type of SWM infrastructure and there will be the need for inter-municipal cooperation to maximise economies of scale on projects and share experiences, lessons learned and appropriate practices.
  12. 12. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 12 3333 WASTE GENERATION ANDWASTE GENERATION ANDWASTE GENERATION ANDWASTE GENERATION AND CURRENT PRACCURRENT PRACCURRENT PRACCURRENT PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTETICES IN SOLID WASTETICES IN SOLID WASTETICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTMANAGEMENTMANAGEMENTMANAGEMENT This section of the report provides an overview of current waste management practices in Ethiopia, and also contains an indicative waste inventory of selected towns and cities. The needs for specific solid waste management policies and an overall SWM improvement / implementation strategy are also considered - these issues are addressed in more detail in Section 4 of the report. 3.13.13.13.1 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE GGGGENERATIONENERATIONENERATIONENERATION 3.1.13.1.13.1.13.1.1 Waste FactorsWaste FactorsWaste FactorsWaste Factors There is limited information available on waste quantities generated in Ethiopia. A brief review and analysis of existing studies on waste quantities is provided in Box 3.1. Box 3.1Box 3.1Box 3.1Box 3.1 Review and Analysis of Existing Studies on Waste Generation in EthiopiaReview and Analysis of Existing Studies on Waste Generation in EthiopiaReview and Analysis of Existing Studies on Waste Generation in EthiopiaReview and Analysis of Existing Studies on Waste Generation in Ethiopia NorConsult carried out the first main study on waste generation in Ethiopia in 1982 (1). The results suggested that the per capita generation of solid waste was 0.15 kg per day per person with a 1% annual growth rate and approximate waste density of 370 kg/m3 . The second study was carried out by Louis Berger International (under a French Mission) in 1986 and the result was a rate of 0.20 kg per day per person. The third available study (2) was also carried out by Louis Berger International on solid waste generation rates in 1994 and 1995. According to the 1994 study, the average per capita generation of solid waste was 0.22 kg per day per person and the density about 336 kg/m3 . In the 1994 study, based on the income level, the unit of domestic waste generation of per capita per day was 0.35 kg, 0.28 kg and 0.17 kg for high medium and low-income groups respectively. The results of the 1995 study were 0.48 kg, 0.26 kg and 0.24 kg, respectively. Based on the only available study carried out to date, for Addis Ababa (the Louise Berger study), the percentage composition by weight for combustible materials (leaves, grass, etc) is estimated to be about 22%, for non-combustible (stone, etc) 3%, for fines greater than 10mm size (food waste, straws, etc) 34%, for fines (ashes) less than 10 mm size 28% and for recyclable materials (paper, wood, metals, plastics, rubber, etc) 13%. The organic component of the solid waste of Addis Ababa constitutes about 66% by weight. Although there are limited reliable data on waste generation in Ethiopia,there are limited reliable data on waste generation in Ethiopia,there are limited reliable data on waste generation in Ethiopia,there are limited reliable data on waste generation in Ethiopia, it is possible to estimate waste generatiit is possible to estimate waste generatiit is possible to estimate waste generatiit is possible to estimate waste generation to a sufficient level ofon to a sufficient level ofon to a sufficient level ofon to a sufficient level of (1) NorConsult, Addis Ababa Solid Waste Management Comprehensive Study, 1982. (2) Louis Berger International, Addis Ababa Municipal Solid Waste Management, 1994.
  13. 13. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 13 reliability in order to inform the development of a strategy for enhancingreliability in order to inform the development of a strategy for enhancingreliability in order to inform the development of a strategy for enhancingreliability in order to inform the development of a strategy for enhancing PSP in waste managementPSP in waste managementPSP in waste managementPSP in waste management. For example, standard waste factors (kg/person/day) for urban and rural areas in African countries can be combined with population data to estimate the potential range in waste generation. (Typical estimates for urban solid waste generated in less developed countries range from 0.2 kg to 0.8 kg per person per day 1 ). Table 3.1 provides a summary of the data on waste generation from the studies described above. The estimated waste inventory for 2003 in this report has been based on a range of 0.17 to 0.48 kg/person/day for urban areas and 0.11 to 0.35 kg/person/day for rural areas. Table 3.1Table 3.1Table 3.1Table 3.1 Summary of Data sets on Waste GeneratSummary of Data sets on Waste GeneratSummary of Data sets on Waste GeneratSummary of Data sets on Waste Generationionionion Waste factorWaste factorWaste factorWaste factor –––– UrbanUrbanUrbanUrban Kg/person/dayKg/person/dayKg/person/dayKg/person/day Waste factorWaste factorWaste factorWaste factor –––– RuralRuralRuralRural Kg/person/dayKg/person/dayKg/person/dayKg/person/day Source / reference and notesSource / reference and notesSource / reference and notesSource / reference and notes 0.15 – 0.28 NorConsult 1982 Addis Ababa only 0.2 French Mission Study, 1986 for Addis Ababa 0.11 Addis Ababa University Study, 1993 for Addis Ababa 0.17 – 0.48 Louis Berger International 1994 Addis Ababa only 0.24 – 0.48 Louis Berger International 1995 Addis Ababa only 0.170.170.170.17 –––– 0.480.480.480.48 0.110.110.110.11 –––– 0.350.350.350.35 Waste factors assumed for the 2003Waste factors assumed for the 2003Waste factors assumed for the 2003Waste factors assumed for the 2003 waste inventorywaste inventorywaste inventorywaste inventory There are significant uncertainties in the estimated waste factors, and these are outlined in Box 3.2. Estimating a range of waste factors rather than a single data point has helped to take account of these uncertainties. The factors have also been compared with more recent data from similar countries in northern and eastern Africa. Box 3.2Box 3.2Box 3.2Box 3.2 Uncertainties in Waste FactorsUncertainties in Waste FactorsUncertainties in Waste FactorsUncertainties in Waste Factors There are many sources of uncertainty related to the estimated waste factors, including: • Waste generation changes with time, particularly as a country develops and the population shifts location. • The waste factors are taken from old studies on Ethiopia that are out of date. • There is limited information on the types of waste included in the waste factors from the different studies. 1 H. Jumelet, IHE, DELFT, Haskoning Royal Dutch Consulting Engineers & Architects, May 1994
  14. 14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 14 • There are often inconsistencies in the point of measurement of waste generation. For example, in many rural areas much of the household waste is burned in households, and the point of measurement could be before or after this stage. • Measurements of waste generation needs to be undertaken over long time periods in order to get a representative sample. • There is no data on waste generation in rural areas for Ethiopia (outside Addis Ababa). • The waste factors have been compared to data for other countries in north and east Africa, although these other countries are generally at different stages of development than Ethiopia. 3.1.23.1.23.1.23.1.2 Estimated Waste Generation (Indicative Waste Inventory)Estimated Waste Generation (Indicative Waste Inventory)Estimated Waste Generation (Indicative Waste Inventory)Estimated Waste Generation (Indicative Waste Inventory) The estimated waste factors have been multiplied by the population to produce the estimated waste generation in Table 3.2 for regions, and Table 3.3 for selected cities. The total generation of MSW in Ethiopia in 2003 is estimated to be between 2.8 and 8.8 million tonnes. This can be split to approximately 0.6 – 1.8 million tonnes from urban areas and 2.2 – 7.0 million tonnes from rural areas. The estimated generation of MSW in 2003 for Addis Ababa is between 170,000 and 475,000 tonnes. Table 3.2Table 3.2Table 3.2Table 3.2 Estimated Waste Generation for Regions in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Regions in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Regions in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Regions in Ethiopia for 2003 RegionRegionRegionRegion Waste generationWaste generationWaste generationWaste generation ---- urbanurbanurbanurban Waste generationWaste generationWaste generationWaste generation ---- ruralruralruralrural Waste generationWaste generationWaste generationWaste generation ---- totaltotaltotaltotal tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year MinMinMinMin MaxMaxMaxMax minminminmin maxmaxmaxmax minminminmin maxmaxmaxmax Tigray 44242 124918 132214 420681 176456 545598 Affar 6950 19622 47738 151895 54688 171517 Amara 119136 336384 632322 2011935 751458 2348319 Oromiya 189811 535937 856640 2725674 1046451 3261611 Somali 39836 112478 134904 429240 174740 541718 Benishangul 3351 9461 21119 67197 24470 76657 SNNPR 68813 194297 504967 1606712 573780 1801009 Gambella 2544 7183 7508 23889 10052 31072 Harari 6763 19097 2770 8815 9534 27912 Addis Ababa 169086 477420 0 0 169086 477420 Dire Dawa 16195 45727 3854 12264 20049 57991 TotalTotalTotalTotal 622486622486622486622486 1757606175760617576061757606 2211823221182322118232211823 7037620703762070376207037620 2834309283430928343092834309 8795226879522687952268795226 Note – the precision of the numbers in this table should not be taken as an indication of their accuracy. The numbers have not been rounded in the table to a more appropriate figure to ensure that the columns add to the total. Although there are major uncertainties, the estimates of MSW generation from the regions and selected cities provide an inventory that has sufficient accuracy to inform the development of a strategy for private sector participation. However, further work is essential to improve thefurther work is essential to improve thefurther work is essential to improve thefurther work is essential to improve the inventory if it is to be used for more detailed planning purposesinventory if it is to be used for more detailed planning purposesinventory if it is to be used for more detailed planning purposesinventory if it is to be used for more detailed planning purposes.
  15. 15. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 15 The solid waste generation in Addis Ababa is expected to increase by at least 30% by the year 2010. Wastes from households will make up a large proportion of this due to the rapid increase of population in the city. Solid waste generation in other capital cities of regions and zones is also expected to increase with the rapid increase of their population and fast expansion of their urban settlements. The agricultural extension package that brings some improvements in the standards of living of rural Ethiopia is also expected to contribute to the increase of waste generation. The strategy for private sector participation should take into account the projected increases in waste generation. Table 3.3Table 3.3Table 3.3Table 3.3 Estimated Waste Generation for Selected Cities in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Selected Cities in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Selected Cities in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Selected Cities in Ethiopia for 2003 RegionRegionRegionRegion Selected Major CitiesSelected Major CitiesSelected Major CitiesSelected Major Cities Waste generationWaste generationWaste generationWaste generation ---- selected citiesselected citiesselected citiesselected cities tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year minminminmin maxmaxmaxmax Tigray Axum 2544 7183 Adigrat 3537 9986 Mekele 9183 25930 Affar Ayisaita 1241 3504 Dubti 807 2278 Amara Kombolcha 3723 10512 Gondar 10549 29784 Dessie 9183 25930 Bhir Dar 9059 25579 Debre Brhan 3661 10337 Oromiya Jimma 8563 24178 Nazreth 12348 34865 Shashemene 5026 14191 Asela 4530 12790 Nekemte 4530 12790 Goba 2730 7709 Zewaye 1936 5466 Ambo 2668 7534 Somali Jijiga 5336 15067 Gode 2730 7709 Benishangul Assosa 1117 3154 SNNPR Hosaena 3103 8760 Dilla 3289 9286 Sodo 3537 9986
  16. 16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 16 Arba Minch 3909 11038 Awasa 6763 19097 Gambella Gembella 1675 4730 Harari Harar 6763 19097 Addis Ababa Addis Ababa 169086 477420 Dire Dawa Dire Dawa 15388 43450 Note – the precision of the numbers in this table should not be taken as an indication of their accuracy.
  17. 17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 17 3.23.23.23.2 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE CCCCOOOOLLECTION ANDLLECTION ANDLLECTION ANDLLECTION AND TTTTRANSPORTRANSPORTRANSPORTRANSPORT 3.2.13.2.13.2.13.2.1 Overview of Waste Collection PracticesOverview of Waste Collection PracticesOverview of Waste Collection PracticesOverview of Waste Collection Practices Figure 3.1 illustrates the flow of household waste to the municipal dumpsite. Residents have been traditionally required to deposit their waste in large containers, which are collected by the municipal trucks operated by the sub-city. These containers serve as mini transfer stations and are located at communal points. Figure 3.1Figure 3.1Figure 3.1Figure 3.1 Household Waste FlowsHousehold Waste FlowsHousehold Waste FlowsHousehold Waste Flows Over the last 5 years, many micro-enterprises have been set up to carry out waste prepreprepre----collection servicescollection servicescollection servicescollection services, receiving payments from households to collect waste and transport it to the municipal waste containers. These micro-enterprises have taken the initiative to start these services, recognising the previous shortfall in this step of the system. There are clear successes in this part of the system and itclear successes in this part of the system and itclear successes in this part of the system and itclear successes in this part of the system and it represents a good starting point for building private sector participationrepresents a good starting point for building private sector participationrepresents a good starting point for building private sector participationrepresents a good starting point for building private sector participation and realising the associated benefits. The micro-enterprises collect waste from houses using a variety of transport methods ranging from wheelbarrow to donkey and cart, tractor and trailer to a waste collection truck. Some of the more basic forms of transport are more appropriate for the many streets of Addis Ababa that have difficulty in terms of accessibility (particularly in the rainy season). Many of the micro-enterprises provide bags, buckets or other containers to households for waste storage (e.g. 25-30 litres capacity). Most of these micro-enterprises are very small in scale and only transport waste to the municipal containers. These smaller companies obtain their licence from the Sub-City Administrations. A few of these companies own larger transport vehicles and are allowed to transport the waste to the dumpsite. These companies obtain their licence from the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency. However, the activities of these micromicromicromicro----enterprises have not beenenterprises have not beenenterprises have not beenenterprises have not been organised and monitored by the Suborganised and monitored by the Suborganised and monitored by the Suborganised and monitored by the Sub----city administrations in sufficientcity administrations in sufficientcity administrations in sufficientcity administrations in sufficient detaildetaildetaildetail, and, as the number of start-up companies increases and the competition for collection of waste from households intensifies, the system is starting to show signs of inefficiencies and there is a strong need for improved control. Households Municipal Waste Containers/ Skips Municipal Dump Site
  18. 18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 18 There is a shortfall in collection points / containers in the sub-cites, and therefore these containers often overflow with waste, which limits the activities of pre-collection companies. The containers / skips are generally metal and most are 8m 3 in size. There are also a few 1.1m 3 containers. In Addis Ababa, it is estimated that there are a total of 512 x 8m 3 size and about 500 x 1.1m 3 size containers. Some of the municipal collection services are inefficientmunicipal collection services are inefficientmunicipal collection services are inefficientmunicipal collection services are inefficient due to the lack of resources. The collection from containers and transport to the dumpsite is operated by the Sub-city Administrations. This lack of resources is resulting in a shortfall of vehicles available for collection, mainly because of the lack of ability to buy spare parts and a shortage in the number of vehicles. This is another reason why many of the containers / skips are over-flowing. The skips are emptied at an average of one to three times per day in highly populated and high waste generation areas, but on average containers are expected to be emptied once every 3-4 days. The door-to-door collection service is carried out once or twice in a week. The coverage of waste collection services is estimated at 50-60% of the total waste generated in different cities. It is reported that an estimated 65% of waste is collected in Addis Ababa. Although the paragraphs above describe the typical practices for collection, there are some other practices. For example in a few areas compactor trucks operate, involving residents bringing out their waste to the truck at specific times. Overview of waste collection practices in regional areas In many of the cities in Ethiopia the Municipality is responsible for waste collection. The Municipality owns waste skips and containers with a capacity of 4 m 3 , which are located at various points in the city. The main container location points are roadsides, open spaces and market places. The Municipality vehicles collect the waste at irregular intervals. There is a wide variation in performance in relation to waste collection in cities of Ethiopia. In many cities there are not enough skips to cover the population and vehicles are typically poorly maintained and out of service for long periods of time. An integrated urban-rural development study undertaken by NUPI et al in 1988 showed that among 11 project towns (Addis Ababa, Akaki, Assela, Ambo, Arssi negele, Goba, Mizan Teferi, Robe, Woliso, Ziway, Shashemene), only Addis Ababa had a centralized waste disposal system. This study also
  19. 19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 19 revealed that most of the towns do not have waste collection trucks. Four of the municipalities assigned other vehicles to collect waste once or twice a week. Among those who provide a service, the coverage is very low, usually being limited to street sweeping and market cleaning. For example, in the city of Jimma collection covers only about 16% of the population. The main problems are poor micro-routing for collection, lack of equipment and personnel, lack of budget, and poor disposal site selection. BoxBoxBoxBox 3333.3.3.3.3 Case Studies on waste collection practices in regional areasCase Studies on waste collection practices in regional areasCase Studies on waste collection practices in regional areasCase Studies on waste collection practices in regional areas DireDireDireDire Dawa Administrative CouncilDawa Administrative CouncilDawa Administrative CouncilDawa Administrative Council Dire Dawa is located in the east of Ethiopia and has an estimated population of over 350,000. The Health Office is responsible for solid waste management in Dire Dawa (DD). There are 137 street cleaners and one sanitarian involved in the delivery of services. There are also 4 sanitary guards who supervise operations. There are two main types of collections systems: (a) 8m3 skips (about 84 in total), are located in communal areas – these are picked up by the Council and emptied at the dump site. A few smaller skips (6m3 ) are also used in more congested areas, where there is limited space. The Council has 3 skip lift trucks for emptying the skips. (b) Waste is also collected directly from households by a side loader truck. The Council has one truck for this purpose (about 8 years old), which travels to all Kebeles periodically. Nazreth Waste Management and Greenery DepartmentNazreth Waste Management and Greenery DepartmentNazreth Waste Management and Greenery DepartmentNazreth Waste Management and Greenery Department Nazreth is a regional town about 100 Km to the south-east of Addis Ababa, with a population of about 200,000 people. The Environmental Health Department is responsible for SWM in Nazreth. Waste collection is by means of skips / containers located at communal points. The Department has a total of about 30 skips / containers, of which only about 15 are in service. The remainder of the skips are not being used due to a lack of collection vehicles. The Department has 3 dump trucks which are almost always out of service due to their age (over 20 years old) and lack of repair and maintenance. Only one container loading vehicle / skip lift truck (about 3 years old) is currently available to service the waste collection containers. The vehicle is only able to service about 7 skips a day. Dukem Woreda TownDukem Woreda TownDukem Woreda TownDukem Woreda Town –––– Health and Social Services DepartmentHealth and Social Services DepartmentHealth and Social Services DepartmentHealth and Social Services Department Dukem is a small rural town in Akaki Woreda of the Oromiya region. The town has a population of about 10,000 people. The Health & Social Services Department performs the SWM functions in the town. It employs 10 temporary staff who use push-carts (wheel barrows) to collect waste from households along the main streets. The waste collected is deposited in open dumps on the outskirts of the town.
  20. 20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 20
  21. 21. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 21 FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.2.2.2.2 Waste Collection SkipsWaste Collection SkipsWaste Collection SkipsWaste Collection Skips ---- Nazreth Town CentreNazreth Town CentreNazreth Town CentreNazreth Town Centre FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.3.3.3.3 Skip lift trucksSkip lift trucksSkip lift trucksSkip lift trucks ---- Dire DawaDire DawaDire DawaDire Dawa
  22. 22. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 22 Table 3.4 provides an indication of the number of waste trucks used in Addis Ababa and their state of repair. Waste collection and transport are carried out in Addis Ababa by three types of truck. The door-to- door collection and transport service is provided by side loader dump trucks, and the communal (container) service is provided by detachable container lift and empty trucks. In most other regional/capital cities waste collection and transport are carried out by container lifter and simple dump trucks for communal (container) and door-to-door services. Although there is a centralised vehicle parking and garaging service for the repair and maintenance of the vehicle fleet in Addis Ababa, the services provided are not very efficient. Each Sub-city tends to use the garages provided by supplier companies for regular repair and maintenance. The central facility tends to be used mainly for refuelling. Table 3.4Table 3.4Table 3.4Table 3.4 Addis Ababa SW Collection Truck InventoryAddis Ababa SW Collection Truck InventoryAddis Ababa SW Collection Truck InventoryAddis Ababa SW Collection Truck Inventory Truck Service YTruck Service YTruck Service YTruck Service Year/Ageear/Ageear/Ageear/Age QuantityQuantityQuantityQuantity Year ofYear ofYear ofYear of manufacturemanufacturemanufacturemanufacture AvailabilityAvailabilityAvailabilityAvailability Rate (%)Rate (%)Rate (%)Rate (%) <6 years old: • 1.1m3 container emptier (Renault) 10 1999 70 • Route packer(Iveco) 5 1999 70 6-12 years old: 8m3 container lifter (Volvo) 28 1994 40 8m3 container lifter (Nissan) 10 1996 60 Side loader (Nissan) 16 1996 60 Compactor (Hino) 10 1996 60 FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.4.4.4.4 Waste Collection VehicleWaste Collection VehicleWaste Collection VehicleWaste Collection Vehicle ---- Addis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis Ababa (showing uncovered skip load being transported to the dumpsite, resulting in spillages during the transfer journey).
  23. 23. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 23 IllegIllegIllegIllegal dumpingal dumpingal dumpingal dumping of waste is a significant problem in some areas of Addis Ababa, particularly at riverbanks, although this problem is a lot worse in cities in many other countries. The source of illegal dumping is likely to include some of the uncontrolled pre-collection companies. In addition several commercial and industrial enterprises are likely to be illegally dumping, rather than taking their own waste to the dumpsite and paying tipping fees or paying extra for the municipal collection service. LitteringLitteringLitteringLittering is a problem in some areas of the city, although the centre of Addis Ababa is relatively clean with respect to litter. There is a significant lack of available data on waste generationavailable data on waste generationavailable data on waste generationavailable data on waste generation, numbers of pre-collection companies, waste flows, etc. However, the new reporting guidelines developed by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency of the Addis Ababa Municipality, implemented through the Sub-city Administrations, is likely to generate much improved data over the next year. Health and safety procedures and practices are weak with respect to protection of workers from health impacts. Basic personnel protective equipment, such as protective gloves, is needed, especially for dumpsite operators and street cleaners. The main source of waste in streets is littering in the open spaces and roads. The number of litter bins in the streets of Addis Ababa and other cities are not sufficient. There are about 150 bins (of 20-40 litre size) in a few streets of Addis Ababa. Most of the litter bins are old and in need of repair. There are no waste collection & transport operational procedures and there is limited direct monitoring and enforcement of waste collection and transport practice in the country by regulatory bodies like the Federal & Regional Offices of the EPA. Quite often, inspection of waste operators is only carried out after illegal dumping has been reported.
  24. 24. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 24 FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.5.5.5.5 Street LitterStreet LitterStreet LitterStreet Litter ---- Addis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis Ababa Box 3.4Box 3.4Box 3.4Box 3.4 Examples of planned MSWM improvements in RegionalExamples of planned MSWM improvements in RegionalExamples of planned MSWM improvements in RegionalExamples of planned MSWM improvements in Regional areasareasareasareas In the city of Adama (Nazreth), the Municipality is trying to increase the collection coverage by implementing the following measures: • Introduction of private sector participation into pre-collection; • Improving the accessibility to and fencing of the disposal site; • Organizing workshops to raise public awareness on SWM; • Conducting exposure visits and experience sharing with Addis Ababa city, as part of the sector reform program. (The cities of Bahir Dar and Dire Dawa are also considering the introduction of PSP into pre-collection activities). Jimma and Gondar towns are also carrying out similar activities. For instance, the mayor of Jimma Town has invited professionals at the school of Environmental Health of Jimma University to carry out a study on sanitation facilities, solid waste being the major component. A new disposal site has been selected and the municipality has just bought an additional refuse collection truck.
  25. 25. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 25 3.2.23.2.23.2.23.2.2 Organisations involved in Waste CollectionOrganisations involved in Waste CollectionOrganisations involved in Waste CollectionOrganisations involved in Waste Collection Pre-collection Companies There are estimated to be about 75 small scale pre-collector companies operating in Addis Ababa collecting solid waste from households and from institutions including offices, restaurants, hotels, etc, within a residential area. Most pre-collector companies dump or store wastes that they collect from households and institutions in 8m 3 municipal skips. In Addis Ababa, only one micro-enterprise has its own truck(s) for direct transport and disposal at the dumpsite – see Figure 3.6 below. Four other enterprises transport waste to the dumpsite using rental trucks. Disposal at the dump is free and the only reason micro-enterprises engage in this transport activity is to avoid waiting for the municipal skips to be emptied. (There are no similar waste transfer practices by micro-enterprises in other regional cities of Ethiopia). Most pre-collectors employ persons that might otherwise be unemployed, and each enterprise averages about 20 employees for waste collection. Pre-collectors have very small catchment areas and provide waste collection services in a very limited capacity in Addis Ababa City. Their contribution to the total waste collection is estimated to be less than 5%. Few pre-collectors have a capacity to expand their service. In many cases, their operations are inefficient as they collect waste from a small proportion of houses in different streets. There are currently two pre-collection companies operating in Nazreth, each charging householders about 10 Birr/month (about 1.2 USD). Table 3.5 gives a case study on two pre-collection companies (one of which is relatively large).
  26. 26. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 26 Table 3.5Table 3.5Table 3.5Table 3.5 Case studies / profiles of existing PreCase studies / profiles of existing PreCase studies / profiles of existing PreCase studies / profiles of existing Pre----Collector companiesCollector companiesCollector companiesCollector companies Dynamic Youth Enterprises (DYE)Dynamic Youth Enterprises (DYE)Dynamic Youth Enterprises (DYE)Dynamic Youth Enterprises (DYE) Dolphin ServicesDolphin ServicesDolphin ServicesDolphin Services Summary overview Local micro-enterprise company, which started operations in 1998. The company was founded by Ms. Eden Melke Beka, initially with the primary objectives of providing employment for street children and youth and also to fill the gap in the provision of solid waste collection services. (The main employees are aged between 15 and 25 and priority is given to individuals who live in the project / operations area). Commenced operations with 6 staff, 14 clients and a rental vehicle. Local micro-enterprise company which started operations in about 1999, providing door-to-door collection of household waste. Self-sufficient and profitable but not highly lucrative. Overview of operations Door-to-door collection of waste from households and businesses; transfer to municipal skips/dump site. The company also carries out open-windrow composting and is in the process of developing a composting / digester facility. Door-to door collection of waste from households. Also provide extra/ additional collections from houses (e.g. after a party) for an additional fee. Method of operations Collects waste in push-cart and skips (for businesses – 1.1, 4.0 and 8.0 m3 capacity). Households are issued with orange straw sacks / bags for storing waste – the bag is emptied directly into the pushcart, and reused several times before being changed. The pushcarts take the collected waste to a truck for onward transfer to the dumpsite – the use of the municipality’ s containers / skips is being phased out. The enterprise has a pilot project in 1 kebele – black sacks for organic waste and red sacks for recyclables (plastics – sold at 4.5 Birr /kg to factory for reuse, bottles) Collects waste in push-cart and donkey carts. Households are issued with 25 litre plastic containers for storage of waste - the container is emptied directly into the pushcart, and reused several times before being changed. The pushcarts take the collected waste to a skip provided by the municipality, from where the waste is transferred to the dumpsite. Equipment 28 Pushcarts (3 operatives per cart), 3 trucks (2 x. 21m3 compactor trucks, one that can service 1.1 & 5m3 skips). Vehicles were bought second-hand and have been in operation for about 2 years. 8 small pushcarts (wheelbarrows – purchased from the market) and 1 donkey. Frequency of collection 2 – 7 times a week 3 times a week. Capacity (Employees / offices) Main office building with several rooms, computing facilities, telephone, backyard composting and space for storage of pushcarts. Depot for trucks. 84 field staff and 5 office based staff. 2 small satellite offices (makeshift huts), built on land provided by the Municipality / sub-city. Manager’ s Mobile Phone. 15 field staff and 3 office based staff. Fees / charges 5 – 20 Birr /house/ month for households, depending on perceived affordability. 25– 30 Birr/m3 for businesses/organisations with skips. 10 Birr / house /month Fee collection Door-to-door cash payments with > 90% of clients paying regularly. Some business clients pay directly into the company’ s bank account. Door-to-door cash payments with > 90% of clients paying regularly. Other income sources / support Income from sale of compost (compost is sold to clients for 1 Birr/kg, in 25Kg sacks). CRDA (an Ethiopian NGO) provided support for the purchase of one truck. One of the other vehicles was also purchased with support from the Finland Govt. None, except land for offices provided by the municipality. Contracts / Agreements One year renewable agreements with businesses and households. (See example in Annex 3) Simple annual agreements with households. Areas of operation Bole (6 kebeles), Vatican, Kirkos (3 kebeles) sub-cities. The company has about 95% coverage in 3 kebeles in the affluent area on Bole Sub-city. Bole sub-city: 500 houses (2 skips x 8m3 emptied twice a week by the municipality) – 4 pushcarts and 1 donkey. Lafto sub-city: 200 houses (4 push carts) Data collection and reporting Computer database to monitor and record quantities of waste and fees collected. A book register is filled in daily by hand to record quantities of waste and fees collected. Problems and challenges Lack of integration with services provided by SBPDA (i.e. there are several overlaps) – in some areas the vehicles are under-utilised. Unable to meet demand for service in all areas. Lack of land to expand composting activities. Competition with other companies in the same area offering their services – undercutting. Skips not emptied quickly by the municipality thus limiting ability to collect from households. No running water source to wash /clean out carts – water is purchased from vendors (very expensive).
  27. 27. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 27 Sub-city does not have enough resources for effective monitoring, illegal dumping is therefore widespread. Provides good service and contributes to employment – would therefore like credit assistance (micro-finance). Would welcome assistance to purchase trucks. Future plans Would like to expand and replicate the service elsewhere Other points Does not pay business tax as < 300/Birr month threshold. FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.6.6.6.6 Dynamic YouthDynamic YouthDynamic YouthDynamic Youth EnterprisesEnterprisesEnterprisesEnterprises ---- Waste Collection TrucksWaste Collection TrucksWaste Collection TrucksWaste Collection Trucks FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.7.7.7.7 Dolphin Services: Solid Waste PreDolphin Services: Solid Waste PreDolphin Services: Solid Waste PreDolphin Services: Solid Waste Pre----collection pullcollection pullcollection pullcollection pull----cartcartcartcart
  28. 28. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 28 Future plans for extending pre-collection service provision by micro- enterprise companies In Dire Dawa, pilot trials have recently been carried out on using small enterprises for pre-collection of solid waste. This was funded and supported by the Ethiopian Social Rehabilitation and Development Fund, and indicated a willingness to pay for the services at an estimated tariff of 2 Birr /month or household and 10 Birr /month for businesses. The Health Office of Dire Dawa Administrative Council has since prepared a project proposal on the provision of pre-collection services by small scale micro-enterprises. The intention is to pilot the system in two kebeles initially, before replicating the service in the remaining 23 kebeles. The strategy is based on the creation of self-help community based enterprises that would create employment and also relieve the burden on the municipality for the delivery of adequate services. The proposal document is now being circulated to potential sponsoring organisations for support. In Dukem Woreda town (located in the Akaki Wored of the Oromiya Region), the Health and Social Services Department is trying to organise about 56 unemployed “ street children / youth” into pre- collection micro-enterprises. Six pushcarts have been purchased so far, and it is expected that some basic training in business operations will be provided by the Federal Government’ s Small Scale Business Agency. The fees for the services that will be provided are expected to be about 2-3 Birr/month for households and about 10 Birr/month for businesses (i.e. hotels, etc). Municipal Collection and Transport Sub-city Administrations of Addis Ababa each have a unit in charge of waste collection, transport, and street sweeping. These have an average 150 employees for waste operation in the field including street sweeping. (1) The Addis Ababa Sanitation Beautification and Park Development Agency is responsible for waste management in the city and is trying to register and monitor enterprises participating in waste collection services. Other cities /towns of regional states have a unit in charge of solid waste management under the Municipality, but most have no pre- collectors or private waste management companies. (1) Sanitation, Beautification & Park Development Agency, Addis Ababa, Reports, 2003.
  29. 29. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 29 Several NGOs are also participating in practices that will help to raise community awareness to facilitate proper waste handling at the point of source. Future Plans in Organising Waste Collection and Transport The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency state that they are regularly approached by private companies that are hoping to expand their operations into waste management. The Agency is currently planning to engage the private sector in as much of its operational remit as possible. This has indirectly been started through the increase in participation of the private sector over the last five years in pre-collection (although pre-collection is not strictly part of the Agency’ s operational remit, as a waste management activity it does come under the authority of the Agency). The Agency intends to encourage the direct provision of services by the private sector, so that it can focus more on management and monitoring activities. The lack of resources at the Agency, (i.e. financial resources and manpower) is one of the key problems at present and this is the main reason why it is encouraging PSP. The Agency is, however, working hard to strengthen the capacity of its resources through training and capacity building, as well as raising awareness in the Municipality of the need for increased budgets. There is potential for pre-collection companies to combine and form larger enterprises. It is reported that about 45 pre-collection companies have formed a union recently, so that practices are improved as well as communication. The Agency recognises that the pre-collection system is currently successful, although it should be better organised and controlled. It has been decided that future plans should build on the pre-collection system. The pre-collection companies have a significant role to play in the reduction of unemployment in Addis Ababa – something that is a high priority for the Municipality. The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency has re- categorised the pre-collectors into 3 levels of business: • Small - the small pre-collectors that take waste from households to municipal containers (licensed by the Sub-city Administrations); • Medium – the pre-collection companies that also have one vehicle that they use to take waste to the dump site (licensed by the Agency);
  30. 30. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 30 • Large – the pre-collection companies that also have several vehicles that they use to take waste to the dump site (licensed by the Agency). The Agency hopes that this categorisation will encourage the pre- collection companies to aim to move up a level and expand their services, potentially collecting more revenues. The plans that the Agency is currently finalising are positive in terms of cost-effective actions, some of which are already being implemented. However, it should be noted that encouraging PSP does not obviate the need for the Agency to have access to resources – if it is responsible for the private sector contractor, including payment of the contract, then it will need the financial resources to do this. An important aspect of involving the private sector is that it reveals the full costs of the operations being undertaken. As these will often be higher than existing perceived costs, the government or its agency will be forced into generating additional revenue with which to finance the contract.
  31. 31. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 31 3.2.33.2.33.2.33.2.3 Contracts and Arrangements for Waste CollectionContracts and Arrangements for Waste CollectionContracts and Arrangements for Waste CollectionContracts and Arrangements for Waste Collection The 10 Sub-city Administrations of Addis Ababa are responsible for waste collection in their area. Although there are no formal contracts with the pre-collection companies, they are required to obtain a licence from the Sub-city Administration (larger companies are issued a licence by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency). The companies now have to renew their licence each year under a wide range of new plans being introduced by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency. These plans include an increase in the reporting requirements of the pre-collection companies through the Sub-city Administrations, and improved communication with the companies. All pre-collection micro enterprises are now reporting on a monthly basis to the Sub-city Administration’ s Sanitation & Beautification Units. More details on reporting are provided in Section 4 of this report. 3.33.33.33.3 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE RRRREEEE----UUUUSESESESE,,,, RRRRECYCLING ANDECYCLING ANDECYCLING ANDECYCLING AND CCCCOMPOSTINGOMPOSTINGOMPOSTINGOMPOSTING The extensive nature of agricultural farming across Ethiopia presents significant market opportunities for composting of organic waste. Based on the 1994/95 study 1 of the total waste generated in the Addis Ababa City, about 60-70% is estimated to be organic. Several composting initiatives have been initiated in Addis Ababa - for example, the Municipality has provided land for the pre-collection micro- enterprises, Dynamic Youth Enterprises, to carry out composting activities. The operators of the composting facility are now in the process of developing sample products, which will undergo market testing in Addis Ababa in April – May 2004. An outlet is also being planned in the Kara Kore area (at the border of Addis Ababa), in addition to distribution to Addis Ababa residents. Long-term plans include the large scale production of compost and sale to farmers in Addis Ababa and surrounding areas. The cost of the compost is expected to be about 1 Birr per kg. In addition, there are significant informal recycling activities in Addis Ababa, including in some cases, the collection and re-use of plastic bottles, metal, glass bottles and containers. Over 200 waste pickers (1) 1 Louis Berger International, Addis Ababa Municipal Solid Waste Management, 1994
  32. 32. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 32 are collecting valuable materials at the Rappi dump site on a daily basis. They collect plastics, metals, glass, rubber, bottles, firewood and other combustible materials for supply to some recyclers in the city / reuse as a fuel source. Some NGOs, including ENDA-Ethiopia, Bio-Village, are also working on encouraging household level composting to promote urban agriculture. The current policy of the Addis Ababa Municipality is to encourage waste recycling and composting. 3.43.43.43.4 WWWWASTASTASTASTEEEE TTTTREATMENT ANDREATMENT ANDREATMENT ANDREATMENT AND DDDDISPOSALISPOSALISPOSALISPOSAL There is one official dump site in Addis Ababa, operated by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency of the Addis Ababa Municipality. The dump site is at Rappi, in the South-west of Addis Ababa, 13Km from the city centre. The site occupies an area of about 25 hectares and has been in operation since 1968. The operational performance at the dump site is poor in relation to environmental impacts, for example: • There is no covering of waste, which results in odours, wind- blowing of waste, and leachate run-off during rains; • There is no leachate management, and there is no lining to the landfill, resulting in potential leaching of heavy metals and other toxic pollutants into the ground water, as well as surface run-off of these pollutants; • There is no fencing and there is limited security at the dump site - there are many unorganised waste pickers working on the site, etc. • The dump site which was once in the periphery of the city is now well within the boundaries of the city centre, due to the expansion of Addis Ababa. There are no operational procedures in place at the existing dump site. Monitoring and inspection of waste operations by Federal and Regional EPA offices is limited. Addis Ababa is a very spread out city. The fact that there is only one dump site means that the collection vehicles from some of the sub-city zones are travelling very long journeys. Current long-term planning includes construction of more than one landfill site, which would improve the efficiency of waste transport and allow more opportunities for more frequent collection from containers. The Addis Ababa City Masterplan makes provision for the development of three new landfills, each about 10-20 Hectares in the eastern, western and southern parts
  33. 33. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 33 of the city, namely: Bole Arabssa (15 Ha), Filidora (20 Ha), and Dertu Mojo (10 Ha). In addition, there are plans to improve operations at the existing Rappi site, including use of construction and demolition waste as cover material. Some enterprises, companies and factories in Addis Ababa choose to take their waste to the dump site using their own transport. These pay tipping fees at the dump site of 4 Birr per cubic metre. Some of the wastes from these enterprises are hazardous (e.g. waste from tanneries). There are no other major waste treatment practices like controlled incineration in Ethiopia. There are numbers of illegal dump sites at river banks and open spaces in urban centres of Ethiopia and some institutions and companies are practicing illegal dumping. FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.8.8.8.8 Addis Ababa Waste Disposal FacilityAddis Ababa Waste Disposal FacilityAddis Ababa Waste Disposal FacilityAddis Ababa Waste Disposal Facility ---- Rappi DumpsiteRappi DumpsiteRappi DumpsiteRappi Dumpsite (showing unorganised waste pickers, leachate, uncovered waste - poor site management). Box 3.5Box 3.5Box 3.5Box 3.5 Overview of waste management practiceOverview of waste management practiceOverview of waste management practiceOverview of waste management practices in rural areass in rural areass in rural areass in rural areas In most rural areas of Ethiopia solid waste management is not carried out in an organised manner. Many of the people are very poor, and appropriate waste management is not a priority. However, the social situation does mean that these people view waste as a resource, and composting practices are widespread, for example. In addition, many bottles, containers and other items would typically be kept
  34. 34. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 34 by people for re-use. Open burning, open dumping and spreading on farmlands of waste is widely practiced. There are generally no formal solid waste management programs in the rural areas of Ethiopia. In most areas there is no waste management service and people therefore do not pay charges. Each household is responsible for their own SWM – in most cases household waste is burned in the backyard of houses. Members of the household are sometimes provided with advice by Health Centre staff during outreach programs. The other source of information about solid waste disposal is the mass media. However, this is also irregular and not well coordinated.
  35. 35. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 35 Waste disposal / management practices in regional cities and townsWaste disposal / management practices in regional cities and townsWaste disposal / management practices in regional cities and townsWaste disposal / management practices in regional cities and towns In most regional cities waste is disposed in one of several open dump sites. These are operated with different levels of performance related to environmental management, but generally the impacts from these dump sites on ground water, surface water and health of nearby residents is potentially serious. Some dump sites are just open sites with little or no management or security. Most sites only have a very basic level of management and have no fencing, a lack of appropriate site operating vehicles and compactors, limited registration of arriving waste loads, extensive uncontrolled waste picking practices, and none or limited application of cover material. Some towns also use dump pits, in which waste is burned once they get filled up. Most institutions like hospitals, schools and enterprises in Ethiopia widely use small scale (onsite) purpose built brick chambers for burning waste (see Figure 3.9 below) – this is primarily to reduce the volume of the waste, and the ashes of the burned waste are usually disposed of with other wastes. FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.9.9.9.9 Waste disposal unit (waste burning chamber)Waste disposal unit (waste burning chamber)Waste disposal unit (waste burning chamber)Waste disposal unit (waste burning chamber) ---- Nazreth Health CentreNazreth Health CentreNazreth Health CentreNazreth Health Centre
  36. 36. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 36 Waste Disposal in Nazreth In Nazreth (population 200,000), the Health Centre encourages the use of on-site dump pits by households, to reduce the amount of waste that needs to be collected and disposed of by the municipality. There is only one dumpsite for the municipality, which is located about 8Km form the city centre. The facility, Argoe Adam dumpsite, has been in operation for about 6 years. The site has some basic fencing (but not secure), and is located adjacent to a waste stabilisation pond for sewage treatment. The facility has a thriving population of dogs, baboons, wild birds (Marabou – stork family), and a few human scavengers (see Figure 3.10). FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.10.10.10.10 Nazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facility –––– Argoe Adama DumpsiteArgoe Adama DumpsiteArgoe Adama DumpsiteArgoe Adama Dumpsite
  37. 37. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 37 Waste Disposal in Dire Dawa There is only one solid waste disposal facility in Dire Dawa town (population 250,000) – the Sheneley Cemetery Dumpsite. The facility is located about 5 Km from the city centre, within the premises of a cemetery. The site has been in operation for about 40 years. The site is partially fenced and the only vehicular access to the premises is via the entrance to the cemetery. There are no scavengers at the site and it is generally well laid out, sandwiched between different sections of the cemetery. There are plans to cease the operations at the current site and relocate the dumpsite to an area about 7Km further away from the current facility. FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.11.11.11.11 Nazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facility ---- Sheneley Cemetery DumpsiteSheneley Cemetery DumpsiteSheneley Cemetery DumpsiteSheneley Cemetery Dumpsite
  38. 38. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 38 Waste Disposal in Dukem Woreda Town (Oromiya Region) At present, there are no dedicated waste disposal facilities for this area. Collected wastes are deposited in open dumps scattered around the outskirts of the town, where the waste is subsequently burned. A potential dumpsite, about 5 Km from the town has been identified by the Health Centre. However, there is no road access to the premises at present and there is no means of waste transportation as the only collection system currently available is by pushcarts (wheel barrows). Other key SWM issues in regional cities Other key issues related to the management of solid waste in regional cities, include: • Municipalities do not feel responsible for managing solid waste - indeed some are unaware of their responsibilities and do not make any provisions for SWM in their budgets; • Most municipalities have a limited budget and low capacity for SWM activities; • There is generally a low level of public awareness of the issues relating to SWM; • There is often an overlap of roles and responsibilities between the Health Centre in the city, the Municipality Zonal Health offices; • Poor Town Planning – insufficient provision for SWM facilities and sites. 3.53.53.53.5 EEEEXISTINGXISTINGXISTINGXISTING SWMSWMSWMSWM PPPPLANS ANDLANS ANDLANS ANDLANS AND OOOOTHERTHERTHERTHER RRRRELEVANTELEVANTELEVANTELEVANT FFFFINDINGSINDINGSINDINGSINDINGS There are several important SWM plans being developed at present by different stakeholders for Addis Ababa. However, these activities are not currently being centrally co-ordinated and communicated. These include: • Plans to strengthen the organisation of operations and reporting at sub-city level, being developed by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency and implemented through the Sub-city Administrations. These plans include improving the quality of information on the numbers of pre-collection micro-enterprises and their activities. Other initiatives also include: o The Addis Ababa Municipality will give full responsibility to the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Agency to manage solid waste; o Re-organizing Kebele areas into small sub-sections to deal with their own waste management problems; o Food for work programs are to be organized;
  39. 39. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 39 o Study to be commissioned on waste composition and generation rates; o Review of resource allocation to improve the efficiency of waste collection and transfer; o Plans to rehabilitate Rappi dump site and also construct new landfills; o Public awareness programs on television and radio; o Improving river banks; o Improving the streets and greenery of open areas; o Expansion of composting activities; o Strengthening the capacity of informal recyclers. • Plans to restructure responsibilities for waste management operations in Addis Ababa and to launch a ‘ client’ company, being developed by the Chamber of Commerce and the Municipality. The plans, which will include strengthening the capacity of the private sector and formulating public-private partnerships are being funded by the German development agency (GTZ). The plans also include actions to improve Rappi dump site. Further details of this project are summarised below.
  40. 40. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 40 Box 3.6Box 3.6Box 3.6Box 3.6 Outline CasOutline CasOutline CasOutline Case Study of the Addis Ababa Solid Waste Collection, Removale Study of the Addis Ababa Solid Waste Collection, Removale Study of the Addis Ababa Solid Waste Collection, Removale Study of the Addis Ababa Solid Waste Collection, Removal and Utilisation Projectand Utilisation Projectand Utilisation Projectand Utilisation Project –––– Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce: FebruaryAddis Ababa Chamber of Commerce: FebruaryAddis Ababa Chamber of Commerce: FebruaryAddis Ababa Chamber of Commerce: February 2002200220022002 It will be very important for the strategy for PSP developed in this project to compliment the above existing plans and other existing plans, such as: o Plans to restructure other city administrations in a similar manner to the Addis Ababa City restructuring (MFA). o Assisting regional cities in urban planning (National Planning Institute (under MFA)). Project Overview • The project plan was developed to address the SWM problems in Addis Ababa. The plan essentially involves the development of an improved SWM system based on a conceptual Public Private Partnership (PPP) between the business community and the Addis Ababa municipality. • The project plan appears to have been developed in consortium with the previous AA municipality administration, i.e. prior to the creation of the SBPDA. Proposed SWM System • The proposed SWM system solution(s) are not very clearly defined and the means of cost recovery are not apparent. • The focus of the project appears to be the development of an improved waste collection service from businesses and some households, and transfer of waste to a refurbished waste facility (to include the installation of a gas turbine and electricity generation) at the existing Rappi dumpsite. • The project is based on the transfer of the Addis Ababa municipality’s SWM budget, personnel and equipment to a new Management Organisation. • An assessment of the potential to develop a debit-credit agreement based on the UN Kyoto Protocol will also be carried out. Approach • The project would entail the establishment of a full-time professional managed office within the AA Chamber of Commerce. This office would later become the Project Office, and the base of a joint autonomous project executing and managing office. The initial tasks of the project office would be to: • Prepare Memoranda and Articles of Association • Investigate the feasibility of a Management Contract • Explore alternative governance arrangements, including the development of bylaws. • The project development was initially expected to take about 2 years and is scheduled for completion in December 2004. Current Status The project office staff (Project Manager, Engineer and Secretary) are being recruited.
  41. 41. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 41 o Planning guidelines, standards, system development, capacity building, contract administration, landfill operation (Addis Ababa Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Agency). o Standards and guidelines development (EPA). o Hygiene & Sanitation Package (MoH, NGOs).
  42. 42. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 42 3.5.13.5.13.5.13.5.1 Key Points on Current Waste Management PracticesKey Points on Current Waste Management PracticesKey Points on Current Waste Management PracticesKey Points on Current Waste Management Practices • Solid Waste Management in Addis Ababa is in a poor state, but is improving slowly. Momentum is building at present for planning and implementing improvement (e.g. organisation of pre-collection companies). • However, if the momentum and initiatives for improvement continue without strengthened organisation and control then there is a potential risk that they could start to result in greater harm than good in some aspects of waste management (e.g. increased dumping), or at least it is likely that the improvements will not be as effectively implemented as would be possible. This is particularly important with respect to the need for organisation of the private sector pre-collection companies. • The launch of the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency (SBPDA) of the Addis Ababa Municipality, responsible for overall co-ordination of waste collection services and for operation of the Rappi dumpsite, is a positive step in improvement of SWM. • There is significant potential for increasing the efficiencies of waste collection through improving organisational aspects. • The Federal government is also giving due attention and prioritisation to the management of solid waste in Addis Ababa City. There is support and commitment for the strengthening of PSP and the improvement of institutional arrangements to increase solid waste collection coverage.
  43. 43. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 43 Key Issues Relating to the Development of the PSP Strategy • There is a need for the development of an overall waste management strategy for Ethiopia, to serve as an umbrella for all waste management initiatives. Such a strategy should include overarching policies, objectives, targets and programmes which would in turn inform the development of regional and local SWM plans and projects. • A Federal Strategy is necessary to ensure that all the ongoing and planned SWM improvement projects operate within a common framework, are complementary wherever possible, and are joined up, to improve the overall situation in the country. A Federal Strategy would further provide direction and context to all waste management initiatives. • One of the first steps in the development of a National Solid Waste Management Strategy (NSWMS) should be a comprehensive survey of waste management in Ethiopia (in both urban and rural areas), to include: determination of the quantities of various waste streams, waste generation rates, typical waste compositions, and an inventory of facilities and equipment. This information is necessary for the effective planning and development of waste management facilities and projects. • The PSP Strategy should ideally be implemented within the framework of a Federal Waste Management Strategy. • The PSP Strategy should build on and complement the success of the existing pre-collection companies, and enhance current plans of the SBPDA.
  44. 44. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 44 4444 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKSORKSORKSORKS This section provides an overview of the current institutional frameworks for environmental management generally, and solid waste management where applicable, in Ethiopia. 4.14.14.14.1 EEEENVIRONMENTAL ANDNVIRONMENTAL ANDNVIRONMENTAL ANDNVIRONMENTAL AND WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE MMMMANAGEMENT POLICY ANDANAGEMENT POLICY ANDANAGEMENT POLICY ANDANAGEMENT POLICY AND SSSSTRATEGYTRATEGYTRATEGYTRATEGY 4.1.14.1.14.1.14.1.1 The Environmental Policy for EthiopiaThe Environmental Policy for EthiopiaThe Environmental Policy for EthiopiaThe Environmental Policy for Ethiopia The Environmental Policy for Ethiopia was published in April 1997 by the EPA and Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation (MEDAC). The report defines the guiding principles and policy objectives for the cross-sectoral and sectoral issues defined in the National Conservation Strategy. As such, municipal solid waste managed is not treated as a separate policy, but is covered under “ Human Settlement, Urban Environment and Urban Health” . The Policy seems to give more weight to municipal solid waste management than the Conservations Strategy. MSWM policy objectives include: • To provide municipal waste collection services and facilities for safe disposal; • To promote the collection of sewerage and waste by private firms; • To identify suitable sanitary landfill sites in the major cites and towns of Ethiopia; • To recycle liquid and solid wastes into fertilizers and to recover energy from waste. Policy objectives for the “ Control of Hazardous Materials and Pollution from Industrial Waste” component include: • To adopt the precautionary principle and the "polluter pays" principles; • To ensure that enterprises, municipalities and Woreda councils provide their own appropriate pollution control facilities; • To develop cost-effective guidelines for waste disposal, to translate these guidelines into legislation, and to enforce this legislation; • To formulate and implement a country-wide strategy and guidelines on the management of wastes from the medical, agriculture and other sectors that may use potentially hazardous biological organisms, their fragments or chemicals, to issue the necessary regulations and to enforce these regulations; • To promote waste minimization and recycling.
  45. 45. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 45 4.1.24.1.24.1.24.1.2 The National Conservation Strategy for Ethiopia (CSE)The National Conservation Strategy for Ethiopia (CSE)The National Conservation Strategy for Ethiopia (CSE)The National Conservation Strategy for Ethiopia (CSE) The CSE Report was prepared 1 by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) and MEDAC. The Strategy was published in April 1996 and contains 5 volumes: • Volume I contains an evaluation of the state of the natural resources, the environment and development in Ethiopia; • Volume II presents a policy and strategy framework aimed at ensuring the sustainable use and management of natural resources; • Volume III deals with institutional issues to implement the strategies defined in Volume II. (However, given that in 2002 a proclamation was issued on the establishment of environmental protection organs, this particular objective of the CSE is no longer relevant); • Volume IV presents a plan of prioritised actions within the framework of 11 cross-sectoral and 11 sectoral programmes; • Volume V gives a listing of projects, some funded and being implemented, and others only proposed, with estimated costs. The projects have not been fully evaluated and prioritised in the context of the strategies defined in Volume II. The policy and strategy framework outlined in Volume II distinguishes 11 cross-sectoral, and 11 sectoral issues. For each issue, prioritised strategies have been defined. The cross-sectoral issues include Public Participation in Environmental Management, Environmental Economics, Environmental Information Systems, Environmental Research for Sustainable Development, Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Education and Awareness. The 11 sectoral issues include Forest Management, Biodiversity Conservation, Water Resources Management, Energy Resources Management, Human Settlements Urban Environment and Environmental Health and Control of Pollution from Industrial Waste and of Hazardous Materials. Municipal solid waste is not covered explicitly, though some issues are covered under the “ Human Settlements Urban Environment and Environmental Health” component, namely: 1 The Strategy was prepared with the technical assistance of the IUCN and the World Conservation Union and with financial aassistance from SIDA, ODA, UNSO, NORAD..
  46. 46. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 46 • development of partnerships with local citizen groups and neighbourhood centres to provide essential services, such as sanitation, improve road access to residential areas to allow the efficient provision of sanitation and other environmental and social services; • undertake studies to identify suitable sanitary landfill sites in the major cites and towns of Ethiopia. Industrial and Hazardous waste management is covered under the “ Control of Pollution from Industrial Waste and of Hazardous Materials” component. The actions in Volume IV for the human settlements, urban environment and environmental health, are divided in three components, for each of which immediate priorities have been defined. The components with the immediate priorities relevant for waste management are: • Improving Urban and Rural Sanitation Facilities; a) Undertake research and surveys into the needs for, and socio-economic aspects of, urban and rural sanitation facilities and services. b) Develop a Federal Sanitation Strategy clearly setting out appropriate types of, and technologies, for sanitation facilities, sanitation delivery systems, priorities in terms of urban and rural population densities and climatic conditions, and the institutional framework for implementation. c) Undertake sanitary landfill surveys in Addis Ababa and all major urban centres. • Improving the Habitation Environment; Capacity Building and Institutional Support: Clarify the institutional structure and mandates for urban sanitation, latrine emptying, sewerage, solid waste disposal, water supplies, public health and hygiene, sites and services and the urban environment. The Strategy is a comprehensive document that provides a basis for the sustainable use and management of the country’ s natural resources. However, the strategy is mainly declaratory and is essentially a list of “ good intentions” . Overall, considerable weight is given to the establishment of the appropriate legal and institutional framework.
  47. 47. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 47 Municipal solid waste management is not covered in any depth as such, but some of the relevant issues are covered under the urban and rural sanitation component. More attention is given to the prevention and control of pollution from industrial and hazardous waste. The majority of the Ethiopian industries are old and use outdated technology. While they are small in number, they are important in terms of environmental impact. According to the State of the Environment Report for Ethiopia (2003), 90 % of the industries located in Addis Ababa, discharge their waste without any treatment into rivers and open spaces. 4.1.34.1.34.1.34.1.3 State of the Environment ReportState of the Environment ReportState of the Environment ReportState of the Environment Report The EPA published in August 2003 the “ State of the Environment Report for Ethiopia” . The Report provides an overview of the Environment, Development (the state of the economy, the state of poverty, employment), and of Natural Resources Management and Utilization (natural resources management and utilization, the human environment and laws and policies). 4.1.44.1.44.1.44.1.4 Urban planningUrban planningUrban planningUrban planning Most towns in Ethiopia do not have master plans and are established and managed haphazardly. As a result, they are often characterized by chronic social and environmental problems. However, urban planning which takes into account, at least to some extent, environmental issues, is currently increasing. Solid waste management is addressed in the Addis Ababa city development plan. Waste collection and disposal schemes form part of the plan especially in the expanding areas of the city. The development plans of some of other cities and regions also include urban waste management plans and the improvement of household waste collection and disposal. 4.1.54.1.54.1.54.1.5 Summary of Policies and Strategies relating to SWMSummary of Policies and Strategies relating to SWMSummary of Policies and Strategies relating to SWMSummary of Policies and Strategies relating to SWM While some municipal solid waste management issues are covered in the above cited policy documents, there is no defined central strategy for the planning and development of the sector. It is important that an overall waste management strategy is developed for Ethiopia, within which all regions of Ethiopia would have the flexibility to plan and operate.
  48. 48. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 48 4.24.24.24.2 FFFFEDERAL ANDEDERAL ANDEDERAL ANDEDERAL AND RRRREGIONALEGIONALEGIONALEGIONAL SSSSTRUCTURE AND THETRUCTURE AND THETRUCTURE AND THETRUCTURE AND THE DDDDECENTRALISATIONECENTRALISATIONECENTRALISATIONECENTRALISATION PPPPROCESSROCESSROCESSROCESS Ethiopia has a Federal structure, with a Federal government and regional governments, the latter being largely autonomous. Each of the 11 regional states is divided into Woredas (districts), which in turn are divided into Kebeles (local communities), the lowest administrative unit. Each Woreda has a “ capital” and several other towns. The Woreda administration is responsible for the administration of the overall Woreda and of the rural areas outside the towns. The towns within the Woreda also have a municipal government. With the devolution of power to the regional governments, implementation of economic policies and development programs have, to a large extent, been shifted from the centre to the regional states. A second wave of decentralization is going on, which aims to render the Woreda administrations responsible for socio-economic development and to further empower the Kebeles, the lowest administrative unit. With respect to fiscal policy, a single system of taxation is applied for the country, which allows some revenue collection by the regions and some revenue sharing with the Federal government while putting the majority of the revenue under the central authority. It also provides budgetary subvention to the regions, and grants the regions full autonomy in budgetary expenditures. The Government is also allocating directly, through the regional government, financial resources and autonomy in budgetary expenditures to the Woredas in 4 regions which are perceived to be administratively stronger, i.e. Tigray, Oromiya, Amara and Southern N/N & People. The resources should be used to provide for services such as education and health care, and to support the development of economic activities. Measures are also being taken in the area of capacity building, as technical capacity limitation is believed to be the major constraint in the course of implementing the decentralization process. Effective decentralization and empowerment should create room for tackling poverty more effectively and directly at the grass root level.
  49. 49. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 49 4.34.34.34.3 RRRROLES ANDOLES ANDOLES ANDOLES AND RRRRESPONSIBILITIES IN RESPONSIBILITIES IN RESPONSIBILITIES IN RESPONSIBILITIES IN RELATION TOELATION TOELATION TOELATION TO WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE MMMMANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENT 4.3.14.3.14.3.14.3.1 Overview of the SWM Institutional FrameworkOverview of the SWM Institutional FrameworkOverview of the SWM Institutional FrameworkOverview of the SWM Institutional Framework General The institutional framework in terms of roles and responsibilities has significantly changed over the past years because of the decentralisation process, and is still changing, especially in Addis Ababa. In general, roles and responsibilities for environmental management and for SWM are not well defined. Where they are well defined, the administrations lack knowledge of their roles and responsibilities, especially in the smaller towns and in the rural areas. Figure 4.1 illustrates the main institutional structures related to environmental management and to SWM. Table 4.1 summarises the roles and responsibilities of the main institutions involved in SWM. Proclamation N° 295/2002 provides for the establishment of the environmental protection organs, namely: • the Federal Environmental Protection Authority (EPA); • the regional Environmental Agencies; and • the Sectoral Environmental Units.
  50. 50. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 50 Figure 4.1Figure 4.1Figure 4.1Figure 4.1 Illustration of the Current Institutional Framework relevant to SWMIllustration of the Current Institutional Framework relevant to SWMIllustration of the Current Institutional Framework relevant to SWMIllustration of the Current Institutional Framework relevant to SWM 9 Regional States Zonal Administration Municipalities of major Cities Woreda Administration for Rural areas Sanitation & Park Unit 9 Other Regions of Ethiopia SBPD Agency Addis Ababa City Municipality Sanitation &Park Unit 10 Sub city Administrations Kebele Administration Addis Ababa Note that the structure of Dire Dawa City Municipality (which, along with Addis Ababa, is one of the 11 regions of Ethiopia) is similar to that for Addis Ababa above. Regional Environmental Agencies (to be established in each State) Council Members: Prime Minister or rep. – Chairperson Federal Government Members Rep from each Regional State Rep from Ethiopia Chamber of Commerce Rep from local environmental NGOs Rep from Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Unions Director General of the EPA Council to the EPA Prime Minister Ministry of Federal Affairs Sectoral Environmental Units Federal Environmental Protection Authority Keble Administrations
  51. 51. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 51 Table 4.1Table 4.1Table 4.1Table 4.1 Overview of Roles and Responsibilities in SWMOverview of Roles and Responsibilities in SWMOverview of Roles and Responsibilities in SWMOverview of Roles and Responsibilities in SWM Stakeholder OrganStakeholder OrganStakeholder OrganStakeholder Organisationisationisationisation Current RoleCurrent RoleCurrent RoleCurrent Role (Regulatory)(Regulatory)(Regulatory)(Regulatory) Current RoleCurrent RoleCurrent RoleCurrent Role (Operational)(Operational)(Operational)(Operational) CommentsCommentsCommentsComments Federal Environmental ProtectionFederal Environmental ProtectionFederal Environmental ProtectionFederal Environmental Protection Authority (EPA)Authority (EPA)Authority (EPA)Authority (EPA) • Development of national environmental policies, and national laws, regulations and standards for pollution control. • Development of National Conservation Strategy. • Technical and financial support to the Regions. • Research and study. (Operational) • Enforce implementation of policies and strategies • Development of environmental protection action plans • Produces a periodic report on the state of the environment for the country • Policy and regulations are not fully implemented / enforced. • No clear (specific) strategy for Solid Waste Management. • There is a lack of operational guidelines. Council to the EPACouncil to the EPACouncil to the EPACouncil to the EPA • Review proposed environmental policies, strategies and laws • Review and approve directives, guidelines and standards prepared by the EPA Sectoral Environmental Units (notSectoral Environmental Units (notSectoral Environmental Units (notSectoral Environmental Units (not yet established)yet established)yet established)yet established) • Co-ordination and follow up of activities relating to the environmental policies for their sector RegioRegioRegioRegional EPAs:nal EPAs:nal EPAs:nal EPAs: • EPA of Addis AbabaEPA of Addis AbabaEPA of Addis AbabaEPA of Addis Ababa • EPBs for other RegionsEPBs for other RegionsEPBs for other RegionsEPBs for other Regions • Development of regional regulations for pollution control. • Development of Regional Conservation Strategies. • Provision of technical support. • Research and study. • Raising awareness on SWM. • Environmental monitoring, protection and regulation; enforcement of standards • Organise and train environmental clubs in schools, etc. • Regional regulations on SWM have mostly not yet been ratified. • Regional Conservation Strategies mainly focus on soil erosion and deforestation, but not SWM. • There is a lack of qualified professionals to provide technical support. • There are no major awareness raising awareness activities • Research mainly focuses on liquid waste rather than solid waste. Municipal Department responsibleMunicipal Department responsibleMunicipal Department responsibleMunicipal Department responsible for SWMfor SWMfor SWMfor SWM:::: • Sanitation, Beautification andSanitation, Beautification andSanitation, Beautification andSanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency forParks Development Agency forParks Development Agency forParks Development Agency for Addis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis Ababa • Sanitation and Parks Division (forSanitation and Parks Division (forSanitation and Parks Division (forSanitation and Parks Division (for other cities)other cities)other cities)other cities) • Development of standards, regulations and other requirements on SWM. • Technical support. • Research and study. • Provision of licences to the larger pre-collection companies in Addis Ababa (the ones that have trucks transfer waste to the dump site). • Management of waste collection in Addis Ababa is through the Sub-City Administrations. • Operation of the dump site(s). • A SWM strategy (and regulations) for Addis Ababa has been developed but is not yet ratified. • Accountability for SWM is a constraint. • Poor operational practices at dump sites. • The Agency / Bureaus cover transport and disposal costs. SubSubSubSub----City Administrations of AddisCity Administrations of AddisCity Administrations of AddisCity Administrations of Addis AbabaAbabaAbabaAbaba • SanitatiSanitatiSanitatiSanitation and Parks Uniton and Parks Uniton and Parks Uniton and Parks Unit • Provision of licences to the smaller pre-collection companies in Addis Ababa (the ones that collect waste from households and deposit in containers / skips). • Responsible for collection and transport of solid waste from households, markets, institutions and industries to the dump site. • Provision of waste containers / skips. • Ineffective and inefficient services in many cases. • Pre-collection companies operate in many areas of Addis Ababa, collecting waste from households and small enterprises and transfer the waste to containers / skips (some take waste to the dump site).
  52. 52. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 52 • Sanitation and Parks Unit ofSanitation and Parks Unit ofSanitation and Parks Unit ofSanitation and Parks Unit of major citiesmajor citiesmajor citiesmajor cities • Responsible for collection and transport of solid waste from households, markets, institutions and industries to the dump site. • Ineffective and inefficient services in many cases.

×