National wm strategy and poa sa

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National wm strategy and poa sa

  1. 1. PMG 130 PSC 69 NATIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND ACTION PLANS SOUTH AFRICA STRATEGY FORMULATION PHASE NATIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY version D 15 October 1999 Danced Reference No: M123 - 0136 Job. 970296 Ref No. Reports 4.1.19 NWMS Ver C Prep. Strategy Team Ed. Version D Contr. HW Date. 15/10/99 Appd. PMG
  2. 2. Table of contents Executive summary * Acknowledgments * Ttable of contents * 1. Introduction * 1.1 General Introduction * 1.2 Structure and Content of the NWMS * 1.2.1 Part 1: National Waste Management Strategy * 1.2.2 Part 2: Background Information to the National Waste Management Strategy * 1.3 Crosscutting Issues * 1.3.1 Institutional Arrangements * 1.3.2 Resource Requirements * 1.3.3 Time Schedules * 1.3.4 Economic Instruments * 1.3.5 The Law Reform Process * 1.3.6 Treatment Technologies * 1.3.7 Government and Private Sector Responsibilities * 1.3.8 Sewage Sludge * 1.3.9 Radioactive Waste * 1.3.10 Waste Minimisation * 2. Background to the NWMS *
  3. 3. 2.1 Environmental Policy and Legislative Developments * 2.2 Integrated Pollution and Waste Management Policy * 3. DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY * 3.1 Scope of Strategy * 3.2 Definitions * 3.3 Waste Categorisation * 3.4 Principles * 3.5 Strategic Goals and Objectives * 3.6 Approach and Methodology * 4. PRIORITY INITIATIVES * 4.1 Criteria and Rationale for Developing Priority Initiatives * 4.2 Priority Initiatives * 4.2.1 Integrated Waste Management Priority Initiatives * 4.2.2 Implementing Instruments * 4.2.3 Time Schedules and Responsibilities * 4.3 Prioritisation of Priority Initiatives * 4.4 Short-Term Priority Initiatives * 4.4.1 Integrated Waste Management Planning * 4.4.2 Waste Information System * 4.4.3 Waste Minimisation * 4.4.4 Recycling * 4.4.5 Waste Collection and Transportation * 4.4.6 Waste Treatment * 4.4.7 Waste Disposal * 4.4.8 Implementing Instruments * 4.4.9 Cost Estimates for Implementation of Short Term Priority Initiatives * 4.5 Medium to Long-Term Priority Initiatives * 5. THE WAY FORWARD * 6. introduction * 7. Integrated Waste Management Planning *
  4. 4. 7.1 Priority Initiatives * 7.1.1 General Waste * 7.1.2 Hazardous Domestic Waste * 7.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry * 7.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (pesticides) * 7.1.5 Medical Waste * 7.1.6 Mining and Power Station Waste * 7.1.7 Reconditioning of Drums used for Hazardous Materials * 7.2 Time Schedule * 7.3 Requirements and Implications * 7.3.1 Institutional * 7.3.2 Capacity Building * 7.3.3 Legal Issues * 7.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 7.3.5 Public Participation and Partnership * 7.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives * 7.5 Short-term Strategic Initiative * 8. WASTE INFORMATION SYSTEM * 8.1 Priority Initiatives * 8.1.1 Preparation of the WIS * 8.1.2 WIS Guidelines * 8.1.3 Data functions * 8.1.4 Implementation and Operation of WIS database * 8.2 Time Schedule * 8.3 Requirements and Implications * 8.3.1 Institutional * 8.3.2 Capacity Building * 8.3.3 Legal Issues * 8.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 8.3.5 Public Participation and Partnership * 8.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives *
  5. 5. 8.5 Short-term initiative * 9. WASTE MINIMISATION * 9.1 Waste Minimisation Initiatives * 9.1.1 Organisational and Planning Initiatives * 9.1.2 Appropriate Legal and Policy Framework * 9.1.3 Information, Education and Demonstration Projects * 9.1.4 Public-Private and Private Sector Initiatives * 9.2 Time Schedule * 9.3 Requirements and Implications * 9.3.1 Institutional * 9.3.2 Capacity building * 9.3.3 Legal Issues * 9.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 9.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships * 9.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives * 9.5 Short-term Initiative * 10. Recycling * 10.1 Priority Initiatives * 10.1.1 General Waste * 10.1.2 Domestic Waste * 10.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry * 10.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (pesticides) * 10.1.5 Medical Waste * 10.1.6 Mining and Power Station Waste * 10.2 Time Schedule * 10.3 Requirements and Implications * 10.3.1 Institutional * 10.3.2 Capacity Building * 10.3.3 Legal Issues * 10.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 10.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships *
  6. 6. 10.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives * 10.5 Short-term Initiative * 11. Waste Collection and Transportation * 11.1 Initiatives * 11.1.1 General Waste * 11.1.2 Hazardous Domestic Waste * 11.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry * 11.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (Pesticides) * 11.1.5 Medical Waste * 11.1.6 Mining and Power Station Waste * 11.2 Time Schedule * 11.3 Requirements and Implications * 11.3.1 Institutional * 11.3.2 Capacity Building * 11.3.3 Legal Issues * 11.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 11.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships * 11.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives * 11.5 Short-term Initiative * 12. Waste Treatment * 12.1 Priority Initiatives * 12.1.1. General Waste * 12.1.2 Hazardous Domestic Waste * 12.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry * 12.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (Pesticides) * 12.1.5 Medical Waste * 12.1.6 Sewage Sludge * 12.1.7 Mining and Power Station Waste * 12.2 Time Schedule * 12.3 Requirements and Implications * 12.3.1 Institutional *
  7. 7. 12.3.2 Capacity Building * 12.3.3 Legal Issues * 12.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 12.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships * 12.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives * 12.5 Short-term Initiative * 13. WASTE DISPOSAL * 13.1 Priority Initiatives * 13.1.1 General waste * 13.1.2 Domestic Hazardous Waste * 13.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry * 13.1.4 Agricultural and Forestry Wastes (Pesticides) * 13.1.5 Medical waste * 13.1.6 Sewage Sludge * 13.1.7 Mining and Power Station Wastes * 13.2 Time Schedule * 13.3 Requirements and Implications * 13.3.1 Institutional * 13.3.2 Capacity Building Implications * 13.3.3 Legal issues * 13.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 13.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships * 13.4 Dependency on other NWMS activities * 13.5 Short-term Priority Initiative * 14. Implementing Instruments * 14.1 Institutional Development * 14.2 Capacity Building Requirements * 14.2.1 Formal Capacity Building Programme * 14.2.2 Communication Strategy * 14.2.3 Staff estimates * 14.3 Legislative Requirements *
  8. 8. 14.4 Financial Requirements * 14.4.1 Estimated Costs of the NWMS Priority Initiatives * 14.5 Public Participation and Partnerships * 14.6 Awareness and Education * References * Annexure 1 * Definitions and Terms * Annexure 2 * Abbreviations * Annexure 3 * Summary of Existing Key Legislation on Waste Management Issues * As described in section 14.3, the approach that will be adopted to integrate and amend the above (and other related) legislation will be dependent upon decisions that are agreed to during the environmental Law Reform Process. Critical to this process will be the decisions that are taken regarding the institutional structures relating to environmental management in South Africa. * Annexure 4 * Existing Institutional Arrangement are set out in the attached table * Annexure 5 * Acknowledgements * Executive summary
  9. 9. This National Waste Management Strategy presents Government’s strategy for integrated waste management for South Africa. The Strategy presented in this document was compiled by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, in consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, including: government at all levels, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations, labour, business, industry, and the mining sector. Financial support for the project was given by the Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development. This National Waste Management Strategy presents a long-term plan (up to the year 2010) for addressing key issues, needs and problems experienced with waste management in South Africa (1997/8). The strategy gives effect to the Bill of Rights, Constitution of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996, on the basis of which the people of South Africa have the right to an environment that is not detrimental to their health. Furthermore, the strategy translates into action Government’s policy on waste as set out in the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (published in 1998). The objective of integrated pollution and waste management is to move away from fragmented and uncoordinated waste management to integrated waste management. Such a holistic and integrated management approach extends over the entire waste cycle from cradle to grave, and covers the prevention, generation, collection, transportation, treatment and final disposal of waste. Integrated waste management thus represents a paradigm shift in South Africa’s approach to waste management, by moving away from waste management through impact management and remediation and establishing instead a waste management system which focuses on waste prevention and waste minimisation. The strategy aims to reduce both the generation and the environmental impact of waste. It presents a plan for ensuring that the socio-economic development of South Africa, the health of its people and the quality of its environmental resources are no longer adversely affected by uncontrolled and uncoordinated
  10. 10. waste management. It establishes a waste management system that concentrates on avoiding, preventing and minimising waste and makes provision for waste management services for all by extending an acceptable standard of waste collection, as well as transportation, treatment and disposal services to all communities. While the long-term objective of the strategy is waste prevention and minimisation, a number of remediative actions such as improved waste collection and waste treatment are required in the shorter term due to prevailing inadequate waste management practices. To achieve the long-term objectives of the strategy, about 50 major integrated waste management initiatives (and many more sub-initiatives) with their associated financial and human resource requirements will need to be implemented. In addition, institutional changes and new legislation will have to be introduced and enforced and capacity building requirements will need to be addressed and realised. Attention must also be given to raising public awareness on waste management issues and promoting and delivering environmental education. The final phase of the National Waste Management Strategy process will entail the development of detailed action plans for implementation. The National Waste Management Strategy is a first generation strategy, which will initiate action both by government and civil society and will culminate in the implementation of an integrated waste management system for South Africa. Critical factors affecting the successful implementation of the strategy will be securing the necessary financial and human resources, and receiving the commitment, support and input of all stakeholders. Government accepts that this strategy will have to be reviewed periodically as and when appropriate (e.g. on a five year basis) and may need to be adapted to address practical realities, changing needs and new priorities. Acknowledgments
  11. 11. The Ministries and Departments of Environmental Affairs and Tourism and of Water Affairs and Forestry acknowledge the contribution that South Africans have made in developing a National Waste Management Strategy for South Africa. The role played by the Project Steering Committee, which steered the process and the contributions of the drafters of the Strategy, is also acknowledged. A complete list of persons who contributed to the process is given in Annexure 5. Below is set out a short list of officials, government departments and organisations, which have played a key role in developing this National Waste Management Strategy. Ministries Minister Z Pallo Jordan Minister Kader Asmal Deputy Minister Peter R Mokaba, who chaired the Project Steering Committee Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism Department of Water Affairs and Forestry Provincial Environmental Departments Eastern Cape Department of Economic Affairs and Environment Free State Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment KwaZulu Natal Department of Traditional and Environmental Affairs Mpumalanga Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism North West Department of Environmental Affairs Northern Cape Department of Health, Welfare and Environmental Affairs Northern Province Department of Agriculture, Land and Environment Western Cape Department of Environmental and Cultural Affairs MINMEC: Environment and Nature Conservation The Danish Cooperation for Environment and Development (DANCED)
  12. 12. National Waste Management Strategy for South Africa PART 1 1. Introduction 1.1 General Introduction The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) states that the people of South Africa have the right to an environment that is not detrimental to human health, and imposes a duty on the state to promulgate legislation and to implement policies to ensure that this right is upheld. Steps taken to date to ensure the environmental right include: the publication of the Environmental Management Policy for South Africa (1998); the preparation of the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management (1998); the National Water Act (1998); as well as the promulgation of the National Environmental Management Act (1998). A further step is the development of this National Waste Management Strategy for South Africa. During 1997, the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) and the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), with financial support from the Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development (Danced), initiated a project for the development of a National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) for South Africa. The overall objective of this strategy is to reduce the generation of waste and the environmental impact of all forms of waste and thereby ensure that the socio-economic development of South Africa, the health of the people and the quality of its environmental resources are no longer adversely affected by uncontrolled and uncoordinated waste management. In
  13. 13. order to achieve this objective the following goals were agreed for the NWMS project: The development of strategies for integrated waste management. The development of action plans to implement the identified strategies. Capacity building within DWAF and DEAT to implement the action plans. Consultation with a wide range of stakeholders on the waste management situation in South Africa (1997/8) identified the following as key issues and needs that had to be addressed by this National Waste Management Strategy: To bring about a paradigm shift from end-of-pipe control to waste prevention and minimisation. To provide basic waste management services for those sections of the population who do not have access to waste collection services or who do not receive adequate services. To ensure that public health and occupational health issues receive due consideration in all waste management practices. To initiate a system of integrated waste management through the implementation of instruments such as legislation, capacity building, institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms. To ensure integration of waste management initiatives with other governmental initiatives, programmes and administrative systems, e.g. Integrated Development Forums (IDFs) and Land Development Objectives (LDOs), the Masakhane campaign and job creation projects. To integrate waste management with the over arching process of environmental planning, management and protection. 1.2 Structure and Content of the NWMS The National Waste Management Strategy is presented in two parts. Part 1 documents the full strategy in which the initiatives have been categorised as short, medium or long-term priority initiatives with an emphasis on the requirements for the implementation of the short-term priority initiatives. Part 2 describes all the priority initiatives and the implications of implementation in terms of human and financial resources and the institutional arrangements. 1.2.1 Part 1: National Waste Management Strategy
  14. 14. This part sets out the motivation for a NWMS, describes the background of its development, explains the strategy development process, identifies priority initiatives, details the short-term priority initiatives (in terms of criteria for selection, implications and requirements and implementing instruments), identifies medium to long-term initiatives and charts the proposed way forward. 1.2.2 Part 2: Background Information to the National Waste Management Strategy This part provides detailed background information on all the priority initiatives identified in Part 1. It deals in detail with the priority initiatives, proposed time schedules, requirements and implications. This information is provided for each of the components of the waste hierarchy, and inter alia includes certain elements of the following: Integrated waste management and planning Waste information system Waste minimisation/prevention Recycling Waste collection and transportation Waste treatment Waste disposal Implementing instruments. 1.3 Crosscutting Issues Stakeholders have highlighted a number of crosscutting issues on which government’s position is clarified. To facilitate understanding of the strategy, the crosscutting issues of concern are addressed in this section and the stated position of the government that will apply throughout Parts 1 and 2 of this Strategy. 1.3.1 Institutional Arrangements The National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) represents the vision of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) for an integrated approach to waste management. This long-term strategic plan addresses the problems, needs and issues relating to waste management, which were identified during consultation with a wide range of stakeholders (i.e. other government departments, NGOs, CBOs, business, labour and industry and mining).
  15. 15. The government’s policy on integrated waste management, as set out in the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa, was formalised into a strategy in the form of the NWMS. Stakeholders have identified the elimination of the duplication and overlap of waste management regulatory activities as a key requirement. There is no intention to override any existing legislation or duplicate the requirements of other government departments. In taking cognisance of the legal mandates of the relevant government departments, wherever any provisions in the NWMS (and Action Plans) appear to inadvertently be in conflict with existing legislation, the requirements of the legislation will prevail. In the context of co-operative governance, the same interpretation applies to cases of inadvertent duplication of legislative requirements. At present the Draft White Paper on IP&WM is a guideline document until formal Cabinet approval is received. Development of the Action Plans has highlighted legislative requirements, which are required to give effect to the government policy on waste management. The legislative requirements will be reviewed within the ongoing DEAT Law Reform Process. It is expected that this law reform process will take into consideration any amendments to the draft White Paper, suggested by Parliament. The law reform process may however also result in changed legislation and legal mandates. The NWMS (and Action Plans) represent a first generation plan for addressing South Africa’s waste management problems that will be continually updated to meet practical realities. The duties, roles and responsibilities assigned to the various government departments outlined in the Strategy are therefore only an initial proposal, which will be discussed, clarified and agreed to during inter- governmental discussions. The allocated responsibilities will be amended where necessary and implemented within the context of co-operative governance with the support of the role players. Cognisance will be taken of the legal mandates of government departments. A phased approach to implementation of the NWMS is envisaged to integrate the waste management functions to ensure an efficient and effective system that meets the requirements of all stakeholders.
  16. 16. The ultimate aim of the NWMS is to implement a co-ordinated integrated waste management system to ensure "cradle to grave" management of waste. To meet this objective will require the commitment, support and co-operation of all stakeholders in the implementation of the NWMS and the associated Action Plans. Ongoing discussions are being held with other national departments and provincial government to develop a framework of future division of functions and responsibilities and to agree on the way forward. Where the term ‘provincial government’ is used in this Strategy, it refers to those departments within the provinces that are responsible for environmental activities. According to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1996), responsibility for waste management functions is to be devolved to the lowest possible level of government. Where appropriate this policy has been applied in this Strategy. However, concern has been expressed about the limited resources that are available at the provincial and local government level to assume the additional waste management responsibilities. Before responsibilities and obligations for each tier of government are finalised, discussions will be held with all concerned parties. In addition, the process of devolving responsibility to the lower levels of government will utilise a phased approach to allow provincial and local government to meet their new waste management obligations. Responsibility for hazardous waste management in the strategy has been placed at the provincial level of government, although co-operation and input from local government will also be promoted. Provision is made within NEMA (1998) for the establishment of a Committee for Environmental Co-ordination (CEC). However, it is not the intention of this strategy to propose the formation of additional committees to meet the requirements of integrated waste management. Thus, it is proposed that the existing Mintech Workgroup 3 for Pollution and Waste be the mechanism for co- ordination and discussion of integrated waste management. 1.3.2 Resource Requirements
  17. 17. The approach adopted in this strategy has been to make preliminary estimates of the personnel requirements and financial resources required to implement the priority initiatives. It is recognised that it is not possible at this stage to present definitive figures, but rather to use indicative numbers to assist in the categorisation of the initiatives. All personnel requirements that are given are an indication of the total number of staff members that will be required to fully implement the initiative, thereby allowing the relevant government departments to budgets for these staff requirements. Staff numbers are the total required to perform the initiative and do not consider the staff members currently employed in the government. Furthermore, cost estimates are only order of magnitude estimates based on the information readily available at the present. Resource requirements will be investigated in greater detail during the development of the Action Plans for the NWMS Priority Initiatives. 1.3.3 Time Schedules Priority initiatives have been categorised in the strategy as either short-term (1999 to 2002), medium-term (2003 to 2006), or long-term (2007 to 2010). During the development of the short-term initiatives for the Waste Information System (WIS), Integrated Waste Management Planning, and General Waste Collection, it became apparent that implementation could not commence until the middle of 1999 at the earliest. Budget allocations had also not been made for implementation during 1999/2000. It was therefore decided that the implementation period be extended by two years for each category. Thus, short- term initiatives will be implemented by the year 2004. The original time frames for short, medium and long-term implementation will be retained in this Strategy document, but these time frames will be developed in greater detail and refined to a more realistic time schedule during the development of the NWMS Action Plans. As the Strategy will be reviewed and updated periodically, timeframes will be revised, based on practical realities. 1.3.4 Economic Instruments
  18. 18. Availability of funds is crucial to the successful implementation of the NWMS. Two distinct economic instruments could be applied for funding waste management initiatives, firstly a tax for raising revenue and secondly user charges, e.g. through the implementation of the Polluter Pays Principle. It is not the intention of this Strategy to propose additional taxation for waste management but rather investigate various economic mechanisms to fully recover the cost for sustainable waste management. Any future investigations made into the application of economic instruments for generating funds for the implementation of the NWMS, will be undertaken by the DEAT in collaboration with the Department of Finance and the Department of Trade and Industry. 1.3.5 The Law Reform Process The DEAT is currently undertaking a process of legal reform, which will include reviewing, developing and implementing legislation dealing with integrated waste management. In the interim current legislation will be fully implemented to address as far as possible the objectives and the goals of the NWMS. The problems currently encountered with monitoring compliance and the enforcement of waste management legislation will be consolidated during the development of Action Plans and be reviewed as part of the Law Reform Process. If, however, the Law Reform Process were not able to fulfil its terms of reference timeously, DEAT would initiate a process of review and development of NWMS specific legislation. 1.3.6 Treatment Technologies The DEAT’s responsibility is to develop the framework within which waste must be managed. This includes ensuring that the appropriate legislation and standards are promulgated and enforced, and the development of a programme of implementation to allow waste generators to make provision for compliance. Legislation will be promulgated based on a comprehensive and focused assessment of appropriate treatment technologies that make provision for the safe treatment of the waste.
  19. 19. It is not the intention of the DEAT to prescribe the technology that the waste generator must implement to comply with the legislation. However, where appropriate, DEAT has the prerogative to investigate any technology that is proposed to ensure that they meet the required standards, that the technology can be monitored for compliance and that the standards can be enforced. 1.3.7 Government and Private Sector Responsibilities Several waste management initiatives, such as recycling and hazardous waste treatment and disposal, are undertaken by the private sector. It is not the DEAT’s intention to take over responsibility for those initiatives that are within the private sector domain, but rather to monitor their operation to ensure compliance with government’s environmental policy. 1.3.8 Sewage Sludge The management of sewage sludge is currently regulated by the Water Services Act and will therefore not be addressed as part of the NWMS, with the exception of sludge that is disposed at landfill sites. 1.3.9 Radioactive Waste The development of a strategy for the management of radioactive waste is still in the process of being developed jointly between the DEAT and the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) and will not form part of this document. It is government’s intention to include the new radioactive waste strategy in the next version of the NWMS. 1.3.10 Waste Minimisation Waste minimisation includes any activity to reduce or prevent the volume and environmental impact of waste. Waste minimisation in this Strategy also implies waste prevention. It is intended that waste minimisation will form part of a broader national cleaner production strategy. 2. Background to the NWMS 2.1 Environmental Policy and Legislative Developments The Consultative National Environmental Policy Process (CONNEPP) resulted in the development of the White Paper on Environmental Management Policy for
  20. 20. South Africa (1998) and the promulgation of the National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 (NEMA). This Act provides for co-operative environmental governance by establishing principles for decision making on matters affecting the environment. An important function of NEMA is to serve as an enabling Act for the promulgation of legislation to effectively address integrated waste management. Environmental policy and legislation in all fields of governmental activity have been under active review since 1994. The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, the Department of Minerals and Energy, the Department of Health, the Department of Constitutional Development and the Department of Trade and Industry have all been involved in this legal review process. Policies and legislation which directly or indirectly impact on waste management have been developed and published, or are in the process of being published, and in some instances have been implemented by the relevant departments. The integration of all these individual efforts is one of the main objectives of the integrated waste management policy. 2.2 Integrated Pollution and Waste Management Policy Whereas the Environmental Management Policy delineates government’s broad policy on environmental management, the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management (IP&WM) for South Africa (1998), details government's policy on pollution and waste management and has formed the point of departure and framework for the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS). The over-arching goal of the IP&WM policy is to move away from a previously fragmented situation of uncoordinated waste management to a system of integrated waste management. The Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa defines government’s "cradle to grave" approach to the management of waste. This is an holistic and integrated management approach extending from the feasibility and planning stages of a project, through waste prevention and
  21. 21. minimisation, as well as the generation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment and final disposal of waste. The IP&WM policy represents a paradigm shift in South Africa’s approach to waste management. Historically, pollution control focused primarily on impact management and remediation of pollution. To ensure sustainable development the focus has moved to pollution prevention. Subsequently, the NWMS process was undertaken to ensure that the IP&WM policy is translated into practice. Central to the development of the strategy for integrated waste management has been pollution avoidance/prevention and waste minimisation approach that focuses on the source of waste and moves away from the ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions. At the same time, the present state of waste management is far from perfect, and the Strategy recognises that a paradigm shift cannot be implemented without a concurrent improvement of existing management systems. The Strategy therefore also deals with the need to raise waste collection, waste transportation, treatment and disposal services to an acceptable standard for all communities and to provide waste management services for the whole country. The NWMS Strategy follows the waste hierarchy approach (see Figure 1.1), which is internationally accepted as a rigorous approach to integrated waste management.
  22. 22. Figure 1.1: Steps in Waste Hierarchy 3. DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 3.1 Scope of Strategy The National Waste Management Strategy presented in this document was compiled by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) in consultation with a wide range of stakeholders. The stakeholders include: government at all levels, non- governmental organisations (NGOs), community based organisations (CBOs), labour, business and industry (including mining). It represents a far reaching plan for addressing key issues, needs and problems experienced with waste management in South Africa (1997/8). The plan comprises a number of short, medium and long-term priority initiatives. The Strategy covers the period up to the year 2010.
  23. 23. The successful implementation of the Strategy will be critically dependent on the following factors and activities: Political will, enthusiasm and commitment on the side of the government to secure the necessary resources. Commitment, support and input from stakeholders. The availability of human and financial resources at all levels of the government and within civil society. Rapid capacity building in both government and civil society. The integration of waste management into the cradle to grave environmental planning and management process. This is a first generation Strategy which aims at initiating action both by government and civil society that will eventually result in an integrated waste management system for South Africa. Government accepts that this Strategy will have to be regularly reviewed (e.g. every five years) and adapted to address practical realities and changing needs and priorities. However, such periodic changes will not compromise the attainment of the overall goal of the Strategy, i.e. integrated and sustainable waste management. 3.2 Definitions The key terms and concepts used in this document are defined below while a more extensive glossary of terms (Annexure 1) and list of abbreviations (Annexure 2) are given at the end of the document. Strategy is used in this document to mean a broad course of action designed to make the best use of resources and opportunities and to offer the best prospect of achieving the defined objectives whilst dealing with the risks that may be involved in the course of action. Action Planning is the process of drawing up a scheme for defining targets, methods, tasks, responsibilities, timing, control procedures and the results expected. Waste is an undesirable or superfluous by-product, emission, or residue of any process or activity that has been discarded, accumulated or been stored for the purpose of discarding or processing. Waste products may be gaseous, liquid or solid or any combination thereof and may originate from domestic, commercial or
  24. 24. industrial activities, and include sewage sludge, radioactive waste, building rubble, as well as mining, metallurgical and power generation waste. Integrated Waste Management Strategy is a holistic and integrated course of action, which specifies the institutional, infrastructural and technological support, as well as human and financial resources required to establish and implement an integrated waste management strategy commits all the people of South Africa to preventing and minimising waste generation at source in order to protect human health and the environment and to develop resources in a sustainable manner. 3.3 Waste Categorisation For the purposes of this document, waste has been categorised as either general or hazardous. Within these two categories, waste is categorised according to its source namely, domestic, commercial or industrial (Figure 1.2). General waste is sub-divided into paper, metals, glass, plastic, organic and inert materials (which includes builders rubble). Due to its composition and characteristics general waste does not pose a significant threat to public health or the environment, if managed properly. Hazardous waste is waste that has the potential, even in low concentrations, to have a significant adverse effect on the public health or the environment. It is categorised according to the nine classes and four hazardous ratings, as described in the DWAF Minimum Requirements documents (Second edition, 1988).
  25. 25. Figure 1.2: Waste Categorisation 3.4 Principles The principles used in the development of the NWMS are inter alia those of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996), the Bill of Rights contained in the Constitution, the Environmental Management Policy for South Africa (No. 18894 of 1998), the Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of 1998) and the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998). Some of the principles on which the NWMS is based are – Accountability; Affordability; Cradle to Grave Management; Equity; Integration; Open Information; Polluter Pays; Subsidiarity; Waste Avoidance and Minimisation; Co-operative Governance; Sustainable Development; and Environmental Protection and Justice. 3.5 Strategic Goals and Objectives The wide variety of initiatives that need to be considered in order to realise the proposed integrated waste management system are detailed in Chapters 7 to 14 in Part 2 of this Strategy. The strategic goals of the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998) are the following: Effective institutional framework and legislation; Waste minimisation, impact management and remediation; Holistic and integrated planning; Participation and partnerships in IP&WM governance; Empowerment and environmental education; Information management; and International co- operation. The table below summarises in broad terms the key elements of the existing waste management approach as practised in South Africa (1997/8), compared to the proposed future situation after implementation of the strategic objectives of the NWMS. Existing Waste Management Approach Strategic Objectives for Integrated Waste Management
  26. 26. Limited focus on control mechanisms Focus on sustainable environmental protection Inadequate waste collection services Adequate waste collection services for all Adverse effect on the environment and public health Sustainable protection of the environment and public health Fragmented approach with single media focus Consolidated multimedia approach Conflict of interests Transparency in conflict resolution Insufficient information Integrated Waste Information System Inadequate environmental planning Holistic integrated environmental planning and capabilities Inadequate R&D programmes Focused investigations that take cognisance of cross-cutting implications Fragmented regulatory approach Integrated regulatory approach Regulations inadequately Enforcement facilitated
  27. 27. enforced Full waste management costs not realised Polluter Pays Principle and total cost accounting 3.6 Approach and Methodology The draft National Waste Management Strategy was developed for all the people of South Africa. The document sets out a long-term strategy with a time horizon of the year 2010. It outlines the functions and responsibilities of the three levels of government. It does not, however, specify in detail how the proposed strategy will be implemented, since this aspect of the Strategy will be dealt with during the next phase of its development i.e. the development of detailed action plans. The development of the NWMS is seen as a dynamic process that will be regularly reviewed (e.g. every 5 years) to take account of progress made, changing needs and priorities, as well as the realities of practical implementation. Where possible, firm plans and targets are specified. Where, due to a lack of information or other constraints this approach was not possible, a more qualitative approach has been taken. The NWMS Project comprised four phases: Phase I, The Inception Phase: During the Inception Phase, final detailed planning for the NWMS project was undertaken. Sectoral workshops were held during October and November 1997 where stakeholders were consulted about the project objectives, project schedule and project planning. Five tasks groups were formed, to deal with waste minimisation, the waste information system, hazardous waste, general waste and strategic planning respectively. The Inception Phase was completed during December 1997. Phase II, The Situation/Baseline Analysis Phase: Each of the four specialist task groups, i.e. waste minimisation, the waste information system, hazardous waste, and general waste, undertook a situation/baseline analysis that
  28. 28. identified waste issues, problems and needs in their specialist fields. The strategic planning task group synthesised these findings into an integrated Situation/Baseline Analysis Report, which addressed the seven strategic goals set out in the IP&WM policy. The Synthesis Report was workshopped with stakeholders during April and May 1998 and the waste management needs and issues which had to be addressed in the strategy formulation phase were identified. This phase was completed in May 1998. Phase III, The Strategy Formulation Phase: The strategy formulation phase commenced immediately after finalisation and acceptance by the stakeholders of the Situation/Baseline Synthesis Report. At a series of sectoral workshops and one multi sectoral workshop, each task group debated the key issues identified during the Situation/Baseline Analysis Phase and developed them into a broad range of strategic options and scenarios. The sectoral workshops were held during August 1998 and a multi sectoral workshop was held during September 1998. A draft NWMS (Version ‘a’) was compiled based on these inputs and direction from the Project Steering Committee (PSC). This draft NWMS was workshopped with stakeholders at a multi sectoral workshop held on 23 November 1998. ‘Version ‘b’ of the draft NWMS was compiled at the request of the workshop attendees and the Project Steering Committee, and was used as a basis for broad comment over a period of two and a half months (mid December 1998 to the end of February 1999). The input received was integrated into the NWMS, (Version ‘c’), Further stakeholder input was incorporated into the NWMS, which has been updated to Version ‘D’. Phase IV, Action Plans: This NWMS (Version ‘D’) identifies a number of strategic priority initiatives that need to be addressed as a matter of urgency. Action plans are being developed for their implementation. This process was initiated in January 1999. 4. PRIORITY INITIATIVES
  29. 29. The NWMS process described in the previous section was used to progress from policy to strategy. The NWMS project, through a process of consultation with a wide range of stakeholders developed the following outputs: A baseline situation analysis report, which identified problems, needs and key issues. Identified strategic options as possible mechanisms to address the key issues. Narrowing the focus of the strategic options to a set of specific priority initiatives that address the key issues raised by stakeholders. 4.1 Criteria and Rationale for Developing Priority Initiatives The criteria used to develop the priority initiatives were those stipulated in the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998). These criteria and the rationale for using them were the following: • Prevention and minimisation of waste Prevention and minimisation is the first approach to waste management according to the waste management hierarchy. The implementation of this approach will initiate the paradigm shift from end-of-pipe control to waste prevention and raise awareness of integrated waste management. Implementation of cleaner technology and waste minimisation within South Africa will also contribute to maintaining the country’s competitive position in the technological market place and enable South Africa will to meet the increasing demands from the developed world market to provide sustainably produced products. In addition, successful implementation of waste minimisation/prevention initiatives will strengthen the relationship between the public and private sector. • Direct and visible reduction in the impact on public health and environment This criterion has been recognised as one of the key objectives of the NWMS and supports the Constitutional right to an environment that is not detrimental to human health. This criterion is also stressed in the National Environmental Management Act, the Draft White Paper on Integrated
  30. 30. Pollution and Waste Management and the National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998). • Improve the quality of life of all South Africans, particularly the previously disadvantaged communities Provision of waste management services will improve the living standards of those communities that were previously unserviced. Giving effect to this criterion will increase public awareness of the benefits of integrated waste management, encourage payment for service provision and create funds to implement additional waste management initiatives. • Potential for job creation This criterion supports the RDP and the government’s drive to create employment. Integrated waste management has the potential for creating jobs in both the public and private sector. • Potential for rapid and visible results Implementation of initiatives that result in rapid and visible results will promote support for the NWMS and facilitate the implementation of the medium to long-term initiatives. • Optimum Utilisation of Available Resources Available human resources, current institutional arrangements and existing legislation will be optimally utilised and applied to address the short-term initiatives. • Sustainable Integrated Waste Management In order to bring about integrated waste management, the initiatives that have been selected focus not only on short-term results and impact, but also long-term sustainability. This criterion requires that the waste management process be cost, particularly for the waste generator. 4.2 Priority Initiatives This section summarises all the priority initiatives that have been developed for the seven main elements of the waste management hierarchy (Chapters 7 to 13
  31. 31. in Part 2) and the implementing instruments (Chapter 14 in Part 2). Each summary in this section includes a title for each initiative and indicates milestones, i.e. important results or products expected during the course of development of the initiative. Since this chapter is a summary, in some cases, the title of the initiative does not correspond precisely with the longer title description given in the background document (Part 2). However, any slight change in title does not indicate any change in the content of the initiatives. Short-term milestones are defined as those waste management results and products planned within current resource constraints for delivery before the end of 2002. Medium term milestones are those defined for delivery during the period 2003 to 2006, and long term milestones are those that will be realised during the period 2007 to 2010. Proposed responsible institutions are listed in Table 4.1 at the end of this section. The timeframes indicated below are DEAT’s estimate of the earliest possible dates for the implementation of the various proposed priority NWMS initiatives. As mentioned previously (Section 1.3.3), practical realities may necessitate a review and adaptation of these timeframes, e.g. short-term may have to be extended to the year 2004. 4.2.1 Integrated Waste Management Priority Initiatives The section below describes the priority initiatives developed for the seven elements of integrated waste management. Integrated Waste Management Planning • Regulations and guidelines for the compilation of waste management plans, covering all types of waste, will be drafted by the DEAT, in consultation with provincial government, and promulgated by the year 2000. Special consideration will be given to waste management in rural and farming areas. • For general waste, first generation plans will be compiled by local government in 2001, for submission in 2002. Final plans will be submitted and approved in 2003 and be implemented by 2006. Compilation of first generation integrated general waste management plans in the short-term is part of a phasing-in process. • For hazardous industrial waste, first generation plans will be compiled by provincial government in 2001, for submission in 2002. Final plans will be submitted and approved in 2003 and be implemented by 2006.
  32. 32. • All integrated waste management plans will be subjected to public consultation, prior to submission to the provinces and to national government. • Provincial government will prepare summaries of the plans received from local government for managing general waste so that they can be incorporated to their provincial environmental management plans for submission to the CEC. • Provincial integrated hazardous waste management plans will be compiled, with stakeholder input, for submission to the CEC. The integrated waste management plans will be discussed at the CEC to facilitate inter provincial co-ordination, particularly in relation to provision of facilities for disposal and treatment of both hazardous and general waste. • Plans for non-hazardous and hazardous mining and power station waste will be developed and submitted to the provinces by the mine and power station owners according to an agreed time schedule. Provincial government will incorporate the plans in summarised form in their provincial environmental and waste management plan for submission to the CEC. • Final plans for both general and hazardous waste will be regularly revised (e.g. every 5 years). Waste Information System • The database and guidelines for the Waste Information System (WIS) will be developed by the end of 1999, and will include the development of a WIS prototype. The development of the prototype forms part of the NWMS project. • The WIS database will become operational once the necessary regulatory requirements are in place and operations are envisaged to commence in the year 2000. • The phased implementation of the WIS database, including receipt of data, processing and dissemination and regular system updating, will take place from the year 2001. Waste Minimisation • Planning for, and initial implementation of, a National Waste Minimisation Programme will take place from 1999 to 2000, following the development of DEAT waste minimisation policies throughout 1999. • DEAT will implement waste minimisation strategies in its own operations during 1999, for example, the inclusion of waste minimisation/cleaner production clauses within government procurement requirements. • DEAT will implement demonstration projects and encourage the use of co- regulatory waste management instruments like the use of government/industry agreements. • DEAT will initiate a process of identifying a list of priority wastes during 1999. Once a priority list has been agreed upon, affected sectors will be encouraged to enter into discussions with DEAT on specific waste minimisation strategies.
  33. 33. • Waste minimisation strategies will be integrated within an overall sustainable development framework. Recycling • Promotion of waste recycling will be incorporated in pollution and waste legislation, to be drafted during 1999. • A number of successful recycling initiatives have been initiated by the private sector. The DEAT will identify all current recycling initiatives and will consult with the responsible bodies in order to ascertain the most appropriate approach to conduct research and development projects. It is envisaged that this process will run from 1999 to 2003. Policy instruments like section 35 of the National Environmental Management Act will be used to support and enhance current recycling initiatives. Although the process will be facilitated by the DEAT, the involvement of local government in the recycling initiatives is essential and provides environmental focus. An Action Plan for supporting and extending recycling initiatives will be developed and implemented by 2006. • DEAT will enter into discussions with the mining and power generation industry to develop action plans to investigate, promote and extend recycling of wastes generated by these industries. Waste Collection and Transportation • Waste collection services are to be established throughout South Africa starting in 1999 and being fully realised by the end of 2006. Priority has been given to establishing general waste collection services in unserviced and poorly serviced residential areas according to a phased implementation with the target of securing basic waste collection services for approximately 300 000 households in high density unserviced areas by the end of 2002. • A safe collection and transportation system for hazardous waste will be developed. This system will include the registration and certification of transporters (by 2000), implementation of the waste manifest system (by 2001) and the development of a network of collection points (by the end of 2002). • The DEAT will develop guidelines for the safe management of medical waste by 2001 which will include guidelines for the sorting of the waste at source into infectious waste that requires incineration (according to the Human Tissues Act) and non-hazardous medical waste that can be disposed of by alternative methods. • A carefully developed implementation plan for both general and hazardous waste collection and transportation will be implemented in the medium to long-term. • The DEAT, in the medium to long-term, will prepare guidelines for the collection and transportation of general waste, taking into account the regionalisation of waste disposal sites. • The DEAT will prepare guidelines for provincial government for the collection and transportation of hazardous waste that will ensure integration of all regulations relating to the transportation of hazardous materials.
  34. 34. Waste Treatment • The DEAT will review and revise existing air emission standards on thermal treatment facilities to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. The initial objective is that by 2002 all thermal treatment facilities will have been upgraded to comply with the revised standards, or will have been decommissioned. • The planning for a system of well-functioning medical waste treatment plants will be completed by the year 2002 and additional treatment plants established thereafter. Medical waste treatment systems in rural areas will be in place during the period 2006 to 2010. • The DEAT will initiate national surveys to identify the amount and categories of hazardous waste requiring treatment throughout the country. • The DEAT will facilitate an investigation as to the desirability and feasibility of a national hazardous waste treatment facility. This investigation will involve all relevant stakeholders. Waste Disposal • All landfill sites will be registered, permitted and operated in agreement with the DWAF Minimum Requirements (Second Edition, 1998) by 2005. A system of regional landfills will be promoted. Salvaging on landfills will be formalised and controlled by 2003 and will be phased out completely in the longer-term. • The DEAT, in collaboration with all the relevant government departments, will initiate a process to identify suitable areas for the establishment of hazardous waste treatment and disposal sites. Sites will be established with the full involvement of local and provincial government and the private sector and private enterprise will be involved in for the operation and management of these sites. Co-disposal will be gradually phased out as new waste treatment and disposal technologies are developed and implemented. • During the short-term period, disposal of mining and power station waste will comply with a permitting process that is integrated with the Environmental Management Programme Report (EMPR) process. A development programme for integrated management of mining and power station waste will start in 2002. At the same time, new closure requirements will be promulgated, and abandoned mine waste sites will be placed on an inventory and assessed, in accordance with the DWAF programme for remediation. This programme will establish an integrated waste management plan for remediation of abandoned mine sites that will be implemented by 2004. • The DWAF Minimum Requirements will be reviewed every five years, or more often if considered necessary. 4.2.2 Implementing Instruments
  35. 35. Institutional Development • The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) assigns responsibility for refuse removal, refuse dumps and solid waste disposal to local government. Provincial government has the exclusive responsibility to ensure that local government carries out these functions effectively. • Integrated waste management functions will be concentrated in national departments of environmental affairs and provincial and local government by 2006. • The DEAT, together with other relevant government departments, will investigate mechanisms to ensure that financial provision is made for the initiation and implementation of a regulatory system regarding waste disposal sites. This system will ensure that the permit holder has made financial provision for the closure, long-term monitoring and rehabilitation of waste disposal sites. Capacity Building • Capacity building for implementing and administering integrated waste management strategies in the public sector will be planned during 1999 and implemented throughout the strategy period. Capacity building activities around waste management must form part of a capacity building plan and be co-ordinated with other environmental capacity building initiatives of other departments. Legislative requirements • South African environmental law will be reviewed and assessed in the light of the NWMS Strategy, as well as against the requirements of the Constitution (1996); the National Environmental Management Act (1998); the Environmental Management Policy for South Africa ((1998); and the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998), in a Law Reform Process, which will be initiated and managed by the DEAT. • Legislative support, which is required before the completion of the Law Reform Process, will be based on the enforcement of existing legislation. The DEAT will ensure that the legislative requirements for the implementation of the short-term initiatives are dealt with as a priority in terms of the Legal Reform Process. • Existing legislation should be used and if necessary, appropriately amended, rather than new laws being created. Funding • Two distinct funding mechanisms will be used, viz.: o Financial pricing mechanisms - based on a cost recovery approach. o Economic approaches - which introduce economic instruments into the pricing structure of integrated waste management in order to achieve specific waste management objectives.
  36. 36. Implementation of the Polluter Pays Principle is an integral component of both approaches. • Funding set out in this Strategy will come from a variety of sources depending on the allocation of responsibility for waste management. In the case of national and provincial government, departmental budgets will be used and supplemented where appropriate by donor funding for specific initiatives. In the case of local government, funding will come from the introduction of appropriate cost recovery mechanisms for services delivered. The potential for utilising the Municipal Infrastructure Investment Fund to assist with the establishment of facilities will be investigated. • The DEAT will develop a national pricing strategy to assist local government with the introduction of appropriate user charges that will be legislated as part of the Law Reform Process, to be completed by 2000. The development of this Strategy will be undertaken in consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry, and the Department of Finance. • The DEAT will investigate the use of economic instruments to promote the expansion and adoption of waste minimisation and recycling initiatives. • The Polluter Pays Principle, which is a principle of the National Environmental Management Policy (1998), will in the immediate future be implemented for the most part through regulations. Possibilities to supplement this income with dedicated economic incentives will be investigated by DEAT in conjunction with stakeholders. Public Participation and Partnerships, Education and Awareness • A range of public participation facilitation mechanisms will be considered. • The implementation of the NWMS necessitates ongoing environmental education, public awareness and public participation programmes. • Public awareness programmes will be developed in the short-term and implemented in such a way as to meet the requirements of the individual waste management initiatives. The requirement of public awareness will necessitate activities at national level to create general public awareness, as well as require supporting activities at local/community or industrial sector levels, e.g. in the case of introducing new waste collection schemes or sector-based waste minimisation projects. Programmes on waste management will be integrated into and co- ordinated with other environmental projects, programmes and campaigns. 4.2.3 Time Schedules and Responsibilities The priority initiatives are summarised in Table 4.1. This table gives a description of priority initiatives, and time frames and indicates the levels of government that will take the responsibility for specific initiatives. Detailed background is given in Part 2, Chapters 7 to 13.
  37. 37. Table 4.1: Priority Initiatives Table 4.1 Priority Initiatives (cont.)
  38. 38. Table 4. 1 Priority Initiatives (cont.)
  39. 39. 4.3 Prioritisation of Priority Initiatives To fully address the identified priority initiatives in an integrated manner will require the implementation of about 50 major priority initiatives (Table 4.1) (and many more sub-initiatives) with their associated resource requirements (financial and human), required institutional changes, new legislation and capacity building requirements. In order to develop a strategy that can be effectively implemented, the priority initiatives have been categorised into short- term (by the year 2002), medium- term (by the year 2006) and long-term (by the year 2010) priorities. The criteria used for this categorisation process are those stipulated in Section 4.1 but with a specific emphasis on what could be achieved practically in the short, medium and long-term. The priority initiatives identified as short-term were analysed to assess their broad requirements (institutional, legislation, capacity building and financial requirements) and implications for their implementation. Once further input is received from stakeholders on these proposed short-term priority initiatives, re-
  40. 40. prioritisation may be necessary to ensure that these initiatives can be realised by the year 2002. The finalised short-term initiatives will be developed into Action Plans for their implementation. The broad requirements and implications for the priority initiatives were identified in Part 2, Chapters 7 to 13. Detailed requirements and implications and associated activities will be investigated and developed following the development of action plans for the short-term initiatives. 4.4 Short-Term Priority Initiatives The following seven short-term priority initiatives have been identified for urgent consideration and implementation using the selection criteria described in Section 4. The degree of compliance (both in the short and also in the longer-term) with the selection criteria is tabulated qualitatively for each identified short-term initiative. The implications and requirements of instruments for implementing these priority initiatives are also summarised and include a cross-reference to the detailed discussion of the requirements in Part 2, Chapters 7 to 13. Medium and long-term priority initiatives are briefly addressed in Section 4.5. Cost estimates will be refined as these initiatives move into the phase of Action Plan development and implementation. 4.4.1 Integrated Waste Management Planning The DEAT will draft and promulgate regulations and guideline documents for integrated waste planning, and will develop and implement capacity building plans and public awareness campaigns. Provincial government will develop and submit first generation hazardous waste management plans and prepare final plans for submission. Local government will develop and submit first generation plans for integrated general waste management and prepare final integrated general waste management plans for submission. Waste management plans for business and industry with on-site waste treatment facilities will be prepared by
  41. 41. developers/owners and be submitted to provinces according to a mutually agreed time schedule. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste   Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment  Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities  Potential for job creation Potential for rapid and visible results Optimum utilisation of available resources  Sustainable Integrated Waste Management    Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements Institutional arrangements (Section 7.3.1 Part 2) DEAT to issue regulations and guidelines to ensure
  42. 42. implementation of an integrated waste planning system Provincial Government to compile first generation waste management plans for hazardous waste and prepare for submission of final plans Local Government, with assistance from provincial government, to compile first generation waste management plans for general waste and prepare for submission of final plans Legislation (Section 7.3.3 Part 2) Regulations to be promulgated by the year 2000 Integrated with LDO and IDPs by the year 2000 according to the Development Facilitation Act Financial (Section 7.3.4, Part 2) Funding to be secured partly from the fiscus, partly from payment for services Estimated cost: DEAT 1999/2000 2.3 million Rand Regulations etc. 2000/2002 6 million Rand Awareness campaign Provincial Government 2001/2002 8 million Rand/year First generation HW plans 1999/2002 10 million Rand/year Capacity Building Local Government 1999/2002 16 million Rand Capacity building 2001/2002 8 million Rand/year First generation GW plans
  43. 43. Staff and capacity building (Section 7.3.2 Part 2) Estimated total staff requirement: 2 staff in DEAT 40 staff in Provincial Government (3 to 6 per province) 800 staff in Local Government (part time) which may reduce to approximately 350 if re-structuring of the local authorities takes place The above mentioned staff will be capacitated according to Capacity Building Plan (Part 2, Section 14.4.2). Costs for capacity building are included in the above costs Public participation and partnerships (Section 7.3.5 Part 2) A range of facilitation mechanisms will be considered General waste plans compiled by local government in consultation with provincial government and district councils Inter-municipal/regional partnerships to be developed Public awareness and waste management education (Section 7.3.5 Part 2) Promote understanding of integrated waste management, including solid waste management and the importance of integrated waste management planning 4.4.2 Waste Information System The DEAT will develop a National Waste Information System and adopt a phased approach for its implementation. The implementation will focus on and address the short term waste information needs i.e. data required for integrated waste planning
  44. 44. and waste disposal. Integral to the WIS will be the development of key performance indicators and an annual reporting system. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste   Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities Potential for job creation  Potential for rapid and visible results Optimum utilisation of available resources Sustainable Integrated Waste Management    Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements Institutional arrangements (Section 8.3.1 Part 2) DEAT to promulgate legislation required for implementation of the WIS, and develop and co-
  45. 45. ordinate implementation of the Waste Information System Provincial government to be responsible for data processing and quality assurance Local government, with assistance from Provincial Government, to be responsible for data collection Legislation (Section 8.3.3 Part 2) New legislation and regulations on the WIS to be promulgated by the end of 1999 Regulations on waste classification to be drafted in terms of Section 24 of the Environment Conservation Act, or within new IP&WM/WIS legislation based on inter alia the DWAF Minimum Requirements Financial (Section 8.3.4 Part 2) Funding to be secured partly from the fiscus and partly from the private sector Estimated cost: DEAT 1999 5 million Rand WIS development 1999/2000 5 million Rand Capacity Building 1999 6 million Rand Hardware Ongoing 0.5 million Rand/year Operating costs Provincial Government 2000 or 2001 1.5 million Rand/year Operating costs Local Government 2000 or 2001 9-10 million Rand/year Operating
  46. 46. costs Staff and capacity building (Section 8.3.2 Part 2) Estimated total staff requirements: 2 to 4 staff in DEAT 50 staff in Provincial Government (part time) 800 staff in Local Government (part time) which may reduce to approximately 350 if re- structuring of the local authorities takes place Expertise to be developed as part of the DEAT Capacity Building Programme Information suppliers to be capacitated regarding operation of the WIS Public participation and partnerships (Section 8.3.5 Part. 2) A range of facilitation mechanisms will be considered The establishment of regional computer centres for use by those local authorities that do not have access to computer facilities will be investigated Public awareness and waste management education (Section 8.3.5 Part 2) Regular distribution of information through all forms of media to promote public awareness of the WIS 4.4.3 Waste Minimisation Following a review and assessment of current waste minimisation initiatives, the DEAT, together with the private sector, may develop and implement a National Waste Minimisation Programme. This Programme will be integrated with relevant environmental initiatives of other national, provincial and local government departments, and
  47. 47. will include the development of guidelines, and the introduction of legislative incentives for waste minimisation. The Programme will also include the implementation of one or more demonstration projects. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste    Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment   Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities Potential for job creation  Potential for rapid and visible results Optimum utilisation of available resources  Sustainable Integrated Waste Management   Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements
  48. 48. Institutional arrangement (Section 9.3.1 Part 2) DEAT to be the lead agent for managing waste minimisation initiatives (The possibility of establishing a National Centre for Waste Minimisation/Cleaner Production to be investigated) Provincial and local government to implement initiatives and to promote co-operative approaches, such as waste minimisation clubs Private sector to assist in development of guidelines and environmental agreements, and to monitor the effective implementation of waste minimisation initiatives Legislation (Section 9.3.3 Part 2) New legislation and amendments to existing legislation will be required Regulations will be issued in terms of sections 21 and 24 of ECA, and section 35 of NEMA, or as part of the new IP&WM legislation as appropriate Chapters 3, 5 and 8 in NEMA are relevant Financial (Section 9.3.4 Part 2) Funding to be secured from the fiscus, donors, development funding and the private sector Estimated expenditure for National Waste Minimisation Programme National Budget 1999/2001 2 million Rand Guidelines, campaign, awards, databases 1999/2001 3 million Rand Prioritisation of streams, initial implementation of Programme
  49. 49. 1999/2001 2 million Rand Demonstration project 1999/2001 0.8 million Rand Legislation, policy 1999/2002 0.5 to 1 million Rand/year Administration 1999/2001 5 million Rand Capacity building Private Sector 1999/2001 3 million Rand Development of sectoral waste minimisation guidelines/participation in demo projects/development of agreements and waste min clubs/contribution to NW Min Centre Donor Funds 1999/2001 16 million Rand Sectoral guides, demo projects, Waste Min Centre / info campaigns Staff and capacity building (Section 9.3.2 Part 2) DEAT 1999/2002 5 staff required 2001-2012 2-3 staff required 2-3 additional staff in total required for all the provinces Public participation and partnerships (Section 9.3.5 Part 2) A range of facilitation mechanisms will be considered Public/private implementation of demonstration projects, environmental agreements and waste minimisation clubs All sectors represented on NEAF, and contribute to policy initiatives through structured participation processes. Public awareness and waste management education (Section 9.3.5 Part 2) The establishment of Waste Minimisation Centre/s to be investigated Consumers to be informed about the benefits of waste minimisation
  50. 50. 4.4.4 Recycling The DEAT will identify and co-ordinate ongoing recycling initiatives in South Africa. In consultation with stakeholders, the DEAT will investigate the most appropriate way for promoting and implementing waste recycling. Private sector proposals will be solicited. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste   Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment   Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities Potential for job creation   Potential for rapid and visible results  Implementing instruments already in place  Sustainable Integrated Waste Management  
  51. 51. Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements Institutional arrangement (Section 10.3.1 Part 2) DEAT will be the lead agent for investigating recycling initiatives Legislation (Section 10.3.3 Part 2) New legislation will only be required once appropriate mechanisms for implementation have been identified Financial (Section 10.3.4 Part 2) Funding to be secured form the fiscus DEAT 1999/2002 0.2 million Rand/year Operating costs Costs will only be incurred for implementing medium to long-term strategies Staff and capacity building (Section 10.3.2 Part 2) Two staff at national level will be used Designated person at provincial level Existing staff in public and private organisations will participate on an ad-hoc basis Public participation and partnerships (Section 10.3.5 Part 2) A range of facilitation mechanisms will be considered Future public/private partnerships to be investigated Recycling initiatives will only be sustained by the active participation of communities Public awareness and waste management education The concept of separation at source will have to be
  52. 52. (Section 10.3.5 Part 2) promoted through an effective public awareness campaign 4.4.5 Waste Collection and Transportation The DEAT, in collaboration with provincial government, will develop guidelines and standards for collection of general waste. Provincial government will draft provincial regulations in consultation with local government for general waste collection services. Local government will initiate the phased implementation of waste collection services for high-density, unserviced areas. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste  Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment    Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities    Potential for job creation    Potential for rapid and visible results    Implementing instruments already in place   
  53. 53. Sustainable Integrated Waste Management  Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements Institutional arrangement (Section 11.3.1 Part 2) The DEAT will develop guidelines and standards for collection services for general waste Provincial government will draft provincial regulations in consultation with local government Local Government to implement collection services for general waste Legislation (Section 11.3.3 Part 2) Regulations in terms of Section 24 of the ECA will be enforced Legislation will be promulgated to establish new guidelines for basic waste collection services Financial (Section 11.3.4 Part 2) Funding will be acquired partly from the fiscus and partly from the payment for services. Estimated cost for waste collection from 300 000 service points: DEAT /Provincial Government 0.2 million Rand/year Personnel costs 1 million Rand/ year for 3 yrs Awareness campaign Local Government
  54. 54. 4 million Rand/year Personnel costs 28.8 million Rand/year Collection costs (R8/m/point) Staff and capacity building (Section 11.3.2 Part 2) Estimated total staff requirements: 2 staff at DEAT 30 to 60 staff at local government level (cost calculated using 50) Capacity building concentrating on implementing collection services for general waste to be focused at local government and communities Public participation and partnerships (Section 11.3.5 Part 2) Appropriate public/private partnerships to be encouraged Explore public-private partnerships in the development of facilities to serve both sectors Community-based small contractor systems to be investigated Public awareness and waste management education (Section 11.3.5 Part 2) Initiate public awareness campaign to promote payment for services Link waste collection awareness campaign to the Masakhane campaign Create an awareness of the negative impact on health and the environment caused by the non-collection of waste 4.4.6 Waste Treatment
  55. 55. Standards for medical waste incinerator air emission, as well as classification of all waste treatment facilities, will be reviewed, revised and enforced. A public awareness and waste management education campaign will be introduced to focus on the hazards of medical waste and the legal responsibilities of medical waste generators. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment    Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities    Potential for job creation  Potential for rapid and visible results    Implementing instruments already in place   Sustainable Integrated Waste Management  Implementing Implications and Requirements
  56. 56. Instruments Institutional arrangement (Section 12.3.1 Part 2) The DEAT to review and revise air emission standards and incinerator classification system Provincial government to enforce new standards for medical waste incinerators and other hazardous waste facilities Legislation (Section 12.3.3 Part 2) Update relevant regulations (and associated guidelines) issued in terms of section 44 of Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (Act 45 of 1965) Financial (Section 12.3.4 Part 2) Staff to be funded from the fiscus Estimated cost for staff requirements 0.15 million Rand per annum DEAT 1.35 million Rand per annum Provincial government Staff and capacity building (Section 12.3.2 Part 2) Estimated total staff requirements 1 staff at DEAT 1 staff for each province (part time) Promote sorting of medical waste at source Public participation and partnerships (Section 12.3.5 Part 2) Co-ordinated planning between provinces for regionally based facilities Explore public-private partnerships in the development of facilities to serve both sectors Public participation essential with regard to the siting of new facilities
  57. 57. Public awareness and waste management education (Section 12.3.5 Part 2) Increase the awareness of all sectors of society with regard to necessity for incineration of medical waste 4.4.7 Waste Disposal A process will be initiated to register all landfill sites. Plans will be submitted for remediation and/or meeting the DWAF Minimum Requirements. In addition, permit conditions will be enforced for those sites currently permitted through regular monitoring and auditing. A new permitting process that is integrated with the EMPR process will be initiated for mining and power stations. New hazardous waste disposal sites will be established. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and the environment    Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities    Potential for job creation   Potential for rapid and visible results 
  58. 58. Implementing instruments already in place    Sustainable Integrated Waste Management  Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements Institutional arrangement (Section 13.3.1 Part 2) DEAT to undertake registration of waste disposal sites Permitting and enforcement of permit conditions devolved to the provincial government Regional/local government to undertake regional planning and landfill site management Legislation (Section 13.3.3 Part 2) Regulations issued in terms of section 24 of ECA, or as part of the new IP&WM legislation Minimum Requirements required as part of permit conditions Financial (Section 13.3.4 Part 2) Landfill owner to be responsible for submitting of plans Additional staff to be funded from the fiscus and partly through payment for services Estimated cost for staff requirements 1.5 million Rand per annum DEAT 8 million Rand per annum Provincial government 2 million Rand per annum Regional/local government Staff and capacity building Estimated total staff requirements:
  59. 59. (Section 13.3.2 Part 2) 10 staff at DEAT 6 staff at each province (54 total) 1-2 staff at each regional/local government Waste site operators to fully understand the DWAF Minimum Requirements Regulatory authority staff to hold tertiary qualification Public participation and partnerships (Section 13.3.5 Part 2) Local governments to form partnerships to investigate the establishment of regional landfills Task team to be established to develop permit guidelines for mining and power station waste landfills Review public participation requirements for the DWAF Minimum Requirements Public awareness and waste management education (Section 13.3.5 Part 2) Awareness to be promoted about landfill site management and the need for compliance to the DWAF Minimum Requirements 4.4.8 Implementing Instruments The DEAT, together with other relevant government departments, will develop the necessary implementing instruments to facilitate the implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy, both in the short-term and in the medium to long term. A prerequisite for the implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy is the availability and proper functioning of the following instruments: • Institutional framework • Legislation Funding and funding mechanisms • Capacity building • Public participation and partnerships • Waste management education and public awareness programmes.
  60. 60. The conversion of the IP&WM policy into law is an ongoing process. Amongst other things, the legislation will support the development of an institutional framework as well as the funding mechanisms for implementation of the NWMS. The implementation of the NWMS is dependent upon promulgation of the required legislation according to the proposed time schedule. Some of the short term priority initiatives can be implemented using the existing legislation, whilst others e.g. integrating waste management planning, implementation of the Waste Information System, and regulations supporting waste minimisation and recycling initiatives, have weak or no legal support at present. Ongoing negotiations are being conducted regarding the development of a sustainable institutional framework. The timing and outcomes of these negotiations will have substantial effect on the implementation of the Strategy as initiatives have been allocated to specific institutions. Once political decisions have been made, any deviations from the proposed institutional structure will be amended in the draft NWMS. Furthermore, budget allocations to support the Strategy can then be secured and departmental planning for staff allocation/reallocation and capacity building programmes can be initiated. The estimated timeframe for implementation of many of the initiatives is short. Should the timeframes be unrealistic, a political decision will be taken on setting new time frames and parameters for the Strategy implementation process. Full implementation of the Strategy as proposed in this Strategy will require political and governmental flexibility and commitment. The DEAT, as part of its day to day functions and in line with the departmental business plan, will in co-operation with other relevant departments, develop action plans and schedules, allocate staff and funds for the development and implementation of the seven short-term priority initiatives through a comprehensive capacity building programme. Furthermore, the DEAT will also plan for the implementation of medium to long-term initiatives. 4.4.9 Cost Estimates for Implementation of Short Term Priority Initiatives
  61. 61. Integrated Waste Management Planning To implement an integrated waste management planning system in South Africa will require new regulations and guidelines as well as implementation of a comprehensive waste management/environmental education and capacity building programme. The drafting of regulations and guidelines is scheduled to take place in 1999 and 2000. Two staff members of the DEAT, with a workload of three years, will be responsible for drafting these regulations and guidelines. The estimated cost of drafting regulations is 1 million Rand and 0.8 million Rand for drafting guidelines. The total estimated cost for undertaking these activities for the period 1999 and 2000 is 1.8 million Rand. A comprehensive waste management/environmental education and capacity building programme will be initiated. Capacity building programmes in the period 1999 to 2001 are estimated to cost 16 million Rand at local government level, and 10 million Rand at provincial government level. The capacity development programme will be co-ordinated with the DEAT Capacity Building Programme and with ongoing capacity building initiatives in provincial and local government. The compilation of first generation hazardous waste management plans at provincial government level is estimated to cost 8 million Rand per year in 2001 and 2002. Three to six staff members per province will be employed to carry out the planning activities (calculated as 40 staff nationally). The compilation of first generation management plans for general waste will be carried out by local government in 2001 and 2002 and is estimated to cost 8 million Rand per year or an average of R10 000 per local authority. One person per local government will be occupied for 20 percent of their time, which is equivalent to 160 person years. During the implementation of the integrated waste management planning process, public awareness campaigns will be initiated at an estimated cost of 6 million Rand for the period 2000 to 2002. Waste Information System
  62. 62. The cost for the development of the waste information system in 1999 is estimated to be 5 million Rand, which includes the cost for tendering. Computer hardware costs are estimated to be 6 million Rand in the years 1999. The capacity building costs for 1999 and 2000 is estimated at 5 million Rand. By the year 2000 the WIS will be ready for implementation. Four full-time staff at DEAT will be responsible for its implementation and supervision. Personnel costs are estimated to be 0.5 million Rand per year. From the year 2000 the staff in the provinces will be required to process and undertake the quality assurance of the waste data collected by local government. The estimated cost for personnel is 1.5 million Rand per year in 2000 and 2001, assuming that 50 staff members in the provinces are occupied for 50 percent of their time. The level of data collected in the first phase of implementation of the WIS will be limited to that from the main waste producers and those generators who are identified as producing wastes of concern, as well as the major waste transporters and disposers. This will limit the number of waste producers, transporters and disposers to be approached by the local government staff. The first waste data that is collected will be used for planning purposes as well as for the enforcement of waste disposal regulations. The cost to local government is estimated to be between 9 and 10 million Rand, assuming that one staff member at each local government is occupied 25 percent of their time for data collection activity. Only one cycle of data collection will take place in the short term (up to the year 2002). Waste Minimisation The initial implementation of a National Waste Minimisation Programme requires five full time staff at the DEAT who will be responsible for the development of guidelines, introducing waste campaigns, the prioritisation of waste streams, the supervision of demonstration projects and ensuring that relevant waste management regulations are promulgated. A total of two to three staff members at provincial level in total, together with DEAT staff, will be responsible for the
  63. 63. implementation of the initiatives. The cost of administration is estimated to be 0.5 to 1 million Rand per year and implementation costs between the years 1999 to 2002 are 7.8 million Rand. Participation by the private sector in demonstration projects and assisting in the development of sectoral guidelines is estimated to cost 1 million Rand per year. To facilitate implementation of waste minimisation initiatives, such as demonstration projects, donor funding of 4 million Rand per year would be required in the short-term. WIS staff capacity building between 1999 to 2001 is estimated to cost 5 million Rand. Recycling The DEAT, in consultation with stakeholders, will investigate the most appropriate way of promoting and implementing recycling initiatives. It is anticipated that 2 staff members will be required for implementing the short-term recycling initiatives. The staff members will be responsible for facilitating investigations and feasibility studies, as well as be responsible for the development of legal and financial mechanisms to promote recycling. Waste Collection and Transportation The DEAT will improve the collection of general waste in South Africa by upgrading waste collection services in high-density, unserviced areas. Implementation and upgrading of general collection services in these areas will be phased in. Initially collection services for 300 000 households will be implemented before the end of 2002. The estimated cost for local government to administer the new collection services will be 4 million Rand per year (assuming an average total of 50 staff members per year). The basic collection service cost is assumed to be R8/month per service point, which is therefore equivalent to 28.8 million Rand per year for 300 000 households. The inadequate payment and collection of service fees for the funding of operating costs of waste collection must be urgently addressed. Payment for waste collection should inter alia be promoted through the
  64. 64. Masakhane and other public awareness campaigns. Provision will however be made for situations of genuine financial hardship. Two staff members at the DEAT, in collaboration with provincial government staff, will draft guidelines for general waste collection services, the hazardous waste manifest system as well as hazardous waste collection/transfer facilities. This process will cost 0.8 million Rand per year over the period 1999 to 2002. The cost for implementing a waste manifest system and sorting of medical waste will be borne by the waste generator and will be enforced by the provincial government. The cost of implementing a public awareness campaign for waste collection and transportation is estimated to be 1 million Rand per year for the years 2000 to 2002. Waste Treatment The waste treatment classification system and the air emission standards for medical waste in the short-term will be revised and regulations will be enforced. One staff member will be appointed at the DEAT and one in each province. The estimated cost for the personnel is 0.15 million Rand per year at the DEAT and 1.35 million Rand per year for provincial government. Waste Disposal Waste disposal regulations, and landfill site registration and permitting, will be enforced by appropriately capacitated staff in national, provincial and local government. Ten staff members at national level corresponding to a cost of 1.5 million Rand per year, six staff members (working for 50 percent of their time) in each province corresponding to 8 million Rand per year and approximately 80 staff members (working for 25 percent of their time) in local government corresponding to 2 million Rand per year. Tables 4.2 and 4.3 summarise the capacity and financial requirements respectively, which are required for implementing the short-term priority initiatives in the period 1999 to 2002. The tables represent a consolidation of the initial estimates of cost implications and the capacity requirements. These cost estimates will be further refined during development of the Action Plans.
  65. 65. Table 4.2: Summarised Capacity Requirements for 1999 to 2002 Table 4.3: Summarised Cost Estimate for Short-term Initiatives 4.5 Medium to Long-Term Priority Initiatives
  66. 66. The broad requirements and implications for the medium-term priority initiatives (up to 2006) and long-term priority initiatives (up to 2010) (see Table 4.1) have been identified in Chapters 7 to 13 in Part 2 and are summarised in Section 9.2 of Part 1. Detailed requirements and the associated Action Plans will be investigated and developed subsequent to the development of Action Plans for the short-term initiatives. Based on these more detailed requirements, the DEAT will develop a business plan to secure the required human and financial resources, as well as develop an overall strategic plan to secure government and civil society commitment to the implementation of these initiatives. Medium-term priority initiatives (up to 2006) and long-term priority initiatives (up to 2010) will be implemented as and when the resources have been acquired. Government, in partnership with civil society, will on a regular basis review the progress with the implementation of the short-term priority initiatives. Implementation and scheduling of the medium and long-term initiatives will be reviewed at the same time. Some of the short-term priority initiatives (Section 9.4) which start in mid 1999 also have a medium to long-term dimension and will be executed in parallel with the medium to long-term initiatives. 5. THE WAY FORWARD A strategy implementation process will be initiated which will address the urgent administrative and other related issues set out below: • Action Plans, which may include proposals for conducting pilot projects, will be developed as part of the implementation of the NWMS. Action Plans for short- term priority initiatives will be compiled by September 1999 and Action Plans for the medium to long-term priority initiatives thereafter. • Capacity will be developed within the DEAT, and other national departments, provincial departments and local government departments dealing with the environment, to undertake the functions associated with the integrated waste management, and encourage relevant capacity building in civil society. Integrated waste management issues will be co-ordinated through the National Environmental Advisory Forum (NEAF) in terms of the National Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of 1998). Ongoing structured consultations and negotiations with provincial environmental and other national government departments will be conducted to resolve the future division of waste management
  67. 67. roles, functions and responsibilities. The process and functions of integrated waste management will be introduced to all spheres of government, with particular attention being given to functions related to: o Co-ordination of authorisations o General and hazardous waste management o A uniform approach to international conventions o A uniform approach to standard setting, and o A uniform approach to compliance monitoring. • The objectives of Agenda 21 with regard to integrated waste management issues will be promoted and effected. • A programme of pilot projects for the practical implementation of integrated waste management will be launched. • Funding mechanisms for the sustained implementation of the NWMS will be investigated and developed. • Periodic review of this first generation National Waste Management Strategy will be conducted at appropriate time intervals. National Waste Management Strategy for South Africa PART 2 6. Introduction Based on the Key Issues identified in the Situation Baseline Phase of the Project, detailed investigations were undertaken to develop waste management priority initiatives, according to the selection criteria detailed in Chapter 1 Part 1 of the NWMS (Version ‘c’). The approach taken was to investigate seven elements of integrated waste management with a view to developing priority initiatives to meet the objectives of the NWMS, as well as to investigate their associated

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