SCI/241 Teresa SESCOWEEK 7 CHECKPOINT April 5, 2012
A HEALTHY DIET ISIMPORTANT THROUGHOUTLIFE As an infant, the nutrients in formula or breast milk allow for optimal brain development. As a young child, consuming the right balance of nutrients is key to optimal growth and development. In the teen years, good nutrition allows for continued growth, maturation, and sexual development. As an adult, a diet that provides enough of the right mix of nutrients can help postpone or avoid the chronic diseases that are common in the developed world. In older adults, a nutritious diet can help maintain health despite diminishing function in organ systems.
INFANT NEEDS Newborn growth more rapidly and require more energy and protein per kilogram of body weight than that at any other time in life.
NUTRIENTS FOR BABY andCHILDREN Breast milk is the ideal food for new babies. If breast-feeding is not chosen, there are many infant formulas on the market that are patterned after human milk and provide adequate nutrition to the baby. Introducing solid foods between 4 and 6 months of age adds iron and other nutrients to the diet and aids in muscle development. A varied diet can meet children’s nutrient needs without dietary supplements, but skipped meals, food jags, and erratic eating habits can make meeting needs a challenge. The proportion of fat needed in the diets of young children is much lower than in infancy but still somewhat higher than in adults. Carbohydrates should come primarily from whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and milk.
During adolescence, accelerated growth and sexualmaturation have an impact on nutrient requirements(A humans total energy and nutrient needs are greatestduring the adolescence stage of life.)MALE FEMALE Boys gain more lean body Girls gain proportionately tissue more body fat Young men require more Iron deficiency anemia is protein and energy common, especially in girls as they begin losing iron through menstruation. Adolescent athletes are susceptible to nutrition misinformation, and they may try dangerous practices such as using anabolic steroids to increase muscle mass or fad diets and fluid restriction to lose weight.
ADULTS, and OLDER ADULTSAging is the accumulation of changes over timethat results in an ever-increasing susceptibilityto disease and death. During pregnancy the requirements forThe physiological changes that occur with age energy, protein, water, vitamins, and mineralsaffect the ability to acquire, consume, digest,absorb, and metabolize nutrients. increase; the B vitamins are needed toEnergy needs are reduced so a nutrient-dense support increased energy and proteindiet is needed to meet needs. Fluid needs are metabolism; calcium, vitamin D, and vitaminnot different but the risk of dehydration isincreased. Vitamin B12 requirements are the C are needed for bone and connective tissuesame but the vitamin should come from fortified growth; protein, folate, vitamin B12, and zincfoods or supplements in order to ensureadequate absorption. The requirements for are needed for cell replication; and iron iscalcium and vitamin D are increased and it may needed for red blood cell synthesis.be hard for older adults to get enough of eitherfrom diet alone. Nutritional status, income, and age affect pregnancy outcome: Risks of pregnancy are increased by poor nutritional status before pregnancy; poverty, which limits access to food and health care; age that is under 20 years because the mother is still growing, or over 35 years because the mother is more likely to have preexisting health conditions.