Civil Rights Events - 11th Grade


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Civil Rights Events - 11th Grade

  1. 1. Taking a Stand! A look at Protest and Demonstrations during the Civil Rights Movement Brian Henry and Ashley Reisinger Longwood University
  2. 2. Related SOL Objective • • • • • USII.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the key domestic and international issues during the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries by a) examining the Civil Rights Movement and the changing role of women; b) describing the development of new technologies in communication, entertainment, and business and their impact on American life; c) identifying representative citizens from the time period who have influenced America scientifically, culturally, academically, and economically; d) examining American foreign policy, immigration, the global environment, and other emerging issues.
  3. 3. Civil Rights Movement • The Civil Rights Movement took place in the United States and was at its peak from 1955 to 1968. This was a movement to end the racial discrimination of blacks in the United States of America
  4. 4. Claudette Colvin, March 1955 • At the age of fifteen she refused to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama for a white person. Colvin was one of the first to really publicly challenge the law of segregation, and she ended up getting arrested. She was charged for violating segregation laws. • This took place nine months before the Rosa Parks demonstration
  5. 5. Emmitt Till, August 1955 • Was an African-American boy who was murdered in Mississippi at the age of fourteen • He was kidnapped, brutally beaten, shot, and dumped in the Tallahatchie River for allegedly whistling at a white woman. Two white men, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant, are arrested for the murder and acquitted by an all-white jury • Many view the murder of Till and the court ruling of the suspects to be the start of the Civil Rights Movement.
  6. 6. Rosa Parks, December 1955 • Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order that she give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled • Called “The First Lady Of the Civil Rights Movement” by the US Congress
  7. 7. Discussion Question • Why do you think Rosa Parks is more known then Claudette Colvin?
  8. 8. Answer • For a long time, Montgomery's black leaders did not publicize Colvin's pioneering effort because she was a teenager and became pregnant while unmarried. Given the social norms of the time and her youth, the members of the NAACP worried she wouldn’t be a good representative
  9. 9. Montgomery Bus Boycott, Dec. 1955Dec. 1956 • Blacks boycotted the city buses • Boycott started after Rosa Parks arrest for refusal to give up seat on bus • Ended when the federal ruling of Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional
  10. 10. Little Rock Nine, September 1957 • Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Jefferson Thomas, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Minnijean Brown, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Thelma Mothershed, and Melba PattilloBeals were the nine students who enrolled at Little Rock Central High School • These students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by OrvalFaubus, the Governor of Arkansas. They then attended after President Eisenhower sent troops to escort the Little Rock Nine into school
  11. 11. Greensboro Four, February 1960 • Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair, Jr., and David Richmond • These men sat at the counter of Woolworth’s until closing, to protest segregation • The next day, twenty people took part in the sit ins. The number of participants continued to grow until many of the businesses ended their policies on segregated lunch counters.
  12. 12. Freedom Riders, May 1961 • Civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia and Boynton v. Virginia, which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional • Police arrested riders for trespassing, unlawful assembly, and violating state and local Jim Crow laws, along with other alleged offenses, but they often first let white mobs attack them without intervention.
  13. 13. Birmingham Campaign, 1963 • A movement organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to bring attention to the integration efforts of the black Americans in Birmingham, Alabama. Led by Martin Luther King, Jr. • The campaign used a variety of nonviolent methods of confrontation, including sit-ins at libraries and lunch counters, kneel-ins by black visitors at white churches, and a march to the county building to mark the beginning of a voter-registration drive • Birmingham, Ala., Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene "Bull" Connor uses fire hoses and police dogs on black demonstrators. These images of brutality, which are televised and published widely, are instrumental in gaining sympathy for the civil rights movement around the world.
  14. 14. Discussion Question • The Birmingham campaign was a nonviolent campaign that was met with violence from the police. Why do you think it was so important that the protesters stayed violence free?
  15. 15. March on Washington, August 1963 • It took place in Washington, D.C. Thousands of Americans headed to Washington on Tuesday August 27, 1963. On Wednesday, August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr., standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic "I Have a Dream“ • Estimates of the number of participants varied from 200,000 to 300,000.Observers estimated that 75–80% of the marchers were black
  16. 16. Selma to Montgomery March, March 1965 • Blacks begin a march to Montgomery in support of voting rights but are stopped at the Pettus Bridge by a police blockade. Fifty marchers are hospitalized after police use tear gas, whips, and clubs against them. The incident is dubbed "Bloody Sunday" by the media. The march is considered the catalyst for pushing through the voting rights act five months later
  17. 17. Events in Virginia
  18. 18. Barbara Johns, April 1951 • • • Farmville, VA A 16-year-old student named Barbara Rose Johns covertly organized a student strike. She forged notes to teachers telling them to bring their students to the auditorium for a special announcement. When the school's students showed up, Johns took the stage and persuaded the school to strike to protest poor school conditions. Over 450 students walked out and marched to the homes of members of the school board, who refused to see them. Thus began a two-week protest The school did not have a gymnasium, cafeteria or teachers' restrooms. Teachers and students did not have desks or blackboards, and due to overcrowding, some students had to take classes in an immobilized, decrepit school bus parked outside the main school building. The all-white school board denied their plea for more funding
  19. 19. Sit-Ins Across Virginia, 1960 • Following the Greensboro Four sit-in, the number of sit-in in Virginia rapidly increased • Feb. 11, 1960 Hampton, Va. Hampton University • Feb. 20, 1960 Richmond, Va. • Feb. 26, 1960 Petersburg, Va. • March 26, 1960 Lynchburg, Va. • April 12, 1960 Norfolk, Va.
  20. 20. Farmville Kneel-In, July 1963 • Six adults and seventeen students were arrested on July 28, 1963, for attempting to desegregate downtown Farmville churches. The protests came just a month before the March on Washington and Dr. Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech
  21. 21. Discussion Question • What do you think is the best form of protest?
  22. 22. Work Consulted • Civil Rights Era Timeline. PBS. Arlington, VA. • Civil Right Demonstrations. International Civil Rights Center and Museum Greensboro, NC.