How to support safe driving at work

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Gudela Grote. Departement Management, Technology, and Economics ETH Zürich. Presentación para el I Agora de Seguridad Vial celebrado en Valencia

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How to support safe driving at work

  1. 1. How to support safe driving at work –Possible safety culture interventionsProf. Dr. Gudela GroteDepartement Management, Technology, and EconomicsETH Zürich
  2. 2. Overview Gudela Grote Page2 A general model for safe driving at work Characteristics of driver behavior Organizational factors influencing safe driving Supporting organizational and cultural change
  3. 3. Gudela GroteSafe driving at work – a general model Page3Personal factors•Capability•Age, gender•Sensation seeking•Physical and mental stateTask factors•(Multiple) demands Driver Driving•Duration behavior effects•Timing and time pressure •Vigilance •Performance •Control •Traffic offencesOrganizational factors •Risk-taking •Accidents•Leadership •Errors •Incidents•Safety management•Shared norms and valuesEnvironmental factors•Road and vehicle conditions•Other road users•Weather
  4. 4. Gudela GroteSafe driving at work – a general model Page4Personal factors•Capability•Age, gender•Sensation seeking•Physical and mental stateTask factors•(Multiple) demands Driver Driving•Duration behavior effects•Timing and time pressure •Vigilance •Performance •Control •Traffic offencesOrganizational factors •Risk-taking •Accidents•Leadership •Errors •Incidents•Safety management•Shared norms and valuesEnvironmental factors•Road and vehicle conditions•Other road users•Weather
  5. 5. Unrealistic optimism and illusion of Gudela Grote Page5control People underestimate the likelihood of bad outcomes and overestimate the likelihood of good outcomes for themselves compared to others. This tendency is strengthened for outcomes perceived as controllable by the person. Examples: - Newlyweds expect their marriage to last a lifetime, even while aware of the divorce statistics. - Smokers believe they are less at risk of developing smoking-related diseases than others who smoke. - Car drivers estimate their chances of an accident when driving under the influence of alcohol as lower than for drunken driving in general.
  6. 6. Risk perception in driving (Fuller, 2005) Gudela Grote Page6 Felt risk mirrors task difficulty. Task difficulty is determined by task demands and individual capability. Estimated statistical risk and felt risk regarding speed only coincide at higher speeds where task demands approach individual capability (= task difficulty is very high).
  7. 7. Risk as benefit: Risk seeking behavior Gudela Grote Page7 Risk seeking versus risk avoidance - Personality characteristic - Cultural norm - Affected by situational characteristics • gain versus loss • personal control
  8. 8. Different types of driver errors Gudela Grote Page8(Reason et al., 1990) Lapse - e.g. attempt to drive away from traffic light in third gear Mistake - e.g. underestimate the speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking Violation - Unintended: e.g. unknowingly speeding - Deliberate: e.g. get involved in races with other drivers
  9. 9. Measures to avoid driver errors Gudela Grote Page9 Lapse  Support vigilance Mistake  Increase training and experience Violation - Unintended  Support vigilance - Deliberate  Change individual and collective behavior norms
  10. 10. Gudela GroteSafe driving at work – a general model Page10Personal factors•Capability•Age, gender•Sensation seeking•Physical and mental stateTask factors•(Multiple) demands Driver Driving•Duration behavior effects•Timing and time pressure •Vigilance •Performance •Control •Traffic offencesOrganizational factors •Risk-taking •Accidents•Leadership •Errors •Incidents•Safety management•Shared norms and valuesEnvironmental factors•Road and vehicle conditions•Other road users•Weather
  11. 11. Leadership to support safe driving Gudela Grote Page11(Newman, Griffin & Mason, 2008) High safety motivation of drivers is related to few self- reported crashes. Drivers safety motivation is related to their perception of managers safety values. Managers perception of organizational safety values are related to drivers perception of managers safety values. Leadership at all levels of the organization influences drivers safety motivation and behavior. Safety interventions should address the organizational, work group, and individual level. (Newman & Watson, 2011)
  12. 12. General safety management Gudela Grote Page12 Safety Policy Risk identification and mitigation Safety resources and responsibilities Standards and procedures Training Safety performance monitoring Continuous improvement Management of change
  13. 13. Example Standards and Procedures: Gudela Grote Page13Rules at Shell Four out of twelve are driving related!  One basic rule about rules: Use fixed prescription only when it really holds in all situations
  14. 14. Specific safety management measures Gudela Grote Page14for safe driving Selection - avoid hiring young men - test for risk perception and risk seeking/avoidance Handling fatigue - establish a not fit to drive rule - structure driving schedules to allow for sufficient breaks and rest time - take into account commuting time when designing work schedules more generally - train drivers to handle monotony while driving Policy for mobile phone use - generally avoid phone use - if unavoidable only use when vehicle is stopped - if unavoidable during driving ensure proper technical systems and training
  15. 15. Shared norms and values Gudela Grote Page15 Establishing shared norms and values that support safe work processes and behaviors as defined in the safety management system  Establish a safety culture Safety culture as part of organizational culture = shared basic beliefs and assumptions - safety versus production - trust versus control - role of people and technology Culture often most visible as a source of resistance to change
  16. 16. Supporting organizational and cultural Gudela Grote Page16change Causes of resistance to change - Sense of loss of control - Sticking to old norms as part of existing culture Strategies for dealing with resistance - Coercive: sanction change through use of power - Rational: inform about advantages of change - Normative: develop new values and norms = culture change Requirements for normative strategy - Participation to improve quality and acceptance of decisions - Psychological safety
  17. 17. An easy start into cultural change ... Gudela Grote Page17 Having people answer questions like the following reduces self-reported risky driving several weeks later (Falk, 2010) - Take over when the car in front slows down in adherence to speed limit - Drive too close to car in front to get driver to move out of the way - Drive fast to show others I can handle the car - It is OK to speed when traffic conditions allow - If you have good driving skills speeding is OK - Sometimes it is necessary to bend the rules to keep traffic going - I often think about the possibility that I myself might get hurt in traffic. - I could not live with myself if I hurt another human being in traffic.
  18. 18. Gudela Grote Page18 Thank you! Contact:Prof. Dr. Gudela Grote ETH Zürich www.oat.ethz.ch ggrote@ethz.ch

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