Presentation of Mark Sutton, from CEH, at Food, Fertilizers and Natural Resources Conference by Fertilizers Europe
ENA Launch11-15 April 2011EdinburghInternational Conference“Nitrogen & Global Change”ENA Authorship 200 experts, 21 countries & 89 organizationsScientifically independentprocesswww.nine-esf.org/ENA
Nitrogenin the News• International TV & Press Coverage• ENA summary in Nature• ENA 4-minute video on “Youtube” The Sun, Scotsman, Guardian, La Monde, VOK, Nature 14 April 2011
Objectives of the European Nitrogen Assessment• To review current scientific understanding of nitrogen sources, impacts and interactions across Europe,• Taking account of current policies and the economic costs and benefits, as a basis to• Inform the development of future policies at local to global scales.
Scaling up of issues through the European Nitrogen AssessmentUpscaling & Integration European Nitrogen policies & future challenges Part E Water Air Greenhouse Ecosystems Soil quality quality balance & biodiversity quality Part D Integrating nitrogen fluxes at the European Scale Geographic variation in terrestrial nitrogen budgets across Europe Nitrogen flows from Atmospheric transport European watersheds to & deposition of nitrogen coastal marine waters in Europe Nitrogen flows Nitrogen flows Part C and fate in rural and fate in urban landscapes landscapes. Nitrogen flows in farming systems across Europe. Nitrogen processing in the biosphereProcesses &Mechanisms Part B
The five key threats of excess NitrogenThe WAGES oftoo much nitrogenWater quality ECOSYSTEMS ANDAir quality BIODIVERSITYGreenhouse balanceEcosystemsSoil quality
Nitrogen Damage Costs & SourcesEU Damage cost: 70 - 320 billion € / year Nature 14 April 2011
Summary ofEurope (EU27), in Europefluxes in TgN/yr N flows around 2000. N Atmospheric N2 pool Net atmosph. 2.4 export9.3 Net import of 3.5 food & feed 0.4 6 Atmospheric NH3, NOx, N2O Crop 2 N2fix 7 3.1 N2 fix indust 3.4 3.8 4.7 & traffic Atm Fertilizers Wood depos Nat exp. 11.8 4 N2fix 0.2 3.8 2 0.2 11.2 1.0 Crop Human Livestock nutrit. production farming 5.8 17.6 2.3 4.7 1 Semi-nat. 13.8 agricult soils soils 3 1.5 5 wwt 1.4 2.4 7.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 NH3,NO x 2.1 & N2O 4.5 6 emission Leaching 3.7 & runoff Export by rivers to Denitrifi- 4 3.2 6.8 the sea cation 0.8
Seven key actions for better nitrogen managementAgriculture1. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in crop production2. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in animal production3. Increasing the fertilizer N equivalence value of animal manureTransport and Industry4. Low-emission combustion andForward: The Way energy-efficient systemsWaste water treatment5. Recycling nitrogenN usephosphorus) from waste reducing More efficient (and saves farmers money water systems nitrogen air pollution,Societal consumption patterns while being needed to meet Parties’ commitments for6. Energy and transport saving climate and water pollution7. Lowering the human consumption of animal protein
Progress in air European policies 120%•In most cases Emissions relative to 2000 100%existing technicalcapability for NH3 80%has yet to be 60%implemented 40%•A long-term 20%perspectiveencouraging gradual 0% 2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020change may be SO2 NOx PM2.5 NH3 VOCneeded Baseline EU Baseline UNECE Max Feasible Reduction EU Max Feasible Reduction UNECE Amman, IIASAAmmonia the largest contributor toacidification & eutrophication by 2020
Gothenburg Protocol: Options to reduce ammonia loss from fertilizers• Ammonium bicarbonate: ban (since 1999)• Urea: require low emission methods by e.g. 30% compared with reference (under negotiation) – Urease inhibitors – Coated pellets – Immediate incorporation – Substitute with alternative fertilizer• Ammonium phosphate and sulphate on high pH soils (under negotiation)• Focus on improving nitrogen use efficiency helps to reduce other N losses and impacts.
Slurry spreading methods are key to reducing ammonia emissions Splash Plate Trailing Hose Trailing Shoe Slot InjectorThe “Splash Plate Spreader” represents 1950s technology The car and the exhaust pipe…
5 priorities for ammonia in revision of the UNECE Gothenburg Protocol (1=highest priority)1. Low emission techniques for land spreading of cattle/pig/poultry manures and mineral fertilizers2. Animal feeding strategies, inc phase feeding3. Covers on new slurry stores4. Farm N balance on demonstration farms5. Low emission new pig & poultry housing
Outlook• Progress in UNECE and EU negotiations• Maximizing the policy benefits and the role of market leaders• Measuring the benefits of voluntary approaches• Linking agricultural, water, air, climate, biodiversity and soil policies• Life-cycle stewardship for nitrogen