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  • Hello, my name is ThatyanaBurcl. Through the following slides I will be presenting an extremely interesting and rather controversial topic that entails support from various scientific research studies. Reading the articles that are included in this presentation elevates thought, and even the narrow-minded may find that reason and knowledge makes a lot more sense than remaining alongside of ignorance. I hope most of you can take something constructive out of it, even if you may not agree.
  • This review paper focuses on the negativeeffects that religiosity has on aggression and the education/intelligenceof native-born and foreign-born residents of the United States; therefore, the questions presented above specifically indicate the factors being examined. These factors are aggression and education/intelligence. Also, the target population being analyzed is U.S. born and foreign residents.
  • There are 63% of Americans that “Absolutely believe in God” (Paul, 2009). The seven top nations that have a large percentage of atheists and agnostics are Sweden, Japan, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Norway (Paul, 2009). An incredible 82% of Swedish accept evolution; this is unlike the present numbers of Americans (Paul, 2009).
  • Religiosity involves various influences within culture. In the United States, society is divided on secular views and pious views (Paul, 2009). According to Paul (2009), “Utilizing 25 indicators, the uniquely extensive Successful Societies Scale reveals that population diversity and immigration correlate weakly with 1st worldsocioeconomic conditions, and high levels of income disparity, popular religiosity as measuredby differing levels of belief and activity, and rejection of evolutionary science correlatestrongly negatively with improving conditions” (Abstract section, p. 398). The research found “The uniquely low cumulative PRVSS score for the U.S. of 0.9 demonstrates that it is the least secular nation among those sampled, with Ireland the next most religious. At the other end of the scale some nations approach and exceed a score of 9. For the purposes of this comparative investigation the U.S. is characterized as religious, the rest of the 1st world nations as secular to varying degrees” (Paul, 2009, p. 405).
  • Here is some information regarding the impacts of it: “In the secular democracies peoplebelong to critical support groups, including the health care club, simply by being citizens,boosting overall general societal health to higher levels. Thus theistic Americans tend to behappier than nonreligious citizens, but the populations of secular western nations are about ashappy as and healthier than the citizens of more religious America. The means by whichcitizens of irreligious democracies are coping without the aid of faith-based clubs has receivedlittle research attention” (Paul, 2009, p. 424).
  • Those that oppose to views – such as the research of Gregory Paul – carry pious agendas into politics in the U.S. Coulter and O’Reilly are known to cause more than plenty of controversy by cultivating ignorance and fear in simple American minds. Here you’ll read about what comes out of secular-democratic.
  • Christian terrorism has recently alarmed the American population; the terrorist group, Hutaree, was captured by the FBI before attack plan could unveil.
  • A study performed by Bushman, Ridge, Das, Key, and Busath (2007) displayed how believers of God and the Bible have increased aggression due to the fact that it is allowed through the scriptures of their God. This type of research addresses more specifically how religiosity influences aggression. Nevertheless, this is something that history has demonstrated as religious fanatics have engaged in extremely violent acts, such as the events that took place during the Crusades, along with the more current terrorists’ events, like the attack on the Twin Towers.
  • It is great to consider future innovative research, especially when it comes to exploratory topics (such as the ones that are being reviewed in this presentation). That is why here you can see further ideas involving religiosity and aggression (which is one of the focus factors). By integrating valuable ideas and formulating inquisitive questions it is possible to contribute to change.
  • According to the Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg (2009), “Evidence pointing to a negative relationship between intelligence and religious beliefs within nations come from four sources. There are (1) negative correlations between intelligence and religious belief; (2) Lower percentages holding religious beliefs among intelligence elites compared with the general population; (3) a decline of religious belief with age among children and adolescents as their cognitive abilities increase; (4) a decline of religious belief during the course of the twentieth century as the intelligence of populations has increased” (Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg, 2009, p. 12).
  • Apparently, the Gallup Poll (2009) finds that, “When the results are split up according to education level, a very predictable picture shows up, namely a linear correlation between education level and (dis)belief in evolution” (Van Bockstaele, 2009). Students that has high school level education or less than that believe in evolution is 21%, but this greatly differs from college level students that include 41% that believe in evolution (Van Bockstaele, 2009). At the college graduate level you can find 53% believe in evolution, however, this increases significantly by 21% at postgraduate level – in which 74% believe in evolution (Van Bockstaele, 2009).
  • Check out this interesting statistics! You may learn something surprising that you didn’t already know. The Gallup polls are among the most consistent numbers and surveys large portions of the American population.
  • More interesting Gallup polls regarding religiosity in the U.S. According to Newport (2009), “Previous Gallup research shows that the rate of church attendance is fairly constant across educational groups, suggesting that this relationship is not owing to an underlying educational difference but instead reflects a direct influence of religious beliefs on belief in evolution.Younger Americans, who are less likely to be religious than those who are older, are also more likely to believe in evolution. Still, just about half of those aged 18 to 34 say they believe in evolution” (para. 6-7).
  • Review Paper – Power Point Presentation

    1. 1. Running head: RELIGIOSITY’S NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON AMERICAN SOCIETY<br />Negative Effects of Religiosity on <br />Aggression and the Education/Intelligence<br />Of Native-Born and Foreign-Born <br />Residents of the United States<br />ThatyanaBurcl<br />Argosy University - Psychology Dept.<br />In partial fulfillment of the requirements for PSY492<br />March 23, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Review Paper Formulated Questions<br />The hypotheses that have been previously<br />proposed are :<br />How does religiosity negatively affect aggression in native-born and foreign-born residents of the United States? <br />What are the negative effects of religiosity on the education and intelligence of United States? <br />What is the correlation between levels of aggression and intelligence levels in pious believers?<br />
    3. 3. Review Paper Focus Points<br />Examining U.S. Society<br />The purpose of this review paper is to analyze the negative effects of religiosity on the psychology of people living in a modern, developed country, such as the United States. The International Social Survey Program (ISSP) included various comparisons of the U.S. along with other progressive, modern nations – such as Sweden, Japan, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Norway (Paul, 2009).<br />What Research Provides<br />In order to explore such questions and other issues related to religiosity, various studies have drawn out comparisons between the U.S. and other developed nations in relation to how religiosity affects various aspects of life within what is supposed to be a modern, progressive nation. The factors, again, are aggression and education/intelligence.<br />
    4. 4. Reflecting on the purpose for review paper<br />The essential research questions examine various aspects that could definitely use improvement in American society. Though, the U.S. is a modern nation, it is lacking in progressive standings. This nation is failing to keep up with other truly progressive nations due to its high rate of crime and violence, political unrest, prejudice/racists citizens, wasteful culture, and addiction to capitalism. The main objectives of the research hypotheses would be to demonstrate the negative influences of religiosity in the factors that contribute to the country’s downfall.<br />
    5. 5. Gregory Paul’s Research Study<br />Among the various studies performed, researcher Gregory Paul’s (2009) findings demonstrated evidence, through the Successful Societies Scale, to explain the correlation that secularism has with the progress of nations and how religiosity has negative effects on socioeconomic structure and societal dysfunction. This type of study (which included the United States) strongly supports the view that religiosity has a negative overall impact on various crucial requirements of a ‘civilized’ population. <br /> Gregory Paul’s (2009) argument lies in that the actual production of a valid study comparing cross-nationally social and economic conditions based on a wide-range set of factors is very essential. The researcher found the urgency of this matter to be very critical since the United States’ policies seem to be leaning towards being more influenced by the secular-progressive process; which in turn has led to a divide among the people and controversies attacking atheists and non-religious believers (Paul, 2009). His knowledge and research most certainly leads in a very convincing manner to its hypothesis. This is due to the fact that it addresses its purpose clearly and emphasizes its focus on the nature of the topics being examined.<br />
    6. 6. Opposition of Paul’s Research<br />The research article by Gregory Paul expands its credibility by reviewing both sides of the debate. The side involving secular and religious supporters mentions how popular literature holding religion at high-esteems has been produced by supporters like Coulter and O’Reilly (Paul, 2009). A strong focus in their text and other publicized religious beliefs lies in tearing down the economical and social standing of progressive, liberal nations with secular views (Paul, 2009). The article explains how the moral-creator socioeconomic hypothesis is based on religious worship leading to prosperous economic and social standing, wealth and prosperity (Paul, 2009). However, the opposite side carries the prevailing argument, which states the secular-democratic socioeconomic hypothesis as, the more secular a democracy, the closer it is to equating to the best social and economic conditions nationwide (Paul, 2009). In order to further the investigation of previous hypotheses, the focal points of this research are based on “origin, mental basis, popularity, and societal efficacy of mass religion versus secularism” (Paul, 2009).<br />
    7. 7. What Else Can Be Derived From This Interesting Research Study<br />Further development of such a study<br />can be accomplished by asking questions<br />that would compare the U.S. to other<br />extremely religious nations that differ in the<br />commanding religion. More specifically,<br />take for instance, a question comparing<br />the effects of Christianity on American<br />society to the effects of the Muslim religion<br />on Iranian society.<br />
    8. 8. The Research of Bushman, Ridge, Das, Key, and Busath<br />Researchers Bushman, Ridge, Das, Key, and Busath (2007) conducted their studies based on how believers of God and the Bible have increased aggression due to the fact that it is allowed through the scriptures of their God. The studies displayed how believers of God and the Bible have increased aggression due to the fact that it is allowed through the scriptures of their God (Bushman, Ridge, Das, Key, and Busath, 2007). This type of research addresses more specifically how religiosity influences aggression. The researchers’ argument is clearly regarding the negative effects religion can have on the religious; leading to negative events that jeopardize the well-being of everyone. The researchers were inspired to focus on this topic due to the lacking information regarding the influences of literature on aggression and violence.<br />
    9. 9. What Else Can come From this Type of research<br />Further development can be accomplished in this area of study by asking questions involving how the rivalry of religious groups results in violence. For example, more precise questions could investigate how participants react to aggression found in another religion such as an American Catholic’s reaction to aggressive passages from the Koran and a Muslim American’s reaction to aggressive passages from the Bible. Such questions could address more specifically how religiosity influences aggression; which would lead to scientifically demonstrating the dreadful consequences that religion creates. <br />
    10. 10. The Research By Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg<br />The studies performed by Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg (2009) were based on the negative correlations between religion and education along with levels of intelligence; which explained that the more religious individuals are, the less likely that they’ll be keen for knowledge. The objective of their main argument involved displaying the kind of negative effects religiosity can have on important human aspects, such as intelligence (Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg, 2009).<br />Their arguments clearly stand by secular views equating to higher intelligence and pious views equating to lower intelligence (Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg, 2009). According to Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg (2009), “Evidence is reviewed pointing to a negative relationship between intelligence and religious belief in the United States and Europe” (Abstract section).<br />
    11. 11. What The Gallup Poll Displays<br /> The Gallup poll’s (2009) prevailing argument displayed a clear divide in the United States among those who believe in evolution and those who do not believe in evolution; which turned out to be that many still don’t believe in evolution (Van Bockstaele, 2009). Nevertheless, the argument supports that progress is being made regarding Americans’ views of science because 39% of Americans now believe in evolution (Van Bockstaele, 2009). Other objectives that the argument of the Gallup poll carried included that the younger individuals are, the more they tend to believe in evolution; also, the more often people attend church, the less they are likely to believe in evolution and the more likely they are to completely disbelieve in evolution (Van Bockstaele, 2009). Consequently, all these findings have focused on the improvements that remain to be made.<br />
    12. 12. This pie chart demonstrates that among surveyed Americans 39% of them believe in evolution. While that is the largest group, it is still evident and significant that many people in the U.S. – which is supposed to be a progressive nation - don’t even want to consider it as a topic of discussion or are completely against it (Van Bockstaele, 2009).<br />“Do You, personally, believe in the theory of evolution, Do you not believe in evolution, or don’t have an opinion either way?” (Newport, 2009)<br />
    13. 13. Unbelievable! Not Surprising… “Only 4 in 10 Believe in Evolution” (Newport, 2009, headline).<br />GALLUP POLL – BY FRANK NEWPORT<br />GALLUP POLL – BY FRANK NEWPORT<br />
    14. 14. References<br />Bushman, B., Ridge, R., Das, E., Key, C., and Busath, G. (2007). When God sanctions killing: Effect of scriptural violence on aggression. Psychological Science, 18, 204-207.<br />Lynn, R., Harvey, J., and Nyborg, H. (2009). Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Science Direct, 37 (1), 11-15.doi: 10.1016/ j.intell.2008.03.004<br />Newport, F. (2009). Gallup poll: On Darwin’s birthday, only 4 in 10 believe in evolution. Retrieved April19, 2010, from Believe-Evolution.aspx<br />Paul, G. (2009). The chronic dependence of popular religiosity upon dysfunctional psychosociological conditions. Evolutionary Psychology Journal, 7 (3), 398- 441. Retrieved from filestore/EP07398441_c.pdf <br />Van Bockstaele, B.B. (2009). Gallup poll: Many people still do not believe in evolution. Retrieved March 23, 2010, from 267117<br />