• protrusion of an organ
or the fascia of an
organ through the
wall of the cavity that
• Congenital, acquired
• Most have an
a Hernia composed of;
1.Sac: a folding of peritoneum
consisting of a mouth, neck,
body and fundus.
2.Body: which varies in size
and is not necessarily
3.Coverings: derived from
layers of the abdominal wall.
4.Contents: which could be
anything from the omentum,
intestines, ovary or urinary
• Specifically in infants, the parents"
observation of a swelling or protusion
may be the only positive feature.
• In the infancy may beTransilluminable
• Superficial inguinal ring—
1.25 cm above and lateral to
the pubic tubercle
• Deep inguinal ring—1.25 cm
above and medial to the mid
point of inguinal ligament
• Length of the inguinal canal
Ingiunal canal Contents
Spermatic cord, which contains:
• Testicular a.
• Ductus deferens a.
• Cremasteric a.
• Cremasteric n.
• Genital branch of the genitofemoral n.
3 other things:
• Ductus deferens
• Pampiniform plexus
Types of indirect inguinal hernia
Bubonocele—limited within the inguinal canal
Funicular—limited just above the epididymis
traverses to the bottom of the scrotum
• Introduce yourself
• Wash hands
• Standing up
• Undressed from waist down
• Look for an visible lumps
• Any scars, overlying skin changes.
• The lump extends into the scrotum
•Pt. stands, exposed area
•best performed with the patient
standing and in supine
•the physician seated on a stool
• Stand at the side of the patient,
• one hand on the patients back to support him.
• hand and arm should be roughly parallel to the
inguinal ligament when palpating the lump.
• Observation of the groin area in
• Visible swelling. Examine as a mass;
1. Can you get above it?
2. Reducibility test
3. Expansile Cough Impulse;
4. Invagination test
5. Three finger test
6. Ring occlusion test
• Intra or extra abdominal
• Percussion and auscultation;
• Always examine both groins
•Pt. coughs to highlight hernia.
•May not ;if the neck is blocked by
•Visible & Palpable cough impulse.
•Reappear on straining,
standing or coughing
• Ask pt. to reduce hernia himselves
• usually done in lying position.
• The thigh of the affected side should be flexed,
adducted and internally rotated.
• Finger guard of the inguinal canal by thumb
and index finger and then the scrotum is gently
Relation to Pubic
The neck above
and medial to the
The neck below and
lateral to pubic
3-Get above the swelling test
• Done in standing position
• At the root of the scrotum place the
thumb in front and the index behind
•Try to reach above the swelling.
• Inguinal hernia; cannot get above
• Pure scrotal swelling; will get above
•The scrotum on each side is inverted
with the examining index finger
•Entering the inguinal canal along
the course of the cord structures.
•The size of the external ring.
•The finger push up to the
superf inguinal ring.
•The pulp should feel the ring.
•Pat is asked to cough,
•A palpable impulse will confirm the hernia;
felt on the pulp then direct
felt on the tip then indirect hernia.
5-Three finger test / Zieman’s technique
Index finger; deep inguinal ring (indirect hernia)
Middle finger; superficial ing. Ring (direct hernia)
Ring finger; saphenous opening (femoral hernia)
The patient is asked to cough.
6-Ring occlusion test
•Reduce the hernia
•Occlusion of the deep ring by thumb.
•Then holding the thumb in position ask
The pt to stand
•If no bulging;
• Beside; at the level of inguinal region
at the affected side;
Notice a small bulge
Compare to the other side.
• Stand beside the pt; your shoulder
behind the opposite shoulder of pt;
Reduce the hernia.
Ask the pt to cough
Examine the abdomen;
Causes Of raised intraabd. pressure;
• Enlarged bladder (BPH)
Search; predisposing factors;
describe the hernia
1. Site (inguinal)
•Any hernia that is tender
•Nausea and vomiting;
•No attempt to
reduce it manually.
•An acute surgical
•Relation to epigastric vessels;Relation to epigastric vessels; LataralLataral
•Processus vaginalis;Processus vaginalis; PresentPresent
•prone to obstruction
•Processus vaginalis;Processus vaginalis; AbsentAbsent
medial tomedial to
epigastric vessels;epigastric vessels;
Femoral Hernia (cont..)
Femoral hernias are more common in women,
present as a groin lump.
the cause of unexplained small bowel obstruction.
an absent Cough impulse
globular lump than the pear shaped lump of the
• Differential Diagnoses:
Femoral Artery Aneurism.
• In infants & children.
• Boys more than girls.
• Tend to resolve without any treatment
by around the age of 5 years.
• Obstruction and strangulation is rare.
• Affects adults.
• either supra or infraumbilical
through the linea alba.
• The female to male ratio is 20:1.
• Clolicky pain and/or irreducibilty
due to omental adhesions.
• weakness is the result of an
incompletely healed surgical wound.
• more along a straight line from the
sternum down to the pubis.
• Swelling at the
incisional site +/- pain.
a defectin the linea alba between the
xiphoid process and umbilicus
Starts as a protrusion of the
Swelling +/- pain
similar to a peptic ulcer pain.
Rare external Hernias
1. Spiglian Hernia:
spaces of the semilunar line and the
lateral edge of the rectus muscle (inferior
to the arcuate line).
The posterior rectus sheath is weak
Preoperative diagnosis is diffucult
u/s & c.t are helpful
tools in the diagnosis
broad bulging hernia
not vulnerable to incarceration.
A. Petit’s hernia: inferior lumbar triangle.
B. Grynfeltt’s Hernia:superior lumbar
triangle and is less common than Petit’s.