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What is the
endocrine
system?
The endocrine system is made up of glands and the
hormones they secrete. Although the endocrine
glands are the primary hormone producers, the
brain, heart, lungs, liver, skin, thymus,
gastrointestinal mucosa, and placenta also produce
and release hormones.
What is the endocrine system?
The primary
endocrine glands are
the pituitary (the
master gland),
pineal, thyroid,
parathyroid, islets of
Langerhans,
adrenals, ovaries in
the female and testes
in the male.
The function of the endocrine system is the
production and regulation of chemical
substances called hormones.
Hormones…
A hormone is a chemical transmitter. It is released
in small amounts from glands, and is transported
in the bloodstream to target organs or other cells.
Hormones are chemical messengers, transferring
information and instructions from one set of cells
to another.
Hormones… Hormones regulate growth,
development, mood, tissue
function, metabolism, and
sexual function.
Hyposecretion or
hypersecretion of
any hormone can
be harmful to
the body.
Controlling
the production
of hormones
can treat
many
hormonal
disorders in
the body.
Hormones…
The endocrine system and nervous system work
together to help maintain homeostasis… balance.
The hypothalamus is a collection of specialized
cells located in the brain, and is the primary link
between the two systems. It produces chemicals
that either stimulate or suppress hormone
secretions of the pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland has 2
lobes…
Secretions from the anterior
pituitary gland…
Growth Hormone
(GH): essential for
the growth and
development of
bones, muscles, and
other organs. It also
enhances protein
synthesis,
decreases the use of
glucose, and
promotes fat
destruction.
Secretions from the anterior
pituitary gland…
Adrenocorticotropin
(TRŌ pun) (ACTH):
essential for the
growth of the
adrenal cortex.
Thyroid-Stimulating
Hormone (TSH):
essential for the growth
and development of the
thyroid gland.
Secretions from the anterior
pituitary gland…
It stimulates the
growth ovarian
follicles in the female
and the production of
sperm in the male.
Follicle-Stimulating
Hormone (FSH): is a
gonadotropic hormone.
Secretions from the anterior
pituitary gland… Luteinizing
Hormone (LH): is a
gonadotropic
hormone
stimulating the
development of
corpus luteum in
the female ovarian
follicles and the
production of
testosterone in the
male.
The yellow corpus luteum
remains after ovulation; it
produces estrogen and
progesterone.
Secretions from the anterior
pituitary gland… Prolactin (PRL):
stimulates the
development and
growth of the
mammary glands
and milk production
during pregnancy.
The sucking motion of the
baby stimulates prolactin
secretion.
Secretions from the anterior
pituitary gland…
Melanocyte-stimulating
hormone (MSH): regulates skin
pigmentation and promotes
the deposit of melanine in the
skin after exposure to sunlight
Antidiuretic
Hormone (ADH):
stimulates the
reabsorption of
water by the
renal tubules.
Hyposecretion
of this hormone
can result in
diabetes
insipidus.
Secretions from the posterior
lobe of the pituitary gland…
Oxytocin: stimulates
the uterus to contract
during labor, delivery,
and parturition. A
synthetic version of
this hormone, used
to induce labor, is
called Pitocin. It also
stimulates the
mammary glands to
release milk.
Secretions from the posterior
lobe of the pituitary gland…
Secretions from the pineal
gland… The pineal gland is pine-cone-shaped
and only about 1 cm in diameter.
Melatonin: communicates
information about
environmental lighting
to various parts of the
body. Has some effect
on sleep/awake cycles
and other biological
events connected to
them, such as a lower
production of gastric
secretions at night.
Secretions from the pineal
gland…
Serotonin: a
neurotransmitter that
regulates intestinal
movements and affects
appetite, mood, sleep, anger,
and metabolism.
Secretions of the thyroid gland…
Calcitonin: influences
bone and calcium
metabolism;
maintains a
homeostasis of
calcium in the blood
plasma
The thyroid gland plays a
vital role in metabolism
and regulates the body’s
metabolic processes.
Secretions of the thyroid gland…
Thyroxine (T4) and
triodothyronine (T3):
essential to BMR – basal
metabolic rate (the rate at
which a person’s body
burns calories while at rest);
influences physical/mental
development and growth
Hyposecretion of T3 and T4 = cretinism,
myxedema, Hashimoto’s disease
Hypersecretion of T3 and T4 = Grave’s disease,
goiter, Basedow’s disease
Secretions of the parathyroid
gland…
The two pairs of
parathyroid glands are
located on the dorsal or
back side of the thyroid
gland. They secrete
parathyroid (PTH) which
plays a role in the
metabolism of phosphorus.
Too little results in
cramping; too much
results in osteoporosis or
kidney stones.
The islets of Langerhans…
The islets of Langerhans are small clusters of
cells located in the pancreas.
Secretions from the islets of
Langerhans… Beta cells secrete the
hormone insulin, which is
essential for the maintenance
of normal blood sugar levels.
Inadequate levels result in
diabetes mellitus.
Delta cells suppress
the release of
glucagon and
insulin.
Alpha cells
facilitate the
breakdown of
glycogen to
glucose. This
elevates the blood
sugar.
The adrenal glands…
The triangular-
shaped adrenal
glands are
located on the
top of each
kidney. The
inside is called
the medulla and
the outside layer
is called the
cortex.
Secretions from the
adrenal cortex…
Cortisol: regulates
carbohydrate, protein, and fat
metabolism; has an anti-
inflammatory effect; helps
the body cope during times of
stress
Hyposecretion results
in Addison’s disease;
hypersecretion
results in Cushing’s
disease
Corticosterone: like
cortisol, it is a
steroid; influences
potassium and
sodium metabolism
Secretions from the adrenal
cortex… Aldosterone: essential in regulating
electrolyte and water balance by
promoting sodium and chloride
retention and potassium excretion.
Androgens: several
hormones including
testosterone; they
promote the
development of
secondary sex
characteristics in
the male.
Secretions from the
adrenal medulla…
Dopamine is used
to treat shock. It
dilates the
arteries, elevates
systolic blood
pressure,
increases cardiac
output, and
increases urinary
output.
Secretions
from the
adrenal
medulla…
Epinephrine is also called adrenalin. It elevates
systolic blood pressure, increases heart rate and
cardiac output, speeds up the release of glucose
from the liver… giving a spurt of energy, dilates
the bronchial tubes and relaxes airways, and
dilates the pupils to see more clearly. It is often
used to counteract an allergic reaction.
Secretions from the
adrenal medulla…
Norepinephrine, like epinephrine, is released when
the body is under stress. It creates the underlying
influence in the fight or flight response. As a drug,
however, it actually triggers a drop in heart rate.
Secretions of the ovaries…
The ovaries produce
several estrogen hormones
and progesterone. These
hormones prepare the
uterus for pregnancy,
promote the development
of mammary glands, play a
role in sex drive, and
develop secondary sex
characteristics in the
female.
Estrogen is essential for the growth, development,
and maintenance of female sex organs.
The testes produce
the male sex
hormone called
testosterone. It is
essential for normal
growth and
development of the
male sex organs.
Testosterone is
responsible for the
erection of the
penis.
Secretions of the testes…
During pregnancy, the
placenta serves as an
endocrine gland.
Secretions of the placenta…
It produces
chorionic
gonadotropin
hormone,
estrogen, and
progesterone.
The mucosa
of the pyloric
area of the
stomach
secretes the
hormone
gastrin, which
stimulates the
production of
gastric acid
for digestion.
Secretions of the
gastrointestinal mucosa…
The mucosa of
the duodenum
and jejunum
secretes the
hormone
secretin, which
stimulates
pancreatic juice,
bile, and
intestinal
secretion.
Secretions of the
gastrointestinal mucosa…
The thymus gland has
two lobes, and is part
of the lymphatic
system. It is a
ductless gland, and
secretes thymosin.
This is necessary for
the Thymus’ normal
production of T cells
for the immune
system.
Secretions of the
thymus…
Endocrine System.ppt

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Endocrine System.ppt

  • 1.
  • 2. What is the endocrine system? The endocrine system is made up of glands and the hormones they secrete. Although the endocrine glands are the primary hormone producers, the brain, heart, lungs, liver, skin, thymus, gastrointestinal mucosa, and placenta also produce and release hormones.
  • 3. What is the endocrine system? The primary endocrine glands are the pituitary (the master gland), pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, islets of Langerhans, adrenals, ovaries in the female and testes in the male. The function of the endocrine system is the production and regulation of chemical substances called hormones.
  • 4. Hormones… A hormone is a chemical transmitter. It is released in small amounts from glands, and is transported in the bloodstream to target organs or other cells. Hormones are chemical messengers, transferring information and instructions from one set of cells to another.
  • 5. Hormones… Hormones regulate growth, development, mood, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function. Hyposecretion or hypersecretion of any hormone can be harmful to the body. Controlling the production of hormones can treat many hormonal disorders in the body.
  • 6. Hormones… The endocrine system and nervous system work together to help maintain homeostasis… balance. The hypothalamus is a collection of specialized cells located in the brain, and is the primary link between the two systems. It produces chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions of the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland has 2 lobes…
  • 7. Secretions from the anterior pituitary gland… Growth Hormone (GH): essential for the growth and development of bones, muscles, and other organs. It also enhances protein synthesis, decreases the use of glucose, and promotes fat destruction.
  • 8. Secretions from the anterior pituitary gland… Adrenocorticotropin (TRŌ pun) (ACTH): essential for the growth of the adrenal cortex. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): essential for the growth and development of the thyroid gland.
  • 9. Secretions from the anterior pituitary gland… It stimulates the growth ovarian follicles in the female and the production of sperm in the male. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): is a gonadotropic hormone.
  • 10. Secretions from the anterior pituitary gland… Luteinizing Hormone (LH): is a gonadotropic hormone stimulating the development of corpus luteum in the female ovarian follicles and the production of testosterone in the male. The yellow corpus luteum remains after ovulation; it produces estrogen and progesterone.
  • 11. Secretions from the anterior pituitary gland… Prolactin (PRL): stimulates the development and growth of the mammary glands and milk production during pregnancy. The sucking motion of the baby stimulates prolactin secretion.
  • 12. Secretions from the anterior pituitary gland… Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): regulates skin pigmentation and promotes the deposit of melanine in the skin after exposure to sunlight
  • 13. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): stimulates the reabsorption of water by the renal tubules. Hyposecretion of this hormone can result in diabetes insipidus. Secretions from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland…
  • 14. Oxytocin: stimulates the uterus to contract during labor, delivery, and parturition. A synthetic version of this hormone, used to induce labor, is called Pitocin. It also stimulates the mammary glands to release milk. Secretions from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland…
  • 15. Secretions from the pineal gland… The pineal gland is pine-cone-shaped and only about 1 cm in diameter. Melatonin: communicates information about environmental lighting to various parts of the body. Has some effect on sleep/awake cycles and other biological events connected to them, such as a lower production of gastric secretions at night.
  • 16. Secretions from the pineal gland… Serotonin: a neurotransmitter that regulates intestinal movements and affects appetite, mood, sleep, anger, and metabolism.
  • 17. Secretions of the thyroid gland… Calcitonin: influences bone and calcium metabolism; maintains a homeostasis of calcium in the blood plasma The thyroid gland plays a vital role in metabolism and regulates the body’s metabolic processes.
  • 18. Secretions of the thyroid gland… Thyroxine (T4) and triodothyronine (T3): essential to BMR – basal metabolic rate (the rate at which a person’s body burns calories while at rest); influences physical/mental development and growth Hyposecretion of T3 and T4 = cretinism, myxedema, Hashimoto’s disease Hypersecretion of T3 and T4 = Grave’s disease, goiter, Basedow’s disease
  • 19. Secretions of the parathyroid gland… The two pairs of parathyroid glands are located on the dorsal or back side of the thyroid gland. They secrete parathyroid (PTH) which plays a role in the metabolism of phosphorus. Too little results in cramping; too much results in osteoporosis or kidney stones.
  • 20. The islets of Langerhans… The islets of Langerhans are small clusters of cells located in the pancreas.
  • 21. Secretions from the islets of Langerhans… Beta cells secrete the hormone insulin, which is essential for the maintenance of normal blood sugar levels. Inadequate levels result in diabetes mellitus. Delta cells suppress the release of glucagon and insulin. Alpha cells facilitate the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. This elevates the blood sugar.
  • 22. The adrenal glands… The triangular- shaped adrenal glands are located on the top of each kidney. The inside is called the medulla and the outside layer is called the cortex.
  • 23. Secretions from the adrenal cortex… Cortisol: regulates carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism; has an anti- inflammatory effect; helps the body cope during times of stress Hyposecretion results in Addison’s disease; hypersecretion results in Cushing’s disease Corticosterone: like cortisol, it is a steroid; influences potassium and sodium metabolism
  • 24. Secretions from the adrenal cortex… Aldosterone: essential in regulating electrolyte and water balance by promoting sodium and chloride retention and potassium excretion. Androgens: several hormones including testosterone; they promote the development of secondary sex characteristics in the male.
  • 25. Secretions from the adrenal medulla… Dopamine is used to treat shock. It dilates the arteries, elevates systolic blood pressure, increases cardiac output, and increases urinary output.
  • 26. Secretions from the adrenal medulla… Epinephrine is also called adrenalin. It elevates systolic blood pressure, increases heart rate and cardiac output, speeds up the release of glucose from the liver… giving a spurt of energy, dilates the bronchial tubes and relaxes airways, and dilates the pupils to see more clearly. It is often used to counteract an allergic reaction.
  • 27. Secretions from the adrenal medulla… Norepinephrine, like epinephrine, is released when the body is under stress. It creates the underlying influence in the fight or flight response. As a drug, however, it actually triggers a drop in heart rate.
  • 28. Secretions of the ovaries… The ovaries produce several estrogen hormones and progesterone. These hormones prepare the uterus for pregnancy, promote the development of mammary glands, play a role in sex drive, and develop secondary sex characteristics in the female. Estrogen is essential for the growth, development, and maintenance of female sex organs.
  • 29. The testes produce the male sex hormone called testosterone. It is essential for normal growth and development of the male sex organs. Testosterone is responsible for the erection of the penis. Secretions of the testes…
  • 30. During pregnancy, the placenta serves as an endocrine gland. Secretions of the placenta… It produces chorionic gonadotropin hormone, estrogen, and progesterone.
  • 31. The mucosa of the pyloric area of the stomach secretes the hormone gastrin, which stimulates the production of gastric acid for digestion. Secretions of the gastrointestinal mucosa…
  • 32. The mucosa of the duodenum and jejunum secretes the hormone secretin, which stimulates pancreatic juice, bile, and intestinal secretion. Secretions of the gastrointestinal mucosa…
  • 33. The thymus gland has two lobes, and is part of the lymphatic system. It is a ductless gland, and secretes thymosin. This is necessary for the Thymus’ normal production of T cells for the immune system. Secretions of the thymus…