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Poetic Forms

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Poetic Forms

  1. 1. Sonnets and more
  2. 2. Poetic Forms <ul><li>The term poetic form indicates the way that a poem is structured by recurrent patterns of rhythms and words. </li></ul><ul><li>We must look at stanzas (meter, line length and rhyme) and verse (blank or free) </li></ul>Hamilton, Sharon. Essential Literary Terms With Exercises . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. Print.
  3. 3. Verse <ul><li>Blank Verse </li></ul><ul><li>Free Verse </li></ul><ul><li>Unrhymed iambic pentameter (5 feet/line) </li></ul><ul><li>Blank means that the poetry is not rhymed. Iambic pentameter refers to the fact that each line contains five iambs, or metrical feet, consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called open form verse </li></ul><ul><li>Yet it still keeps line divisions deliberate which separates it from prose. </li></ul>Hamilton, Sharon. Essential Literary Terms With Exercises . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. Print.
  4. 4. Iambic Pentameter <ul><li>Iambic Pentameter has: </li></ul><ul><li>Ten syllables in each line </li></ul><ul><li>Five pairs of alternating unstressed and stressed syllables </li></ul><ul><li>The rhythm in each line sounds like: ba- BUM / ba- BUM / ba- BUM / ba- BUM / ba- BUM </li></ul>http://shakespeare.about.com/od/shakespeareslanguage/a/i_pentameter.htm
  5. 5. Iambic Pentameter Examples <ul><li>If mu- / -sic be / the food / of love , / play on </li></ul><ul><li>( Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare I.i.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Is this / a dag- / -ger I / see be- / fore me? </li></ul><ul><li>( Macbeth by William Shakespeare II,I, 33) </li></ul><ul><li>Each pair of syllables is called an iambus. You’ll notice that each iambus is made up of one unstressed and one stressed beat (ba- BUM ). </li></ul>http://shakespeare.about.com/od/shakespeareslanguage/a/i_pentameter.htm
  6. 6. This is? <ul><li>Rebellious subjects, enemies to peace, Profaners of this neighbor-stained steel-- Will they not hear? What ho, you men, you beasts, That quench the fire of your pernicious rage With purple fountains issuing from your veins! </li></ul><ul><li>( Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare I.i. 84- 88) </li></ul>
  7. 7. And this is? <ul><li>I celebrate myself, and sing myself, And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. I loaf and invite my soul, I lean and loaf at my ease observing a spear of summer grass. </li></ul><ul><li>(“Song of Myself” by Walt Whitman) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Couplet <ul><li>A pair of rhymed lines of the same length and meter. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhymed pairs of lines in Iambic Pentameter are termed heroic couplets </li></ul>Hamilton, Sharon. Essential Literary Terms With Exercises. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. Print.
  9. 9. Tercet (Triplet) <ul><li>Is a group of three lines, usually sharing the same rhyme. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenas in silks my Julia goes, </li></ul><ul><li>Then, then, methinks, how sweetly flows, </li></ul><ul><li>The liquefaction of her clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>(“Upon Julia’s Clothes” by Robert Herrick) </li></ul><ul><li>The line length may be the same or it may vary </li></ul><ul><li>And as the smart ship grew </li></ul><ul><li>In stature, grace, and hue, </li></ul><ul><li>In shadowy silent distance grew the Iceberg too. </li></ul><ul><li>(“The Convergence of the Twain” by Thomas Hardy) </li></ul>Hamilton, Sharon. Essential Literary Terms With Exercises . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. Print .
  10. 10. Quatrain <ul><li>Consists of four lines and is the most common stanza form in English poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>May use a variety of meter and rhyme schemes. The most frequent rhyme scheme is that in which the second and forth line rhyme (abcb) </li></ul>Hamilton, Sharon. Essential Literary Terms With Exercises . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. Print.
  11. 11. Refrain <ul><li>Is a word, a phrase, or a group of lines repeated at intervals in a poem. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a common feature of folk ballads and of Elizabethan songs. </li></ul>Hamilton, Sharon. Essential Literary Terms With Exercises . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. Print.
  12. 12. Sonnet <ul><li>Is a Lyric poem, written in a single stanza that usually consists of fourteen lines of iambic pentameter. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Italian Sonnet (Petrarchan) <ul><li>Named after Petrarch, an Italian poet who introduced the form in the early fourteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into an opening octave- a group of eight lines, and a concluding sestet-a six line unit. </li></ul><ul><li>The rhyme scheme is usually fixed. The opening octave is abba abba, but that of the sestet may vary (ced ced, or cdc cdc, or cdc dcd. </li></ul>Hamilton, Sharon. Essential Literary Terms With Exercises . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. Print.
  14. 14. <ul><li>English Sonnet (Shakespearean) </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknamed after it’s most famous practitioner. </li></ul><ul><li>Features three quatrains and a final couplet. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyme scheme usually goes abab cdcd efef gg. </li></ul>Hamilton, Sharon. Essential Literary Terms With Exercises . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. Print.
  15. 15. This is an example of??? <ul><li>When I consider how my light is spent, </li></ul><ul><li>Ere half my days in this dark world and wide, </li></ul><ul><li>And that one talent which is death to hide </li></ul><ul><li>Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent </li></ul><ul><li>To serve therewith my Maker, and present </li></ul><ul><li>My true account, lest He returning chide; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>I fondly ask. But Patience, to prevent </li></ul><ul><li>That murmur, soon replies, &quot;God doth not need </li></ul><ul><li>Either man's work or His own gifts. Who best </li></ul><ul><li>Bear His mild yoke, they serve Him best. His state </li></ul><ul><li>Is kingly: thousands at His bidding speed, </li></ul><ul><li>And post o'er land and ocean without rest; </li></ul><ul><li>They also serve who only stand and wait.&quot; </li></ul>
  16. 16. And this is an example of??? <ul><li>Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit </li></ul><ul><li>impediments. </li></ul><ul><li>Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, </li></ul><ul><li>Or bends with the remover to remove: </li></ul><ul><li>O no! it is an ever-fixed mark </li></ul><ul><li>That looks on tempests and is never shaken; </li></ul><ul><li>It is the star to every wandering bark, </li></ul><ul><li>Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks </li></ul><ul><li>Within his bending sickle's compass come: </li></ul><ul><li>Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, </li></ul><ul><li>But bears it out even to the edge of doom. </li></ul><ul><li>If this be error and upon me proved, </li></ul><ul><li>I never writ, nor no man ever loved. </li></ul>

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