Comp science notes2


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Comp science notes2

  2. 2. UoN IntroductionA Computer is an electronic device that processesraw data to meaningful information.The most common type of computer is theMicrocomputer also referred to as a Personalcomputer (PC). The figures below shows differenttypes of PCs. 2
  3. 3. UoN Types of PCs Desktop PC Notebook PC Pocket PC 3
  4. 4. UoN Elements of a computer system:A computer system consists of three main elements.  Hardware  Software  LivewareHARDWAREPhysical parts such as the system unit and peripheral devices. Peripheral devicesconnect to the system unit. They include:•Input devices - Keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner, digital cameras etc.•Output devices – Monitors, Speakers, LCD projectors, printers etc.•Storage device – Floppy disk, flash disks, memory cards, hard disks, CDs,DVDs etc.•Central processing unit (CPU) – This is the brain of the computer locatedinside the system unit. Examples of CPUs are Intel Pentium, Intel Celeron(Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) and Cyrix Processors. 4
  5. 5. Elements of a computer system cont…. UoNSOFTWARESoftware also referred to as programs is a set ofinstructions that directs a computer what to do.Software adds live to the hardware components.The two main types of computer software are:•System software•Application software 5
  6. 6. UoN Elements of a computer system cont….System software Does fundamental tasks such as computer boot up and maintenance. Examples are operating system ( Windows, Linux, Macintosh), Networking software and Antivirus programs.Application software They are used to perform specific user tasks such as typing, calculations, publishing, drawing, presentation etc. Examples are word processors, spreadsheets, Databases, Presentation, Accounting software etc. 6
  7. 7. UoN Introduction to Microsoft WindowsMicrosoft Windows is the most common type of operating system.Other operating systems include Linux, Macintosh, Unix, Novell etcThere are various versions of Windows. They include Ms Windows 98,2000 (2k), Millennium (Me), XP, 2003 and currently Vista.Basically all these Versions have common features and with knowledgein one, you can easily learn and use any other version.Starting WindowsOnce you switch on the computer, it undergoes a process referred to as boot up.This involves checking on whether all the basic input/output devices areworking properly and then loads the operating system.Windows DesktopOnce Windows in successfully loaded, a login dialog box may be displayed.You enter your user name (ID) and password in order to access the desktoptools. 7
  8. 8. UoN Windows desktop features 8
  9. 9. UoN Desktop features cont….The main features of the desktop are:• Icons – Graphical objects that represents commands and applications• Taskbar – The strip mainly located at the bottom and consists of: – Start button, – Task manager where running tasks buttons are placed – System tray where applications running in the background are placed.• Background – This is the empty screen where the icons and running applications spread. 9
  10. 10. UoNHow Windows organizes informationWindows organizes information into: 1. Drives 2. Folders/Directories 3. FilesDrivesStorage devices are treated as drives and given labels from A to Z as follows:  Drive A & B – Floppy disks  Drive C – Hard disk  Drives D, E, F – Extra hard disks and/or CD/ DVD drives.  Drives …. To Z – More physical and logical drives. 10
  11. 11. UoN My computer window 11
  12. 12. UoN How Windows organizes information cont….FoldersA folder also referred to as a directory in some operating systems is anamed storage location used to organize files for easy access . Foldersare mostly in yellow and resembles a typical manual folder . A folderinside a folder is called a sub-folder. The figure below shows folders ofdrive C: 12
  13. 13. UoN How Windows organizes information cont..FilesA computer file is a collection of data or information storedfor future use. Files aremainly created using applicationprograms. A file has a unique name and an extension. Forexample  Report.doc - Word document file  Budget.xls – Excel spreadsheet file  Students.mdb – An Access database file  ICT Workshop.ppt – A PowerPoint presentation fillTherefore it is possible to know the type of file by looking atthe extension and its icon. 13
  14. 14. UoN Managing folders and filesTo manage folders and files, you need to display theWindows explorer using My Computer or Start menu.Using My Computer3.Right click My Computer4.Click Explore 14
  15. 15. UoN Managing folders and filesUsing the Start menu2. Click Start, Point to Programs then Accessories3. Click Windows Explorer 15
  16. 16. UoN Creating foldersIn the Explorer Window:2. Open the drive where the folder is to be created3. Click File menu, Point to New4. Click Folder5. Replace the Temporary New Folder name with your choice6. Press Enter.NB:To create a sub-folder, first open the folder where the subfolder is to becreated and proceed with steps 2 to 5. 16
  17. 17. Creating foldersUoN 17
  18. 18. UoN Creating filesYou create files from Programs menu but you can first create files fromthe Windows Explorer.In the Explorer Window: • Open the drive where the file is to be created • Click File menu, Point to New • Choose a file type from List of files types below the seperation line. • Replace the Temporary file name with your choice • Press Enter. • Double click the New file Icon to Lauch the application. • Add information to the file then from File menu, click Save. • From File menu of the application window, click Close then Exit.NB:To create a file from Start menu: Click Start, point to Programs then select theApplication Program from the sidekick menu. 18
  19. 19. UoN Renaming files and foldersIn the Explorer Window:2. Open the drive where the folder is located3. Right click the file or folder to be renamed4. From the Shortcut menu, click Rename5. Replace the current folder name with a different name6. Press Enter.NB:To Rename folder using File menu, Click File then Rename. Proceed withsteps 4 & 5. 19
  20. 20. UoN Deleting files and foldersIn the Explorer Window:2. Open the drive where the folder is located3. Right click the file or folder to be deleted4. From the Shortcut menu, click Delete5. A Message is displayed asking you to confirm the deletion6. Click Yes.7. Files & folders deleted from the hard disk are sent to the Recycle Bin NB: Files and folders deleted from removable drives ie diskettes, flash disks are not held in the recycle bin but are completely lost. 20
  21. 21. UoN Copying and moving files & foldersTo copy is to create a duplicate while to move is to transfer a file or folder to anew location.To copy a file or folder: • Right click the file or folder • From the Shortcut menu, click Copy • Open the Drive or folder where you want to place a copy • Right click an empty space, then click Paste.To move a file or folder: • Right click the file or folder • From the Shortcut menu, click Cut • Open the Drive or folder where you want to move the file/folder • Right click an empty space, then click Paste. NB: You can use Edit menu to Copy and Move files and folders.. 21
  22. 22. UoN Practical Exercise Create the following folders on drive A: 2. Tutors 3. Students 4. Support Staff In the Students folder, create the following subfolders: 1. Exams 2. Fees 3. Accommodation Create a word processor file named Exams Reports.doc in the Exams subfolder Copy Exams Reports.doc to Students folder 22
  23. 23. UoN Searching for files and foldersIn case you are not sure where you created or the name yougave a file or folder, use the search menu. 1. Click Start, poit to Search then click For Files or Folders 2. In the Search window/dialog box, specify the search criteria. 3. Click the search button. See the figure below. 23
  24. 24. UoN Searching for files and folders 24
  25. 25. UoN Managing storage mediaManaging storage media involves formatting disks, scanningfor errors and virus and creating backups.Formatting disksBefore you use a new disk, you must first format it. Formatting checks for backareas on the disk and erases any existing data.To format a disk:•Double click My Computer icon•Right click the drive to format•From the Shortcut menu, click Format…•In the Format dialog box, specify the capacity and volume label•Click start Warning!!!!!:Never TRY to format Drive C or any other drive holding system files 25
  26. 26. UoN Formatting a disk 26
  27. 27. UoN Scanning for problemsScanningA disk may develop some problems such as physicaldamage. You need to check for problems before you use it.To scan a disk: • In My Computer, right click the drive • From the Shortcut menu, click properties • In the Properties dialog box, click Tools tab • Click Check Now button the check options • Click start 27
  28. 28. UoN Scanning a disk 28
  29. 29. UoN Scanning for virusesA virus is a malicious program that causes a computer tomalfunction. The three types of malicious programs are theviruses, Trojans and worms. A computer must be installedwith the latest antivirus program such as Norton, McAfee,AVG etc.To scan for viruses: • In My Computer, right click the drive • From the Shortcut menu, click Scan With…… • The Scan process is initialized • Heal, delete or quarantine the infected files. 29
  30. 30. UoN Scanning for viruses 30
  31. 31. UoN Backing up filesData and should be backed up information stored on thehard disk regularly.To backup a disk:•In My Computer, right click the hard drive•From the Shortcut menu, click properties•In the Properties dialog box, click Tools tab•Click Backup Now.•The backup wizard guides you through the process. 31
  32. 32. UoN Backup wizard 32
  33. 33. UoN Practical Exercise Perform the following operations: 2. Format your USB/Flash disk 3. Scan for viruses on the disk 4. Backup some selected files from drive C into a USB/Flash disk. END 33