Work of the National Convention. <br /><ul><li>Many democratic reforms occurred between 1792 & 1795 by the National Convention.
The Committee of Public Safety tried to establish a “Republic of Virtue” (A democratic</li></ul>republic in which people acted according to the principles of good citizenship. To do so,<br />the Committee opened new schools & backed up the idea of universal elementary education. <br /><ul><li>In aiding the economy, the Committee developed wage & price controls, ending inflation.
Even during the Reign of Terror, the committee ended slavery in France’s colonies while also </li></ul> influencing religious tolerance. <br /><ul><li>The National Convention also accustomed the metric system </li></ul>(Based on the number ten, it was a system that reflected the rational thinking of this new era.)<br /><ul><li>The convention created a new calendar, naming September 22, 1792 as the day of the</li></ul>First Year of Liberty. <br /><ul><li>The calendar used colors to represent seasons: (For example, Thermidor</li></ul>represented the warm month.)<br /><ul><li>Though the calendar did not survive, it served as the hope of the France</li></ul>that this new government would mark the beginning of a new era. <br /><ul><li>The French army also continued to excel in victory (They drove out invaders</li></ul>of French soil while also conquering territory as far as the Rhine River in Germany by 1795.)<br /><ul><li>The European countries against France also began to break up.
The success of the army gave hope that opposition would not be accepted. </li></li></ul><li>The Directory<br />Another constitution was made by the Convention in 1795 that included a two-house legislature. This new government took office in November of that year. <br />500-member lower house proposed laws, while the 250-member upper house approved or rejected them. <br />Upper house: had the power to select the new executive branch of the government, which included five individuals know as directors (giving this new government the name The Directory.)<br />This new constitution eliminated manhood suffrage, giving the wealth control once again of the France government. <br />The Directory lasted for four years. Though the economy improved in some ways, the peasants, workers and poor were still suffering. <br />Five directors: quarreled frequently & were weak ruler. This made The Directory as unpopular as the Old Regime. Such as the Old Regime, it had financial challenges, that in turn led to military dictatorship. <br />
Napoleon Bonaparte<br /><ul><li>Napoleon Bonaparte, born in 1769, attended military school in France, </li></ul>became a general at age 26, and caught the public’s eye between 1794 & 1799.<br /><ul><li>He stopped an uprising in Paris that would have prevented the creation</li></ul> of the Directory. <br /><ul><li>Having the characteristics of ambition, energy, and great organizational </li></ul>skills, he was a successful manager of political and military affairs.<br /><ul><li>He made a smart move in 1796: he married Josephine de Beauharnais, </li></ul>whom of which was a leader of French Society. Two days after this <br />marriage, he won the command of the French army that was fighting the<br /> Austrians in Italy. <br />
The Rise of Napoleon<br /><ul><li>He played a major role beginning on 1796, thus the wars</li></ul>France fought from then until 1815 are referred to as the Napoleonic Wars. <br /><ul><li>He was excelled in moving troops swiftly to the most critical </li></ul>areas in battle, overwhelming the slower tactics of the opponents. <br /><ul><li>Though the French army was weak and ill-equipped in Italy, </li></ul>Napoleon still managed to improve these disadvantageous <br /> conditions for the troops, gaining their support. Because of such<br />inspiration, they forced the Sardinians to make peace. <br /><ul><li>He also defeated the Austrians four times, and forced them to </li></ul>sign a treaty giving France control of northern Italy in 1797. <br /><ul><li>Napoleon kept making new conquests, remaining popular </li></ul>amongst the French people; however, The Directory was concerned<br />that Napoleon was going to take over control. <br /><ul><li>Napoleon won victories on land against the Egyptians at first, </li></ul>in an attempt to cut off British trade with India. <br /><ul><li>Unfortunately, the British destroyed the French near Alexandria,</li></ul>isolating the French army in Egypt. <br /><ul><li>Napoleon went back to France, hiding the truth and exaggerating</li></ul>victories, after isolating his army in Egypt.<br />
Napoleon Took Power!<br />Behind Napoleon becoming a hero, the British organized an alliance of nations against France, driving the French armies out of Italy, and French control began to decrease. <br />The supporters of Napoleon thought that he was the only one who could restore order, and in return developed a plan to overthrow the government and put Napoleon in power. <br />In 1799, four of the five directors were no longer in power because troops forced most of the members of the legislature to leave. Those who remained turned to government over to Napoleon. <br />Seizing power by force like this is referred to as coup d'état (or “stroke of state.”)<br />The words of Napoleon: “I found the crown of France lying on the ground, and I picked it up with my sword.”<br />