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Chapter 1_ADVANCED BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.pdf

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Chapter 1_ADVANCED BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.pdf

  1. 1. 1 1 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com ADVANCED BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Set by Feleke Y (Ph.D)
  2. 2. Persuade! What may possible motives for doing research ? 2 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  3. 3. Chapter 1: Introduction to Business Research .Motivation In Research • The possible motives for doing research may be either one or more of the following:  curiosity about new things,  desire to understand causal relationships  Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits;  Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research;  Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work;  Desire to be of service to society;  Desire to get respectability.  And etc 3 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  4. 4. Objectives of research • The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. • The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered yet. • Research plays a major role in applying a truly analytical approach to decision making. • Besides, it also assists in the evaluation of effect of decisions which have been taken. • In general, social scientists believe that the ultimate aim of research must be social benefit.  It must solve society’s problem! 4 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  5. 5.  Thought each research study has its own specific purpose, the following are the five principal objectives of all Social Science Research: I. Research is conducted to help scientists understand the properties of a phenomenon.  This process enables the scientists to establish categories, classes, or types of phenomenon.  In social Research, for example, the following are set of categories: poor -Non-poor Category, level of adoption Category, etc. ii. Research is conducted to enable Scientists to understand relationships between variables.  This is a quest to present conclusive evidence (casual links) that a relationship exists between two or more phenomena. 5 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  6. 6. iii. The production of a theory is the third objective, and it is considered to be the ultimate goal of all Scientific researches. iv. The fourth principal objective of research is the prediction of outcomes. Prediction is based upon a thorough understanding of prior theory generation. For example, the determination of the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated withsomething else. v. The final objective of scientific research is the confirmation of the findings in one study by other researchers-replication. That means it is conducted to confirm or refute study or a body of knowledge by a community of other researchers. 6 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  7. 7. Definition and concept of research  Research is an essential and powerful tool in leading man towards progress.  The word research is composed of two syllables, re & search. The dictionary defines the former as a prefix meaning again, anew, or over again and the latter as a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try, or to prob.  Together they form a noun describing a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles (Grinnell, 1993:)  It refers to a search for knowledge.  It can also be defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation 7 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  8. 8. Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery.  It is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. Research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown.  It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. As to the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, “research is a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.” 8 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  9. 9. The following are the important definitions of research: J. Francis • “Research is an endeavor / attempt to discover, develop and verify knowledge. It is an intellectual process that has developed over hundreds of years ever changing in purpose and form and always researching to truth.” P.M.Cook • Rummel “Research is an honest, exhaustive, intelligent searching for facts and their meanings or implications with reference to a given problem. The product or findings of a given piece of research should be an authentic, verifiable contribution to knowledge in the field studied.” W.S.Monroes • “Research may be defined as a method of studying problems whose solutions are to be derived partly or wholly from facts.” John W. Best • “Research is considered to be the more formal, systematic intensive process of carrying on the scientific method of analysis. It involves a more systematic structure of investigation, usually resulting in some sort of formal record of procedures and a report of results or conclusion.” 9 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  10. 10. Clifford Woody • “Research comprises defining and redefining problems ,formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting ,organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last careful testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis.” Redman & Mori • “Research is a systematic effort to gain new knowledge.” P.V. Young • “Social research may be defined as a scientific undertaking which by means of logical and systematized techniques aims to discover new facts or verify and test old facts , analyze their sequences , interrelationships and casual explanation which were derived within an appropriate theoretical frame of reference , develop new scientific tools , concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behavior.” 10 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  11. 11.  The term ‘research’ refers to “the systematic method consisting of explain the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solution(s) towards the concerned problem or in certain generalizations for some theoretical formulation.”  In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research.  Without systematic research there would have been very little progress.  So research means a systematic investigation or activity to gain new knowledge of the already existing facts.  Research is an intellectual activity.  It is responsible for bringing to light new knowledge. 11 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  12. 12. • It is also responsible for correcting the present mistakes, removing existing misconceptions and adding new learning to the existing fund of knowledge. • Researches are considered as a combination of those activities which are removed from day to day life and are pursued by those persons who are gifted in intellect and sincere in pursuit of knowledge. • But it is not correct to say that the research is restricted to such type of persons, however, it is correct to say that major contribution of research comes from highly gifted and committed workers. • Thus the research is not at all mysterious and is carried on by hundreds of thousands of average individuals 12 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  13. 13. • Research is also considered as the application of scientific method in solving the problems. • It is a systematic, formal and intensive process of carrying on the scientific method of analysis • There are many ways of obtaining knowledge. • They are – intuition, – revelation, and authority, – logical manipulation of basic assumptions, – informed guesses, – observation, and reasoning by analogy. • One of the branches of research known as empirical research is highly goal-oriented technique. 13 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  14. 14. What is not a research then?  Research isn’t merely information gathering: Gathering information from resources such as books or magazines isn’t considered as a research as it doesn’t contribute to new knowledge.  The transportation of facts cannot be considered as a research: Merely transporting facts from one resource to another doesn’t constitute research. No contribution to new knowledge although this might make existing knowledge more accessible . .  “If we knew what we were doing, it wouldn't be research,” Albert Einstein  If the research is not directed towards the problem and objectives then that is not a research 14 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  15. 15. .Business research nature and scope • Business market research is a dynamic concept. • One of the key components of market research studies is the strategic inquiry into a business situation or environment to establish the actuality or evidence that may have led to the development of certain trends. • Today, business research is the pillar that supports decision- making in various areas of an organization. • Prior to conducting proactive business research, it is crucial to determine the underlying objectives of the research program to come up with an accurately targeted approach. • The significance of business research is that it is a fact-finding mission that fuels successful decision-making in a corporate environment. • Let us take a look at the nature, scope, and significance of business research Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 15
  16. 16. 1. What is Involved in Business Research? • Business research is the process of gathering thorough information on all aspects of a company's operations and applying that information to improve operational excellence, which can lead to an increase in sales and profits. • A study like this can assist businesses in figuring the product or service that is most profitable. • It entails determining where money should be spent to boost sales, profitability, or/and market share. • Given the increasing competition in all industries, market research has become extremely necessary to make intelligent and informed decisions that fuel business growth Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 16
  17. 17. 2. Importance of Business Research • Business research is one of the most effective ways to understand your customers and the overall market, as well as analyze competitors. • This type of research aids businesses in determining market demand and supply. • It can help business organizations to cut unnecessary expenses and develop tailor-made solutions or products that appeal to the demand in the market. • Research for startups aids in gathering information for professional or commercial purposes to assess business prospects and goals. • Business research can also help startups find the right audience profile for their offerings. Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 17
  18. 18. 3. Key Advantages of Business Research • Here are some of the key advantages of business research: • Market research can help organizations gain a better perspective and understanding of their market or target audience. This ensures that the company stays ahead of its competitors. • Primary and secondary research can act as an insurance policy against obvious but silent dangers on your business path. • Market research findings help organizations learn from their weaknesses and adapt to new business environments. • By using certain research methodologies for competitor analysis, you can capitalize on your new-found knowledge to steer ahead of the competition. • Regular market research initiatives help take the ‘pulse’ of hot market trends, allowing you to come up with “superhit” products and services. • It helps with market forecasting, which allows you to project future numbers, characteristics, and trends within your target market. Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 18
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  20. 20. Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 20
  21. 21. Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 21
  22. 22. WHAT YOU CAN DO WITH RESEARCH ? So what can we use research to do in order to gain this new knowledge? Some of the ways it can be used one to: • Categorize. This involves forming a typology of objects, events or concepts, i.e. a set of names or ‘boxes’ into which these can be sorted. This can be useful in explaining which ‘things’ belong together and how. • Describe. Descriptive research relies on observation as a means of collecting data. It attempts to examine situations in order to establish what is the norm, i.e. what can be predicted to happen again under the same circumstances. • Explain. This is a descriptive type of research specifically designed to deal with complex issues. It aims to move beyond ‘just getting the facts’ in order to make sense of the myriad other elements involved, such as human, political, social, cultural and contextual. 22 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  23. 23. • Evaluate. This involves making judgements about the quality of objects or events. Quality can be measured either in an absolute sense or on a comparative basis. To be useful, the methods of evaluation must be relevant to the context and intentions of the research. • Compare. Two or more contrasting cases can be examined to highlight differences and similarities between them, leading to a better understanding of phenomena. • Correlate. The relationships between two phenomena are investigated to see whether and how they influence each other. The relationship might be just a loose link at one extreme or a direct link when one phenomenon causes another. These are measured as levels of association. 23 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  24. 24. • Predict. This can sometimes be done in research areas where correlations are already known. Predictions of possible future behavior or events are made on the basis that if there has been a strong relationship between two or more characteristics or events in the past, then these should exist in similar circumstances in the future, leading to predictable outcomes. • Control. Once you understand an event or situation, you may be able to find ways to control it. For this you need to know what the cause and effect relationships are and that you are capable of exerting control over the vital ingredients. All of technology relies on this ability to control. • You can combine two or more of these objectives in a research project, with sometimes one objective needing to be successfully achieved before starting the next, for example you usually need to be able to explain how something happens before you can work out how to control it. 24 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  25. 25. Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 25
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  27. 27. Types of research and the research process .Type of Research • Types of research can be looked at from three different perspectives 1. applications of the findings of the research study; i).Applied research, ii) Pure research 2. objectives of the study; i) Descriptive, ii) Correlational, iii) Explanatory, vi) Exploratory 3. mode of enquiry used in conducting the study. i)Quantitative, ii) Qualitative Research method  The classification of the types of a study on the basis of these perspectives is not mutually exclusive: that is, a research study classified from the viewpoint of ‘application’ can also be classified from the perspectives of ‘objectives’ and ‘enquiry mode’ employed. For example, refer below diagram. 27 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  28. 28. 28 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  29. 29. Types of research: application perspective Pure (Basic, Theoretical or Fundamental) Research: • If you examine a research endeavor from the perspective of its application, there are two broad categories: • Pure research and Applied research. In the social sciences, according to Bailey (1978: 17): • Pure research involves developing and testing theories and hypotheses that are intellectually challenging to the researcher but may or may not have practical application at the present time or in the future. • Thus such work often involves the testing of hypotheses containing very abstract and specialized concepts 29 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  30. 30. • Pure research is also concerned with the development, examination, verification and refinement of research methods, procedures, techniques and tools that form the body of research methodology. • Examples of pure research include developing a sampling technique that can be applied to a particular situation; developing a methodology to assess the validity of a procedure; developing an instrument, say, to measure the stress level in people; and finding the best way of measuring people’s attitudes. • The knowledge produced through pure research is sought in order to add to the existing body of knowledge of research methods. 30 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  31. 31. • “Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake” is termed ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research. • Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research • Similarly, research studies, concerning human behavior carried on with a view to make generalizations about human behavior, are also examples of fundamental research. • In general, fundamental research is directed towards finding information that has a broad base of applications and thus, adds to the already existing organized body of scientific knowledge 31 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  32. 32. Applied (Action) research:  Most of the research in the social sciences is applied.  This is a type of research which is aimed at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization.  The research worker must solve a short term problems faced by the society.  Research to identify social, economic or political trends that may affect a particular institution or the marketing research or evaluation research are examples of applied research.  Thus, the central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem. 32 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  33. 33.  And also applied research can be the research techniques, procedures and methods that form the body of research methodology are applied to the collection of information about various aspects of a situation, issue, problem or phenomenon so that the information gathered can be used for policy formulation, administration and the enhancement of understanding of a phenomenon 33 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  34. 34. Types of research: objectives perspective 34 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  35. 35. 35 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  36. 36. it is happening 36 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  37. 37. 37 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  38. 38. Types of research: mode of enquiry perspective 38 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  39. 39. 39 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  40. 40. 40 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  41. 41. study: 41 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  42. 42. For more information Read! Read! Read! The reference material provided to you 42 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  43. 43. Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 43
  44. 44. Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 44
  45. 45. Characteristics of research • A good research must qualify (meet) the following characteristics: It must, as far as possible, be controlled, rigorous, systematic, valid and verifiable, reliable, empirical, and critical. Controlled: • In real life, there are many factors that affect an outcome. • A particular event is seldom the result of a one – to –one relationship. – Some relationships are more complex than others. – Most outcomes are a sequel to the interplay of a multiplicity of relationships and interacting factors 45 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  46. 46.  In a study of cause – and – effect relationships, it is important to be able to link the effect(s) with the cause(s) and vice versa.  In the study of causation, the establishment of this linkage is essential.  However, in practice, particularly in the social sciences, it is extremely difficult – and often impossible – to make the link.  The concept of control implies that, in exploring causality in relation to two variables, you set up your study in a way that minimizes the effects of other factors affecting the relationship. Rigorous:  You must be scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed to find answers to questions are relevant, appropriate, and justified. 46 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  47. 47. Systematic: • This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follow a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way. Some procedures must follow others. And the steps or procedures in general are: – Understanding the nature of problem to be studied and identifying the related area of knowledge. – Reviewing literature to understand how others have approached or dealt with the problem. – Collecting data in an organized and controlled manner so as to arrive at valid decisions. – Analyzing data appropriate to the problem. – Drawing conclusions and making generalizations. 47 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  48. 48. Valid and verifiable: • This concept implies that whatever you conclude on the basis of your findings is correct and can be verified by you and others. • By validity, we mean that the researcher must obtain the reality of responses of those people who are under the test through comparing their responses with such truth that in deed is truth. • Validity refers to the accuracy of an assessment -- whether or not it measures what it is supposed to measure 48 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  49. 49. • Validity is defined as the degree to which the instrument measures what it's supposed to measure. – If an instrument is not reliable over time, it cannot be valid, as results can vary depending upon when it is administered. • Validity refers to the credibility or believability of the research. Are the findings genuine? – Is hand strength a valid measure of intelligence? Almost certainly the answer is “No, it is not.” • Generally, we have two types of validity: i) Internal validity ii) ii) External validity 49 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  50. 50. • Internal validity - the instruments or procedures used in the research measured what they were supposed to measure. • In research, internal validity is the extent to which you are able to say that no other variables except the one you're studying caused the result. – For example, if we are studying the variable of pay and the result of hard work, we want to be able to say that no other reason (not personality, not motivation, not competition) causes the hard work. • We want to say that pay and pay alone makes people work harder. 50 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  51. 51. • Internal validity refers to whether the effects observed in a study are due to the manipulation of the independent variable and not some other factor. In-other-words, there is a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable. Internal validity can be improved for instance by controlling extraneous variables,.. • External validity - the results can be generalized beyond the immediate study.  It should also apply to people beyond the sample in the study.  External validity is the extent to which results of a study can be generalized to the world at large . 51 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  52. 52. • When we conduct experiments, our goal is to demonstrate cause and effect relationships between the independent and dependent variables. We often try to do it in a way that enables us to make statements about people at large. –A study that readily allows its findings to generalize to the population at large has high external validity 52 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  53. 53. Reliability: • Supposes that if other person were to repeat a specific research study, he should be able to capture the same results.  Reliability demonstrates that the operation of a study, such as the data collection procedures, can be repeated with the same outcome.  The objective is to ensure that if a later researcher followed exactly the same procedures as described by an earlier research and conducted the same case study all over again; the later researcher should arrive at the same conclusion 53 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
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  56. 56. Research and scientific method • What is common sense inquiry ? 56 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
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  61. 61. • Science: “Systematized knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws, esp. as obtained and tested through scientific method.” • Philosophy: “The study of the most general and abstract features of the world and the categories with which we think. In philosophy the concepts with which we approach the world themselves become the topic of enquiry.” 61 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  62. 62. • Dewey(1910 and 1938) distinguishes between scientific and common sense inquiry. • Common sense inquiry is oriented directly at practical problems and behavior adjustments; its goal is the settlement of the problems of action and use. • common sense knowledge is formulated so that it could provide content for concrete thinking leading to immediate practical conduct. • Dewey (1938, p. 60) defines the “world” or “common sense environment” as an environment in which people are directly involved and engaged. • Common sense inquiry is from now on understood as an inquiry which aims at “making the required adjustments in behavior.” 62 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  63. 63. • Scientific inquiry, on the other hand, does not produce direct practical instructions and focuses on establishing connections between phenomena, regardless of their instant impact on actual practical issues. • Dewey detail his understanding of scientific inquiry in which “there is no direct involvement of human beings in the immediate environment” (1938, p. 61). • He states that a scientific procedure is not supposed to “accept what was given and established in common sense” (1938, p. 96). • Science is capable of recognizing relations between phenomena which common sense knowledge is not able to grasp; it is “no longer an organization of meanings and modes of action that have their presence in the meanings and syntactical structures of ordinary language” (Dewey 1938, p. 97). 63 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  64. 64. • Inquiries conducted within common sense and within scientific inquiry differ with respect to their levels of theoreticity. • The range of problems to be resolved, put, or transformed on the basis of common sense knowledge and its conceptual framework is limited. • It can be extended by the conceptual framework of scientific inquiry and the knowledge formulated on its basis. • According to Johnston, “scientific inquiry operates largely at the level of abstract reasoning and ideas: common sense operates at the level of the concrete” (2009, p. 22). 64 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  65. 65. • The extension of the scope of scientific inquiry – as Dewey (1938, p. 97) argues – is possible because of what he calls a “reflective organization” of common sense which means – (i) articulation of hidden implications of common sense beliefs; – (ii) an extension of the conceptual framework due to an investigation of issues reaching beyond the area of common sense interest; and – (iii) production of an arrangement and order of phenomena with which common sense is unfamiliar. 65 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  66. 66. 66 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  67. 67. • In the scientific approach the practical world (experienced and organized through a conceptual framework characteristic for ordinary language) turns out to be only a part of a larger and more complex scientific image in the sense of a complex relational structure. • That structure remains unknown for the practical perspective based on common-sense. • Hence, theories constructed in the scientific approach allow for questions, problems, and solutions unattainable for common sense inquiry. 67 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  68. 68. • The scientific image of the world entails regularities and relations impenetrable from the perspective of the common sense body of knowledge KC; regularities and laws discoverable within common sense knowledge make but a sub- range of the complex relational structure accessible from within the scientific image. • It means that both systems differ with regard to their so-called predictive and explanatory power. • This difference could be interpreted as follows: – the predictive and explanatory power of system of knowledge KS exceeds the predictive and explanatory power of cultural system KC. 68 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  69. 69. • In other words, KS provides a more comprehensive understanding of the environing world than KC. – When common sense fails to answer certain questions, like – Why did this incident happen? – or What will happen if such and such circumstances occur? • it is more probable that scientific knowledge will settle such questions and indirectly improve human practice by providing it with an innovative theory of reality. 69 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  70. 70. • However, the theoretical or reflective organization characteristic of scientific inquiry does not only take place in natural sciences. • For instance, Dewey claims that in the field of social sciences and normative disciplines scholars should reconstruct historically given systems of valuations; conclusions drawn from such cultural-anthropological knowledge of past valuations would enable a more extensive prediction of “probable consequences” (1939, p. 58) of human conduct. • As it has been discussed elsewhere (Malitowska 2012), in contemporary philosophy of education the pragmatic conception of scientific inquiry has undergone a “philosophical transposition” and, as such, it plays an important role as a pedagogical method facilitating the development of critical thinking. 70 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
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  84. 84. Conceptual foundation in Research  Conceptual research is defined as a methodology wherein research is conducted by observing and analyzing already present information on a given topic.  It is related to abstract concepts or ideas. Philosophers have long used conceptual research to develop new theories or interpret existing theories in a different light 84 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
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  96. 96. 96 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  97. 97. Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 97
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  99. 99. 99 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  100. 100. 100 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  101. 101. 101 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  102. 102. 102 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  103. 103. 103 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  104. 104. 104 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  105. 105. 105 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  106. 106. 106 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  107. 107. 107 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  108. 108. 108 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  109. 109. 109 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  110. 110. Paradigm • ORIGIN late 15th cent.: via late Latin from Greek paradeigma, from paradeiknunai ‘show side by side,’ from para- ‘beside’ + deiknunai ‘to show.’ 110 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  111. 111. What is a paradigm? "universally recognised scientific achievements that, for a time, provide model problems and solutions for a community of researchers", i.e., • what is to be observed and scrutinised • the kind of questions that are supposed to be asked and probed for answers in relation to this subject • how these questions are to be structured • how the results of scientific investigations should be interpreted • how is an experiment to be conducted, and what equipment is available to conduct the experiment. Kuhn, T S (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (2nd Edition) University of Chicago Press. Section V, pages 43-51 111 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  112. 112. 112 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  113. 113. Main components of a Research Paradigm Source: Guba and Lincoln (1994) 113 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  114. 114. 114 Ontology Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  115. 115. ORIGIN early 18th cent.: from modern Latin ontologia, from Greek ōn, ont- ‘being’ + -logy.  Ontology is the study of beings or their being – – what is; Ontology is the starting point of all research, after which one’s epistemological and methodological positions logically follow. A dictionary definition of the term may describe it as the image of social reality upon which a theory is based. 115 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  116. 116. Ontological assumption:  There is a reality that can be apprehended.  We can determine “the way things are” and, often, discover the cause effect relations behind social reality.  At the least, we can find meaningful indicators of what is “really” happening. 116 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  117. 117. 117 Epistemology Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  118. 118. • ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from Greek epistēmē ‘knowledge,’ from epistasthai ‘know, know how to do.’ • Epistemology is the branch of Philosophy that studies knowledge, by attempting to distinguish between ‘True’ (and adequate) knowledge and ‘False’ (inadequate) knowledge. (Erikson and Kovalainen, (2008:14). 118 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  119. 119. • Epistemological assumption: • The investigator and the object of investigation are independent from each other and the object can be researched without being influenced by the researcher. • Any possible researcher influence can be anticipated, detected, and accounted for (controlled). 119 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  120. 120. 120 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  121. 121. • Methodological assumption: • The most prevalent methods used include experiments, quasi-experiments, and other hypothesis-testing techniques. • Meaningful phenomena are operationalized by determining variables that can be accurately measured. 121 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  122. 122. Assumptions of Approach Mixed Methods Researchers Worldview about nature of knowledge - epistemology Approaches and techniques And way in which questions are formulated, data is collected and analyzed Ontological Perceptions of reality Positivism Post Positivism Critical Theory Constructivism Participatory Worldviews influence basic beliefs of who informs, who forms and who benefit from the inquiry Also influences mode or strategy or research tradition Quantitative Arising mainly from positivism & post positivism Qualitative Mainly coming from critical theory, constructivism & participatory paradigms Mixed Methods From the pragmatic paradigm Research Methods Qualitative Research Paradigm Quantitative Research Paradigm Multiple subjectively derived realities co- exist Single objective world Epistemological Theory of knowledge Researchers interact with phenomenon (personal investment) Researchers are independent from the variables under study (detached) Axiological Study of underlying values Researchers act in a value-laden and biased fashion Researchers act in a value-free and unbiased manner Rhetorical Use of language Use personalized, informal and context- based language Use impersonal, formal and rule-based text Methodological Researchers use induction, multi- process interventions, context-specific methods Researchers use deduction, cause-and- effect relationship and context-free methods MIXED METHODS Pragmatism Booyse, 2012
  123. 123. 123 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
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  128. 128.  Creditability, trustworthiness  Transferability  Confirmability, dependability,  Engagement, reflectivity 128 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  129. 129. Standard for evaluation Quantitative Qualitative Internal validity Creditability, trustworthiness External validity Transferability Reliability Confirmability, dependability, Objectivity Engagement, reflectivity, 129 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
  130. 130. 130 Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com
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  139. 139. Feleke Y.(Ph.D), Email: naolfeleke@gmail.com 139

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