Verbal Interventions and Use of Logical Consequences
Febriano Mahesa Vicky Monica
Principles An intervention hierarchy that consists of nonverbal intervention, followed by verbal intervention, and application of logical consequences seems most effective in coping with common behavior problems. Some forms of verbal intervention defuse confrontation and reduce misbehavior. Other forms of verbal intervention escalate misbehavior and confrontation.
Problems Case 8.1 (p. 174) Sometimes teachers overreact to a minor misbehavior It disrupts the other students Other students become off-task
Hierarchy of Intervention Nonverbal intervention Verbal intervention Use of logical consequences
Classroom Verbal InterventionGuidelines when using verbal intervention:1. Whenever possible, non verbal interventions first.2. Verbal interventions as much as possible private.3. Brief verbal interventions.4. Speak to the behavior, not the person.5. Set limits on behavior, not on feelings.6. Avoid sarcasm and other behaviors that belittle or demean the students.7. Use appropriate student/behavior decision-hierarchy that encourages student-control.8. Follow an ineffective verbal intervention with the next technique in the hierarchy.9. If more than one ineffective verbal interventions, use logical consequences.
Classroom Verbal Intervention An awareness of commonly used ineffective verbal intervention is important. Ineffective verbal intervention does not speak directly to the disruptive behavior and does not direct the student toward the appropriate behavior. Some ineffective verbal interventions encourage inappropriate behavior.
Classroom Verbal Intervention Begin with the teacher-centered intervention to stop the misbehavior quickly. Lasley (1989): teacher-centered intervention for younger, developmentally immature children. student-centered intervention for older, developmentally mature learners. The verbal intervention hierarchy hints, questions, and requests.
Adjacent (Peer) Reinforcement Based on the learning principle that behavior that is reinforced is more likely to be repeated. Albert Bandura (1997) Other students are likely to imitate an appropriate behavior when their peers have been reinforced for that behavior. It gives the student a chance to control his own behavior.
Calling on the Student/Name-Dropping The teacher redirects the student to appropriate behavior by calling on the student to answer a question. Inserting the student’s name in an example or in the middle of a lecture (name-dropping). It is used to redirect students who are off-task but are not disrupting others, as well as students who are overtly disrupting others.
Humor It can defuse the tension and redirect students to appropriate behavior. Depersonalize situations and can help to establish positive relationships with students. Humour at the teacher or at the situation rather than at the student – no sarcasm. Teachers need to be very careful not to turn humor into sarcasm.
Questioning Awareness of Effect Students are not aware of the effect their behavior has on other people. Levin Students who exhibit chronic disruptive behavior learn to control their behavior when they are forced to acknowledge both its positive and negative effects. “John, are you aware that your calling out answers…”
Sending an “I Message” A three-part message that is intended to help the disruptive student recognize the negative impact of his behavior on the teacher.They are :1. A simple description of the disruptive behavior.2. A description of its tangible effect on the teacher/students.3. A description of the teacher’s feelings about the effects of the misbehavior. Teachers who enjoy a positive relationship with students are usually successful in using “I messages”.
Direct Appeal Direct appeal means courteously requesting that a student stop the disruptive behavior. Direct appeal is not made in any sort of pleading or begging way.
Positive Phrasing Stating what the positive outcomes are can redirect students from disruptive to proper behavior. Formula : “as soon as you do X (behave appropriately), we can do Y (a positive outcome) Long term advantage : students begin to believe that appropriate behavior leads to positive outcomes, resulting students more likely to develop internalized control over their behavior.
“Are Not For’s” Implemented primarily when elementary or preschool children misuse property or materials. Usually effective in redirecting behavior positively at the elementary or preschool, most secondary students perceive this intervention as insulting.
Reminders of the Rules Teacher established clear guidelines or rules early in the year and has received student commitment to them, merely reminding students of the rules may curb misbehavior. Teacher relying on using external rules to influence behavior. If reminding the rules doesn’t work, consequences must follow.
Glasser’s Triplets (1) What are you doing? (2) Is it against the rules? (3) What should you be doing? Used privately not publicly. Expectation : student will answer honestly and return to appropriate behavior. If student answer question dishonestly : suggested that teacher use three statements instead of questions.
Explicit Redirection Teacher command and leaves no room for student rebuttal. Advantages : simplicity, clarity, closed format. Disadvantage : teacher openly confronts student.
Canter’s “Broken Record” Clearly communicating to the student that the teacher will not engage in verbal bantering and intends to make sure that the student resumes appropriate behavior.
Comply or face the logical consequences :“You have a choice”• Three types of consequences :(1) Natural consequences : result directly from student misbehavior without any intervention by the teacher.(2) Logical consequences : require teacher intervention and are related as closely as possible to the behavior.(3) Contrived consequences : imposed on the student by the teacher and are either unrelated to student behavior or involve a penalty beyond that which if fitting for the misbehavior.
When nonverbal and verbal have not led toappropriate behavior….• Suggested that teacher applies logical consequences.• Give the student a choice of either complying with the request or facing the consequence.• Advantages : Intervention in this way helps the student to realize that he is responsible for the positive as well as the negative consequences of his behavior and that the choice is his.
When “You have a choice doesn’t work” Teachers can use an assertive response style. Assertiveness : communicates to the student a promise of action if appropriate behavior is not forthcoming. Use Canter’s “broken record” and a final “you have a choice” in a calm assertive manner, if it still doesn’t work, then disengages from the student.