Introduction• Psychologists have long believed that behavior is influenced by the events and conditions• Antecedents may increase the likelihood that appropriate behavior will take place or may set the stage for the occurrence of misbehavior• Teachers should examine 2 most crucial variables
Designing the Physical Classroom Environment• Environmental Conditions• Seating Arrangements• Bulletin Boards and Display Areas
Environmental Conditions• Concerned about classroom conditions such as heating, lightning, ventilation, and noise• Teachers must ensure the physical environment of the classroom is the most appropriate one for learning
Seating Arrangements• Should be flexible enough to accommodate and facilitate various learning activities that occur in the classroom• Allows the teacher to be in close to all students• Classroom should be neat and uncluttered
Bulletin Boards and Display Areas• Look at Case 6.1 and Case 6.2 at page 134 - 135
Classroom Procedures• Procedures are directed at accomplishing something• Procedures are taught to students through examples and demonstrations• The use of natural and logical consequences is quite appropriate for students who fail to follow procedural guidelines
Classroom Rules• Divided into six processes : - The Need For Rules - Determining Necessary Rules - Developing Consequences - Communicating Rules - Obtaining Commitments - Teaching and Evaluating
The Need For Rules• The dynamism cause human behavior to be highly sensitive to differing conditions across situations• Rules should be directed at organizing the learning environment
Determining Necessary Rules• Teachers must develop a list of rules that is fair and realistic• Rules that are so developed and rationalized make sense to students because they are not arbitrary• Teachers who develop student-directed approach may provide students to develop rules with guidance of the teacher
Developing Consequences• Students who choose not to follow classroom rules should experience consequences• There is some debate about whether or not students should know what the consequences will be• Three types of consequence : natural, logical, and contrived
Developing Consequences• The use of painful punishment has been and remains a highly controversial issue• Punishment does not help the child to examine the motivation behind the behavior
Communicating Rules• Teachers must communicate rules clearly to the students• The manner in which rules are phrased is important
Obtaining Commitments• Look at the cases (143, 144, 145)
Teaching and Evaluating• Students needs practice & feedback.• New activities require procedures & rules.• Teaching & evaluating students by understanding the rules.• Analyzing the classroom environment.
The cultural embeddedness of rules and guidelines• Teacher must aware students come from a a variety of cultural backgrounds.• Cultural synchronization between teachers & students.• African Americans tends to be more high key.• Cultural differences.
Creating group norms to structure appropriate behavior• Develop its own culture.• 4 skills needed for effectively groups.• Forming skills.• Functioning skills.• Formulating skills.• Fermenting skills.
Conclusion• Although teachers have no control over the size of classrooms, they can control seating arrangements and use of bulletin boards• Classroom guidelines are needed for routine activities and general classroom behavior• The culture of the school and the students must be synchronized to increase positive behavior