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Classroom Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems

Subject : Classroom Management
Topic : Classroom Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems
Credits : Yemima, Soraya & Christine

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Classroom Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems

  1. 1. Classroom Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems Yemima Soraya Christine
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Majority of discipline problems can be either prevented or redirected to positive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Students may have problems and they act out their frustrations in class and make life miserable for both their teachers and their peers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Teacher often fall into a two-step trap. When scream, punish, and retaliate didn`t work, they will turn the student over to somebody else. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic behavior problems often can be resolved successfully within the confines of the regular classroom and with a minimum of additional effort by the teacher. </li></ul>
  4. 4. LONG-TERM PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES <ul><li>Relationship Building as one of the most effective strategies for helping students. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher can only influence a student`s behavior, not control a student`s behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Recognize that her role is to help these students learn to control their own behavior </li></ul><ul><li>2. She must disregard any negative feelings she has toward the student </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Two important insight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers who able to find some positive qualities in students who exhibit chronic behavior are more successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of a close and positive relationship with some caring adult </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teachers who want to build relationship with such students must be persistent, consistent, and predictable in their own behavior toward the student. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Bob Strachota (1996) : Teachers need to view themselves as allies rather than opponents of the students. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Wondering why?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a sense of empathy and intimacy with the student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay alert and for cues and behaviors that reveal other aspect of the student`s personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher needs to monitor carefully her own behavior in iteracting with the student </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Breaking the Cycle of Discouragement <ul><li>Students who fail to develop a strong sense of belonging are much more likely to be connected with a whole host of negative outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>To establish a strong sense of belonging on the part of all students, Khon exhorted teachers to practice the unconditional teaching </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>To stop misbehavior is like repairing water pouring from underneath the kitchen sink. Shutting off water -> applying punishment. It stops the water (the inappropriate behavior), but it does not fix the leak (the unfulfilled self-esteem needs) </li></ul><ul><li>The appropriate way to solve chronic problems is to break the cycle of discouragement </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Telling students that they are good at things, when they are not good will reduce self-esteem. On the contrary, the route to enhancing self-esteem is twofold: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping student to acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating classroom learning situation in which the knowledge, skills and attitude can be used </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>To gain student` sense of significance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student teams that work together productively over time also can help the student to develop a sense of group identity and belonging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive group interaction can be increased greatly by the teacher`s careful selection of the appropriate group of the student </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Place the student in a responsible role (elementary school) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding extracurricular or out-of-school activities according to student` interest and support their participation (middle school and high school) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher should give the student attention and positive feedback </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>To gain student` sense of competence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of encouragement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting short-term goals with the student and then helping the student to keep track of his progress in meeting the goals helps the student to feel more competent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And also using encouraging communication, stressing effort and improvement, focusing on the positive aspects of student` behavior and performance. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>To gain student` sense of power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depriving students from the opportunity to be self-directing and to make responsible choices can make the student dependent on others or bully or even unable control their own lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher should provide opportunities for student to make choices and avoiding student to experience the consequences of those choices. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>To gain student` sense of virtue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We are givers as well as takers” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participating food drives, marathons and walkathons for charities, and other types of community service project </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. TALKING TO SOLVE PROBLEMS <ul><li>Designed to make students to gain their control of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Private conversation would be more productive. </li></ul><ul><li>Private conversation has several goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that the student know about the problem to deal with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building a positive relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help student to take ownership for the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to innovative solutions </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Receiving Skills <ul><li>It is important to be sure about the message that you receive from the student </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving skills: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use silent and nonverbal attending cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probe, ask question to draw out extended information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check perception, paraphrase or summarize what the student said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check feeling, use nonverbal cues </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Sending Skills <ul><li>To communicate teacher’s thoughts and ideas clearly to help the student gain insight. </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for sending accurate message: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal in here and now, communicate about the present situation and immediate future situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make eye contact and use congruent nonverbal behaviors, maintaining eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make statement rather than ask questions </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Sending Skills <ul><ul><li>Use I – take responsibility for your feelings. Students know that teachers have feeling in determining the effect of the student’s behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be brief, get to point directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk directly to the student, not about her </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give direction to students to correct the problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check student understanding of your message </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Asking Authentic Questions <ul><li>Begin the conversation with brief description then ask question about the situation to the student. </li></ul><ul><li>The question should be something that still unclear to the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Open pursuit of the authentic question might provide clear direction for the solution of the problem, making the use of short term problem solving technique unnecessary </li></ul>
  20. 20. SPECIFIC SHORT-TERM PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES <ul><li>The number student who exhibiting chronic behavior problem usually are fewer than five. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is well prepared for each class. </li></ul><ul><li>The expectation for behavior are clearly understood by the student and enforced on a consistent basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher copes with commonplace disruption with a preplanned hierarchy non verbal an verbal intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher attempt to build positive relationship with student who exhibit chronic behavior problems. </li></ul>
  21. 21. SPECIFIC SHORT-TERM PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES <ul><li>Student who exhibit the chronic behavior problem usually fall into two categories </li></ul><ul><li>Those who have the greatest potential for improving their behavior quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Those whose behavior causes greatest disruption </li></ul><ul><li>Those with the greatest odds for quick improvement are the students with least severe behavioral problems </li></ul><ul><li>Even the teacher can handle them, the general disruptive level in the classroom may still remain high </li></ul><ul><li>Student who have most severe disruptive behavior usually have the longest period time to improve but bring the dramatic impact on the classroom </li></ul>
  22. 22. 4 Techniques <ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdotal Record Keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Behavior Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Contracting </li></ul>
  23. 23. SELF-MONITORING <ul><li>The challenge is to design the congruent technique with the belief that the students must given the opportunities to monitor their own behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>It is student-directed. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate most for elementary students. </li></ul>
  24. 24. SELF-MONITORING <ul><li>At the beginning, students may need teacher cues to indicate when is the time to check and record their behavior on the instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>Cues can be private, nonverbal signal that agreed between the students and teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be effective enough if the self-monitoring relies heavily on how the use of the instrument that has to be explained to the students. </li></ul>
  25. 25. SELF-MONITORING <ul><li>self-monitoring can not be done for only one day, it needs more time to improve and replaced the chronic behavior with the new good behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the student’s behavior has improve, teacher has to stop co-monitoring and convinced in student’s report. </li></ul><ul><li>Then if the student has improve more, give some lengthen time between self-check. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end, teacher can remove student from self-monitoring. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Comments Rating Part of the day Social Studies/science End of the day jobs Language arts Math Morning work
  27. 27. ANECDOTAL RECORD KEEPING <ul><li>Successfully used to handle a variety of chronic discipline problems at a variety of grade levels (Levin, Nolan, and Hoffman, 1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Most appropriate for middle and secondary students </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Student’s Name _____________ </li></ul><ul><li>Home Phone _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Date Student Behavior Teacher Action Student Signature </li></ul>
  29. 29. 9 Guidelines for Anecdotal Record Keeping. The teacher should ... : <ul><li>Begin on positibe note </li></ul><ul><li>Help the student to recognize the past behavior and its negative impact </li></ul><ul><li>Explain that this behavior is unacceptable and must change </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the students that she will keep a record of the student’s positive and negative behavior and sign at the end of class each day </li></ul>
  30. 30. 9 Guidelines for Anecdotal Record Keeping. The teacher should ... : <ul><li>Record the student’s home phone number (not suitable for senior high students) </li></ul><ul><li>Be positive and emphasize expectations of improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Record the conference on the anectodal record </li></ul><ul><li>Note a verbal commitment from the student </li></ul><ul><li>Make the student sign the anecdotal record </li></ul>
  31. 31. ANECDOTAL RECORD KEEPING <ul><li>Make teacher’s log to view on the effectiveness of the procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Stop the record after the student’s behavior improved to an acceptable level </li></ul>
  32. 32. FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT <ul><li>“ A functional behavior assessment simply means that someone skilled at observing behavior tries to determine the function (motive) for the student’s behavior” </li></ul><ul><li>~Hall and Hall, 2003, p. 149 </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Student Name : Date : </li></ul><ul><li>Use this section of the worksheet to descrie the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger/Antecedent Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Use this section of the worksheet to brainstrom positive behavior support strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent strategies New skills needed Consequence strategies </li></ul>
  34. 34. Pre-observation <ul><li>Interview of individuals who have observed the student’s behavior over time </li></ul><ul><li>The interview or questionnaire results should be measurable (where, when, how often, and who will collect data) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Direct Observations <ul><li>4 common strategies to collect data : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Event Recording : documenting every behavior, the result is exactly how many times the behavior occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration Recording : record the beginning and the ending time of the behavior so that the duration of the behavior can be calculated </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Direct Observations <ul><ul><li>Latency Recording : record the interval between the time when the student is asked to initiate a behavior and when she actually starts the behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interval Recording or Time Sampling : record the preset intervals, both the inappropriate and appropriate behavior o v er a desi g nated time period. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Summary <ul><li>Analyze and summarize from the data collected and develop positive behavior support strategy to replace the inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>The general categories of positive support include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antecedent strategies : adjust the environment (reduce the likelihood of problem behavior occuring and allow the student to be more successful and independent) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Summary <ul><ul><li>Educative strategies : teaching replacement academic and social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence strategies : managing consequences to reinforce desired behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. BEHAVIOR CONTRACTING <ul><li>Principle : a behavior that is reinforced is likely to be repeated and the one that is not reinforced will disappear </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher should keep these principles : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design the contracts to require specific, gradual impro v ements in behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradually lengthen the time period during which the contract must be observed to gain the reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move from more tangible, extrin s i c rewards to less tangible, more instrinsic rewards </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Expected Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Time Period </li></ul><ul><li>Reward : a. ... </li></ul><ul><li> b. ... </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation : a. ... </li></ul><ul><li> b. ... </li></ul><ul><li>Student __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Date ____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Contract Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>____ Yes ____ No </li></ul><ul><li>____ Yes ____ No </li></ul><ul><li>____ Yes ____ No </li></ul><ul><li>____ Yes ____ No </li></ul><ul><li>____ Yes ____ No </li></ul><ul><li>____ Yes ____ No </li></ul>

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