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Food Waste Management

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The objective of preparing this Assignment is to clarify the knowledge gathered during the Class & Practical Orientation. Some specific objectives can be expressed as follows –
1. To Know About Food
2. To Know About food sources
3. To Know About food production
4. To Know About refrigerator & freezers
5. To Know About temperature & danger zone
6. To Know About Hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP)
7. To Know About food waste & food waste statistics
8. To Know About food waste category
9. To Know About food waste system (SGT Based)
10. To Know About full vacuum system, gravity vacuum system, food waste collection and recycling
11. To Know About energy from food wastes, on-site food waste segregation and treatment
12. To Know About waste prevention

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Food Waste Management

  1. 1. FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENTFOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. WELCOMEWELCOME
  3. 3. HELLOHELLO GOODGOOD EVENINGEVENING
  4. 4. FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENTFOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT
  5. 5. Fazlea AllahieFazlea Allahie Student ID: 2502163102 Program: BTHM – Evening Course Title & Code: Food Hygiene & Sanitation_IHT- 280 September 17, 2017September 17, 2017 Slide No.5 Food Waste Management Presentation Food Waste Management Presentation Introducing MyselfIntroducing Myself ABOUTABOUT MEME I am Presently StudyingI am Presently Studying At IBAIS University OnAt IBAIS University On Bachelor Of Arts InBachelor Of Arts In Tourism & HotelTourism & Hotel ManagementManagement www.slideshare.netwww.slideshare.net
  6. 6. Food WasteFood Waste ManagementManagement PresentationPresentation Food WasteFood Waste ManagementManagement PresentationPresentation
  7. 7. Table of ContentsTable of Contents 1. FOOD ( CHAPTER – 11. FOOD ( CHAPTER – 1)) 2. FOOD PREPARATION ( CHAPTER – 2)2. FOOD PREPARATION ( CHAPTER – 2) 3. FOOD STORAGE ( CHAPTER – 3)3. FOOD STORAGE ( CHAPTER – 3) 4. COOKING FOOD PROPERLY ( CHAPTER – 4)4. COOKING FOOD PROPERLY ( CHAPTER – 4) 5. FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT ( CHAPTER – 5)5. FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT ( CHAPTER – 5) 6. CONCLUSION ( CHAPTER – 6)6. CONCLUSION ( CHAPTER – 6)
  8. 8. FOOD ( CHAPTER – 1FOOD ( CHAPTER – 1)) 1.11.1 FoodFood Food is Edible or potable substance (usually AnimalFood is Edible or potable substance (usually Animal Or Plant Origin), consisting of nourishing andOr Plant Origin), consisting of nourishing and nutritive components such as carbohydrates, fats,nutritive components such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, essential mineral and vitamins, whichproteins, essential mineral and vitamins, which sustains life, generates energy, and providessustains life, generates energy, and provides growth, maintenance, and health of the body.growth, maintenance, and health of the body.
  9. 9. FOOD ( CHAPTER – 1FOOD ( CHAPTER – 1)) 1.2 Food Sources Most food has its origin in plants. Some foodMost food has its origin in plants. Some food is obtained directly from plantsis obtained directly from plants Verities of Food Sources Includes-Verities of Food Sources Includes-  Cereal grainCereal grain  Corn (maize)Corn (maize)  Wheat, and RiceWheat, and Rice
  10. 10. FOOD ( CHAPTER – 1FOOD ( CHAPTER – 1)) 1.3 Food Production Generally the Transformation Of IngredientsGenerally the Transformation Of Ingredients into finished food products is called asinto finished food products is called as FoodFood Production.Production. Food manufacturing industries that take rawFood manufacturing industries that take raw food products and convert them intofood products and convert them into complete and marketable food items.complete and marketable food items. The food production process includesThe food production process includes -- The processing of raw materials like fruits,The processing of raw materials like fruits, vegetables, Meats and grains food productsvegetables, Meats and grains food products that are available for the consumers.that are available for the consumers.
  11. 11. FOODFOOD WASTEWASTE MANAGEMENMANAGEMEN TT FOODFOOD WASTEWASTE MANAGEMENMANAGEMEN TT Presented by - Fazlea Allahie
  12. 12. CHAPTER – 2CHAPTER – 2 FOOD PREPARATIONFOOD PREPARATION
  13. 13. 2.1 Preparing Food Safely It's very important to prepare food safely toIt's very important to prepare food safely to stopstop harmful bacteriaharmful bacteria from spreading andfrom spreading and growing. Take some simple steps to helpgrowing. Take some simple steps to help protect own self from the spread of harmfulprotect own self from the spread of harmful bacteria.bacteria. Before starting to prepare foodBefore starting to prepare food  after touching raw food such as meat,after touching raw food such as meat, poultry and vegetablespoultry and vegetables  after going to the toiletafter going to the toilet  after touching the binafter touching the bin  after touching petsafter touching pets Don't forget to dry the hands thoroughly asDon't forget to dry the hands thoroughly as well, because if wet will spread bacteria morewell, because if wet will spread bacteria more easily.easily. FOOD PREPARATION ( CHAPTER –FOOD PREPARATION ( CHAPTER – 2)2)
  14. 14. 2.2 Separate Raw Food, Meat/Fish and Vegetables Raw foods such as meat, fish and vegetables may contain harmful bacteriaRaw foods such as meat, fish and vegetables may contain harmful bacteria that can spread very easily to anything touch, including other foods,that can spread very easily to anything touch, including other foods, worktops, chopping boards and knives.worktops, chopping boards and knives. To help stop bacteria from spreading, remember these things:To help stop bacteria from spreading, remember these things:  don't let raw food such as meat, fish or vegetables touch other fooddon't let raw food such as meat, fish or vegetables touch other food  never prepare ready-to-eat food using a chopping board or knife thatnever prepare ready-to-eat food using a chopping board or knife that have used to prepare raw food, unless they have been washed thoroughlyhave used to prepare raw food, unless they have been washed thoroughly firstfirst  always wash hands thoroughly after touching raw meat, fish oralways wash hands thoroughly after touching raw meat, fish or vegetables and before touch anything elsevegetables and before touch anything else  always cover raw meat or fish and store them on the bottom shelf of thealways cover raw meat or fish and store them on the bottom shelf of the fridge where they can't touch or drip onto other foodsfridge where they can't touch or drip onto other foods  Don’t wash raw meat before cooking it. the only way to do this is byDon’t wash raw meat before cooking it. the only way to do this is by cooking the food thoroughly. If wash raw meat or fish also run the risk ofcooking the food thoroughly. If wash raw meat or fish also run the risk of splashing bacteria onto worktops and utensilssplashing bacteria onto worktops and utensils FOOD PREPARATIONFOOD PREPARATION ( CHAPTER – 2)( CHAPTER – 2)
  15. 15. 2.3 The2.3 The LabelLabel
  16. 16. 2.3 The2.3 The LabelLabel Anybody will also see ‘Anybody will also see ‘use byuse by’ dates on food that goes off’ dates on food that goes off quickly. Shouldn’t be use any food after the ‘use by’ datequickly. Shouldn’t be use any food after the ‘use by’ date even if the foodeven if the food looks and smells fine, because it mightlooks and smells fine, because it might contain harmful bacteria.contain harmful bacteria. An exception to this is eggs, which have aAn exception to this is eggs, which have a best beforebest before datedate of no more thanof no more than 28 days28 days after they are laid. After thisafter they are laid. After this date the quality of thedate the quality of the eggegg will deteriorate and if anywill deteriorate and if any Salmonella bacteriaSalmonella bacteria are present, they could multiply toare present, they could multiply to high levels and could make ill. If do intend to use an egghigh levels and could make ill. If do intend to use an egg after its best before date, make sure that only use it inafter its best before date, make sure that only use it in dishes where it willdishes where it will be fully cookedbe fully cooked, so that both yolk and, so that both yolk and white are solid, such as in a cake or as a hard-boiled egg.white are solid, such as in a cake or as a hard-boiled egg. FOOD PREPARATIONFOOD PREPARATION ( CHAPTER – 2)( CHAPTER – 2)
  17. 17. CHAPTER – 3CHAPTER – 3 FOOD STORAGEFOOD STORAGE
  18. 18. 3.1 Refrigerator & Freezers FOOD STORAGE ( CHAPTER – 3)FOOD STORAGE ( CHAPTER – 3)
  19. 19. 3.2Temperature & Danger Zone The temperature rangeThe temperature range betweenbetween 5°C and 60°C5°C and 60°C isis known as Temperatureknown as Temperature Danger Zone.Danger Zone. This is because in this zoneThis is because in this zone food poisoning bacteriafood poisoning bacteria rapidly grow to unsafe levels.rapidly grow to unsafe levels. FOOD STORAGEFOOD STORAGE ( CHAPTER – 3)( CHAPTER – 3)
  20. 20. 3.3 Hazard Analysis of Critical3.3 Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP)Control Points (HACCP) Hazard Analysis Critical Control PointsHazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a system which provides the(HACCP) is a system which provides the frameworkframework for monitoring the total food system,for monitoring the total food system, from harvesting to consumption, to reduce thefrom harvesting to consumption, to reduce the risk of food borne illness.risk of food borne illness. The system is designed to identify and controlThe system is designed to identify and control potential problems before occur. In its Modelpotential problems before occur. In its Model Food Code, the Food and Drug AdministrationFood Code, the Food and Drug Administration has recommended thehas recommended the HACCP systemHACCP system “because“because it is a system of preventive controls that is theit is a system of preventive controls that is the most effective and efficient way to assure thatmost effective and efficient way to assure that food products are safe” (1999 FDA Model Foodfood products are safe” (1999 FDA Model Food Code). The application of HACCP is based onCode). The application of HACCP is based on technical and scientific principles that assuretechnical and scientific principles that assure safe food.safe food. FOOD STORAGEFOOD STORAGE ( CHAPTER – 3)( CHAPTER – 3) Currently, the food industry, including foodservice, supports the use of HACCP and its principles as the best system currently available to reduce and prevent foodborne illness. HACCP was first developed and used by the Pillsbury Company in the late 1950’s to provide safe food for America’s space program.
  21. 21. 3.5 Practical HACCP Principles The Practical HACCP principles adapt theThe Practical HACCP principles adapt the Seven HACCP StepsSeven HACCP Steps into a form that isinto a form that is easily applied in a non commercial setting.easily applied in a non commercial setting. The seven steps deal with the issues ofThe seven steps deal with the issues of thorough cooking and cooling which arethorough cooking and cooling which are the major causes ofthe major causes of food borne illnessfood borne illness.. In order for this simplified, focusedIn order for this simplified, focused application of HACCP principles to beapplication of HACCP principles to be effective in reducing the risk of foodborneeffective in reducing the risk of foodborne illness.illness. FOOD STORAGEFOOD STORAGE ( CHAPTER – 3)( CHAPTER – 3)
  22. 22. CHAPTER – 4CHAPTER – 4 COOKING FOOD PROPERLYCOOKING FOOD PROPERLY
  23. 23. 4.1 Cooking4.1 Cooking Cooking food properly will help make sure that anyCooking food properly will help make sure that any harmful bacteria are killed. Eating food that isn'tharmful bacteria are killed. Eating food that isn't properly cooked could give food poisoning.properly cooked could give food poisoning. To Test if food has been properly cooked, check thatTo Test if food has been properly cooked, check that it’s steaming hot all the way through.it’s steaming hot all the way through. CookingCooking thermometers or temperaturethermometers or temperature probes canprobes can be an easy way to check if food is cooked properly.be an easy way to check if food is cooked properly. The food should reach a temperature ofThe food should reach a temperature of 70°C70°C forfor more than two minutes in the middle or thickest part.more than two minutes in the middle or thickest part. Some types of food change colour when they’reSome types of food change colour when they’re cooked. Looking at colour is especially useful forcooked. Looking at colour is especially useful for checking meat.checking meat.
  24. 24. 4.2 Cooking Temperatures4.2 Cooking Temperatures Eggs 160 °F (71.1 °C) Fish & Shellfish 145 °F (62.8 °C) Leftovers 165 °F (73.9 °C) Casseroles 165 °F (73.9 °C) Beef, Pork, Veal & Lamb Steaks, chops, roasts 145 °F (62.8 °C) and allow to rest for at least 3 minutes Ground meats 160 °F (71.1 °C) Ham, fresh or smoked (uncooked) 145 °F (62.8 °C) and allow to rest for at least 3 minutes
  25. 25. CHAPTER – 5CHAPTER – 5 FOOD WASTEFOOD WASTE MANAGEMENMANAGEMEN TT
  26. 26. 5.1 Food Waste5.1 Food Waste Food Waste Refers To food appropriate for human consumption being discarded, whether or not after it is kept beyond its expiry date or left to spoil. food has spoiled but it can be for other reasons such as oversupply due to markets, or individual consumer shopping/eating habits. Food WasteFood Waste ManagementManagement PresentationPresentation Food WasteFood Waste ManagementManagement PresentationPresentation
  27. 27. 5.2 Food Waste5.2 Food Waste StatisticsStatisticsIn the UK, food Waste Represents a Cost to the hotel sector of £318 million each year including food procurement, labour, utilities and waste management costs, or £4,000 per tonne. Estimated annual statistics show that UK Hotels:  Produce 289,700 tonnes of waste each year, including 79,000 tonnes of food waste  Produce 9% of the total food waste across the hospitality and food service sector in the UK  Only 43% of all waste is recycled.
  28. 28. CountryCountry Quantities (Tonnes)Quantities (Tonnes) Waste GeneratedWaste Generated IrelandIreland 750,000 Tonnes Of Organic Waste Generated750,000 Tonnes Of Organic Waste Generated Each Year By Businesses, 350,000 Comes FromEach Year By Businesses, 350,000 Comes From Commercial BusinessesCommercial Businesses (e.g. Food Retail, Hotels, Food(e.g. Food Retail, Hotels, Food Wholesale, Restaurants, Etc.)Wholesale, Restaurants, Etc.) USUS 68m Tonnes Of Food Waste Are Produced68m Tonnes Of Food Waste Are Produced Each Year, Around 39.7m Tonnes Going ToEach Year, Around 39.7m Tonnes Going To Landfill Or Incineration.Landfill Or Incineration. One third of this is from full andOne third of this is from full and quick service (QSR) restaurantsquick service (QSR) restaurants Singapore (2015)Singapore (2015) Generated 7.67 million tonnes of waste -Generated 7.67 million tonnes of waste - enough to fill 3,000 Olympic-sized swimmingenough to fill 3,000 Olympic-sized swimming pools.pools. Household, Hotel, CommercialHousehold, Hotel, Commercial Businesses like Retail Food Chains &Businesses like Retail Food Chains & Local AreasLocal Areas Singapore (2016)Singapore (2016) 8,559 tonnes per day in 2016.8,559 tonnes per day in 2016. ------------------------------------------------------------------ Singapore (2016)Singapore (2016) 542,700 tonnes in 2006542,700 tonnes in 2006 -------------------------------------------------------- UKUK 15 million tonnes of food which is wasted in15 million tonnes of food which is wasted in the UK each yearthe UK each year Chain including at the farm andChain including at the farm and manufacturing stages as well asmanufacturing stages as well as within the home.within the home.
  29. 29. 5.3 Food Waste Category5.3 Food Waste Category There are 03 Categories Category 1 Very high risk material includes:  Animals that have been experimented on  Zoo and pet animal carcasses  Catering waste from international transport, aircraft and ships  Specified risk material (SRM) (eggtissues from cattle, sheep or goats that are, or may be, infected with BSE). There are 03 Categories Category 2 High risk material includes:  diseased animals (this excludes animals infected by TSEs)  manure or animal by-products that could be contaminated with animal diseases  animals kept for human consumption, which die by means other than slaughtering
  30. 30. Category 3Category 3 Low risk material, which is fit, but notLow risk material, which is fit, but not intended, for human consumption. Thisintended, for human consumption. This includes:includes:  raw meat and fish from foodraw meat and fish from food manufacturers and retailersmanufacturers and retailers  former foodstuffs other than cateringformer foodstuffs other than catering waste, this includes manufacturing orwaste, this includes manufacturing or packaging defectspackaging defects  eggs and other by-products that do noteggs and other by-products that do not show signs of transmissible diseaseshow signs of transmissible disease  raw milkraw milk  fish and other sea animalsfish and other sea animals  Shells.Shells.
  31. 31. 5.4 Food Waste System5.4 Food Waste System Wet food waste is recognised as the most problematic waste stream that complicates the effectiveness of most waste recycling activities. The majority of waste is clearly recyclable and if separated, it will substantially reduce the overall expenditure in the complex world of waste management. When food waste is separated, collected and treated effectively, it eliminates the methane gas release from landfills that is 20 times worse than CO2 in terms of green house gases (GHG).
  32. 32. High volume food waste generation industries, such as:  Hotels  Food and Beverage Kitchens  Airport Catering Centers  Restaurants and Food Courts  Wet Markets  Food Processing Plants Food waste can be disposed into inlets or load stations and transported through the pneumatic infrastructure pipeline to a collection station or directly to a food waste treatment plant. From the collection station, the container can be hauled away to a treatment plant where the waste can be converted into gas for energy. 5.5 Public Area System This system is ideally suited for public parks, high streets, pedestrian walkways, tourist hot spots, boulevards, beach waterfronts, night markets, stadiums and shopping areas. Public dispose Bins are automatically cleared up by the automated waste collection system. The bin has an indicator sensor that determines when capacity is reached for automated suctioned clearance. Once triggered, a discharge valve which is connected to the litter bin load station opens up and the waste is sucked through an underground pipe to a central waste handling facility.
  33. 33. PUBLIC AREASPUBLIC AREAS
  34. 34. 5.6 Full Vacuum System5.6 Full Vacuum System The load station is key-operated. The exhauster fan starts once the system is turned on. Users throw their waste through chutes and it is transported directly to the Central Waste Handling Facilities (CWHF) through the pipe network using full vacuum technology. Vacuum suction starts at the loading point making the whole disposal process quick and easy. Trained users are able to lift and throw heavy sacks of garbage at an ease since the vacuum cycle starts at the loading point.
  35. 35. 5.7 Gravity Vacuum5.7 Gravity Vacuum SystemSystemUsers throw their waste through the indoor chutes and outdoor load stations. The waste are dropped and stored in a storage section which is designed to temporary hold the waste between transport cycles. When the waste reached certain level or due to preset timer, the exhauster fan starts to create airflow from the primary air inlet into the pipe network. The Discharge Valve door opens automatically to unload waste from the temporary storage section into the pipe network to be transported to a sealed container located at the central waste handling facilities. The container is then collected and emptied at specific times by a flatbed armroll truck for final treatment. This system is suitable for residential developments. Hopper doors are specifically designed to restrict bulky items to be thrown into the load station
  36. 36. Food Waste Food Waste Management Management ( Chapter – 5 ( Chapter – 5)) 5.85.8 Food WasteFood Waste Collection and RecyclingCollection and Recycling Throwing away food is a huge waste of energyThrowing away food is a huge waste of energy and the resources used to produce, package,and the resources used to produce, package, transport and store it.transport and store it. The majority of food waste is currently sent toThe majority of food waste is currently sent to landfill, where as itlandfill, where as it biodegradesbiodegrades itit releasesreleases greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxidegreenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, which contribute to climateand methane, which contribute to climate change.change. By recycling food waste easily can reduce theBy recycling food waste easily can reduce the amount of food sent to landfill and reduce carbonamount of food sent to landfill and reduce carbon footprint.footprint.
  37. 37. Food waste is an untapped energy source that mostly ends up rotting in landfills, thereby releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Food waste is difficult to treat or recycle since it contains high levels of sodium salt and moisture, and is mixed with other waste during collection. Food waste can be recycled via: In-vessel composting (IVC): A treatment that breaks down biodegradable waste by naturally occurring micro-organisms with oxygen, in an enclosed vessel or tunnel; Anaerobic digestion (AD): A treatment that breaks down biodegradable waste in the absence of oxygen, producing a renewable energy (biogas) that can be used to generate electricity and heat. 5.9 Renewable Energy from Food Wastes5.9 Renewable Energy from Food Wastes
  38. 38. 5.11 Waste Prevention5.11 Waste Prevention The fact of waste reduction tips and from the Environmental Protection Agency.  Plan only own weekly meals and buy only what can cook before it spoils.  Shop like they have a small fridge: "It would be cool if everybody was eating all that fruit and veg in there.  Eat down on fridge: Sort through what already have and challenge own self to make dinner from it.  Buy smaller amounts of the highest quality food what can; & more likely to use them and less likely to toss them. && The problem is expected to grow worse as the world’s population increases, the report found. By 2030, when the global middle class expands, consumer food waste will cost $600 billion a year, unless actions are taken to reduce the waste..
  39. 39. 5.12 Food Waste Global Impact5.12 Food Waste Global Impact Food waste is not only a social cost, but it contributes to growing environmental problems like climate change. Most food waste is thrown away in landfills, where it decomposes and emits methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Globally, it creates 3.3 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases annually, about 7 percent of the total emissions
  40. 40. CHAPTER – 6CHAPTER – 6 CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION
  41. 41. 6.1 Conclusion6.1 Conclusion So, at the end of this Content I can say, Food is Important for the Human Consumption. Government agencies around the world are enacting new restrictions on the disposal of food waste. Food waste and other organic waste management of in landfills produce methane, a greenhouse gas, as it decomposes. The amount of food waste has been increasing dramatically over the last several decades and some estimates indicate that as much as 40% of food in the US is thrown away. Composting or using food and other organic waste as feed stock for an anaerobic digester are two of the common alternatives to landfill. Also, Sustainability of Natural Environment is should be take into account for the global village.
  42. 42. References & BooksReferences & Books 1. www.businessdictionary.com/definition/food.html 2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food 3. https://www.omicsonline.org/scholarly/food-production-journals-articles-ppts-list.php 4. https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/articles/preparing-food-safely 5. http://befoodsafe.ca/be-food-safe/storage-chart/ 6. http://foodsafety.asn.au/topic/temperature-danger-zone/ 7. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/MDA_mod_08_21307_7.html 8. http://web.uri.edu/foodsafety/hazard-analysis-of-critical-control-points-principles/ 9. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food- safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/safe-minimum-internal-temperature-chart/ct_index 10. https://www.eu-fusions.org/index.php/about-food-waste/280-food-waste-definition 11. https://www.ecoponics.com.sg/food-waste-management/ 12. http://blog.nus.edu.sg/itsthymetotalkaboutfood/2016/11/10/food-waste-management-in- south-korea/ 13. http://www.retailtimes.co.uk/new-brc-report-shows-drop-in-food-waste-across-retail- industry/ 14. http://www.ecofoodrecycling.co.uk/services-products/food-waste-categories/ 15. http://www.stream-environment.com/food-waste-system 16. http://www.stream-environment.com/public-area-system 17. http://www.grundon.com/Food-Waste-Recycling
  43. 43. References & BooksReferences & Books 18. https://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/renewable-energy-from-food-wastes-255510 19. http://www.nea.gov.sg/energy-waste/3rs/food-waste-management/food-waste-management-strategies 20. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-04-18/entertainment/sc-food-0413-food-waste-20120419_1_food-waste- global-food-food-stamps 21. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/26/us/food-waste-is-becoming-serious-economic-and-environmental-issue-report- says.html 22. https://www.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/multimedia/pdfs/tempcontrolguiduk.pdf 23. http://www.greenhotelier.org/know-how-guides/reducing-and-managing-food-waste-in-hotels/ 6.3 Books 1. https://www.goodreads.com/shelf/show/food-history 2. https://books.google.com.bd/books? id=G6p9PHHMxtIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=food+waste+management&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=food %20waste%20management&f=false 3. https://books.google.com.bd/books?id=acIonQAACAAJ&dq=food+waste+management&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y 4. https://books.google.com.bd/books? id=INKEBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA86&dq=food+waste+management+articles&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=food %20waste%20management%20articles&f=false 5. https://books.google.com.bd/books? id=9BJqrgEACAAJ&dq=food+waste+management+articles&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y 6. https://www.e-education.psu.edu/eme807/node/700 7. https://www.environmental-expert.com/companies/biocycle-magazine-6042/downloads
  44. 44. FEEDBACKFEEDBACK 53 Food Waste Management Presentation Food Waste Management Presentation
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