The Three SistersExploring an Iroquois Garden Marcia Eames-Sheavly C I, : A Cornell Cotqwative Extension Pu 4-H LeadersfluImhfs Guide i&LMts
Contents3 l h e h Sisks A Planting System A m5 lhe Need for Dtvwslty Diversity All m d You7 Digging Deeper: Getting to Know Sister Corn An A-MAIZE-lng Grainto FDDdsPrepared kwn Com Inquois White C m In My KiwhenIg Other UswofCom15 AmI$?S A hirg History: CwtducP an Interview Corn Husk D ls Bt Explorins Ihree Sisters Math Corn Relay O k Advites19 ExperImce an Iquols Garden How to Plant the Three slsm The Three Sisters in a W e t A Commlrnity Plmtiqu For More Information sou= RtxoUrcaaj 7he lime Sisters: W m an I w o i s Garden M e d m Evaluation
uman culture and h o r d c u l m Experiential Lemming they are so closely tied1 Horoicul- At the bglnnlng or each United States. They have tureisrheart~xiellceof activity you will see bulleted been adapted to other age gmwing frults, f l m , and veg- lists that describe the life p u p s as well. Ywr chal-etables. It i a practice i which people from s n skills and project skills to be lenge will be to lead asall dtures of the world have been absorbed highlighted. The activities are needed while encouragingfor thousands o years. What better way to f ideal for helping youth ages young people to explore theI about a soclety than to explore the way m nine ro rwelve learn about activlty, leam from thethat people grow and use f d l native culmre through experience, and share thelrIn thls proJect,you will do just tltat. By gardening in informal graups results and observations;lodcing at an Iroquols gardening method, yuu such as 4-H clubs, school- please use the experientialwill gain a better view of Native American aged child care setting, Imming model below asculture. ExpIoring the foods, the customs, and other informal educational your example for thisthe stories that evolved from the plmtlng of environments, home school- process. You will be influen-corn, beans, w nd squash--the Three Slsters- ins o school classrooms. r rial i helping youth see how n The activities were pilot these Lire skills can l xwill help you understand the values that tested throughout New York applied t other situation* osurround these crops. State in these diverse an important pan of thisPlanting these three mtlve crops wlB help educational surroundings and process. M s important, otyou become familiar with a crop management in many locations across the have fun!system practiced by the Imuois people. By Deexperimentiq with an Iroquois gaden, youwill learn some bask plant breeding conceptsand see how crops respond to king plantedtwther. You will also learn about the needfor plant diversity and the Importance ofsa diffemt plant species. Perhaps most wimportantly, you will learn about sweraldifferent types of corn and why this plant hasbeen so honored by the Iroquois.The Iroquois people a* m n l l y a confed-eracy ofsix nations: the Mohawk. OmiQ1.Ommdap, Cayuga, m and Tuscarora. , Native Americans call themselves theHaudenosaunee, meaning "people of thelanghouse."The wotd iraquois, which wasused by the F m c h to describe them, hasbecwne most familiar today and wiH be usedI thls publication. nFarming and plant breedinxj wem not neces-sarily " m s work In fact, among manyNative Amerkms, such as the Sama, theplant breeders and farmers have mditiondtybeen women
The Three SistersA Plantins System or hilled, around the cornCorn, beans, and squash are plants. When the corn isconsider4 by the lroquois to about 4 to 6 inches high,be special gifts from the bean and squash seeds areGreat Spirit. The well-being planted in the hills. Beanof each crop is believed to seeds are placed in each hill,be protected by one o the f and squash is planted inThree Sisters, spirits that are about every seventh hill. Thecollectively called De-o-ha- three crops grow togetherko. This word means "our for the remainder o the Csustainers,"or "those who season.support us." lnterptanting has manyThe Three Sisters system advantages. lroquois farmersrefers to the planting of adapted this ecolagicalcorn,pole beans, and squash planting method to meet theor pumpkins together in hills. needs of their crops andThe practice of planting their people. Interplantedmore than one type of crop crops are not as attraczive totogether is called interplant- pests, while large plantings The planting o corn, beans, fing. Although this planting of one crop tend to have and squash has been moresystem is not common in the more pest problems. The than a gardening activity forUnited States today, it is in hills provide support around the Iroquois. The Threefact a well-thought-out !he base of the plants, so Sisters system also hasgrowing method that is used they are not as prone to provided a varied diet,extensively in other coun- damage from wind. Also, keeping the people healthytries such as Mexico. Inter- interplanting helps create a for hundreds of years.planting is corning back into uniform stand of corn. The Customs, stories, myths, andfavor for some crops because corn forms a support for the legends have surrounded thefarmers are finding that large beans, and the squash covers agriculture o the Iroquois. fplantings of one crop can the soil. helping to control Many customs have beenhave some major disadvan- weeds. carried on as a means o Ctages. Beans are in the legume respecting and honoring theIn the Three Sisters planting family, and legumes take piants that have given life tosystem, raised areas are nitrogen from t h e air and the lroquois culture. In short.made about 3 feet apart. convert it into a form that the Three Sisters system hasboth within and between plants can use. This is helped support a culturerows. Several seeds of corn important, because corn whose people have used theare planted in small holes demands a fairly high land without destroying it.and covered. As the emerg- amount of nitrogen. Theing corn plants are weeded, nitrogen "left" in the hill bythe soil is gently mounded, the beans is available for next years corn crop. This is one reason the lroquois planted in the same hills for several years.
The~stoy,encidedm~sPm,"wds~by~Thormu~[=omruallI~,Crmado.bkwwdabdwcwnplledb.9snrdentsat--,Tolmuo,CaMda.Osaof-m~~,wask~p~Jwlegendinu~tofmpect.three sisttrs who I d together in a fkld. whowasdtedinyeUowandwhoalmyswand to run away. %e I no mark dher going, but it &These sisters were quite d k thone an-otherin&irsiKdhintheitwayofctressmg. may have beenthat shesetherkecin rhern-inOnt ofthe b a little sister, so young that wiw tradrs of the little Indian bay.she could only crawl at Arst,and she was d d Now there w;s but one ofthe sisters teft. Tall aradingru?n,Theseconddthechreeworeafmckd ma&tshedmthefieldnotonc;ebowinghabrightyellow, 4 had a way of runningd b y she head with sorrow, but it seemed to her that shehe~elfwhen rhesunshme andthe& windblew cwld not live there alone. The days g ~ shorter wi her face. The third was the k k t sister,stand- n and the nights were c&o. Her ~~l Meding always very straight and tall above the other and grew thin and dd. Her hair, once long andsistenr and rrylng to guard them. She wore a pale golden,wastangldby thewind. Day and ni&tshegreen shawl, a d she had long, yellow hair that sghed for her sisters to retum w her, but they did& h t h e r h d i the breezes. nThere wasonly oneway in which the thrPesiscers not hear her. Her voice when she tried w cat1 to them w s low and plaintive like the wind. Think a b u t the fallowing quescims: I Iw~wedike.~eylovedaneanocherve~~dmrly, Butonedapwhenitwasthemdtheharvcst, = How dM you feel when theandtheywerencversepamtdTheyweresure thelideIndianboyheardtheuvingofchethird sisters left, one by one?that they would not be able to Live apart. sisterwho had k e i I& t moum thwin the field. ~ o Did you notice anythlngAfter awhile a manger came to the f ~ l of rhe He €eltm-iyforher, h e t d her inhii armsand d and significant a b w r the orderthree sisrers,a Little I n d i i h y .Hewasas straight m e d her to the lodge o his father and tnother. f In which the sisters [eft?as an arrnw and a h r k s as the eagle d m circledthe sky abwe his head. H h e w the way d e Ohwhat a surptise awaited her there! Her two lost sisters were there i the lodge of the tittle Indian n - Can and legend you remember the share It with atalking to the b d and the small b m k s drhe boy,d e and very glad to see her. They had been friend?arth,rhcduew,ihchipmunk,andthe~ yarngabwtLhcindhhpd*hPd~foxes, A d the three skms, theone who was just hwne with him t see how d where he lived. oable t crawl, the one in the yellow f r d , d the They had liked hiswarm cavesowell that they had aane with &flowing hair, were wry muchinter. decided now that winter was coming on to stayested in the little Irsdian boy. They watched h m withhim.Andthqmdoingd1they cauldmbelithjsartowinhisbow,~whim~abowlwith useful.his stone knife, and wondered where he went ar The littte sister in green, now quite grown up,wasnight. helping to keep the dinner p t full. The sism inh e in summer of the first coming of the Indian yellow sat on the &If dry~ngherself, for sheb t their field, one o the duee sisters d k p planned tofill rhe dinnerpot later. The third sister y o fpearedThiswasthe~sisterin~,the joined hem, ready tr, grind areal for the Indiansistm who auld only seep. Shewas scarcelyable b . the three were nwer separated again. y Andto ssrand k in the field unless& had a stick to Every chiid olw h y know these sistersd needswhichshedung,Hersisteffrmwmedforherunril them just as much as the little Indian b y did Forthe fall, but she did not mum. the little sister i green is the bean. Her sister i n nOnce morethe Xndian boy came mdw field ofrhe yellow is rhe squash, and the elder sister with long flowing hair of yellow and the green shawl is thethree sisters. H m e to gather reeds at the edge e corn.dasmam nearby t makearrowshafrs. The two osisters who were I& watched h m and gaed with i -A Mohawk legendwonder at the printsof his w n s in the earththat,marked his mil.
The Need for DiversityAs a planting system, the that time, its susceptibility to traits each plant group uniformity, the risk of aThree Sisters has more disease was unknown. Even Inherits. Groups of plants are disease or insect destroyingvarlety, or dlverslty, than a today the world depends on classified into varieties, the entire crop becomesplanting of a single crop. In twelve varieties from a single races, or species, depending greater. This is because noaddition. native peoples species for 85 percent or the on the degree of differences variety is resistant to alltraditionally plant many potato harvest. among them. Scientists have potential pests.varieties of each *Stster." described more than 250.000 In 1946 In the United Hundreds of plant speciesHow is this different From specles of flowering plants States a blight destroyed are eaten for food through-contemporary agrtculture? nearly all the oat crop. and hundreds to thousands out the world, but theWhy might this matter? Although thlrty varieties of species of conifers, ferns, majority of food comes from In 1970the United States were planted, all shared a Fungi, and other plants. only four: corn. wheat, rice,lost nearly half of Its corn single parent. Sdenrlsts estimate that rhere and potatoes. With thecrop to a dlsease called are more than 250 races o f increasing world population Each of these examplessouthern leai blight, This demonstrates the Importance corn in the world. and they and the decreasing use ofhappened bcause most of to agriculture of maintaining have described thousands of pesticides, the species andthe planted varieties shared varieties. Only a few of the races that can give improved plant dlversjty.a single female parent from best varieties, however, are yield, nutritional quality, andTexas. The parent passed What is plant diversiry? wldely planted. When a large pest resistance must bealong to each offspring a Basically, It Is the differences amount of land Is planted to preserved.trait that made it susceptible among groups of plants, a single variety to ensureto this dlsease. whlch are determined by the In 1845, 75 percenr ofIrelands potato crop rottedin just weeks from a dlsease,and a million people starved,Although more than IWspecies of potato exist inCentral and South America,explorers brought back asingle variety to Ireland. At
Divemity All You may note differences inaround You other leaf characteristics as well. Look for subtle changesWouldnt It be baring if in color. A soft fuzz mayeveryone looked alike? occur on some of the leavesHumans are lucky to be such and not on others. All ofdiverse m t u r e s ! To help these subtle differencesyou think o diversity in f represent plant diversity!familiar terms. look at thepeople around you. Although Now,back to the Threeyou, your friends, and your Slsters. The lIroquols growlamlly are memkrs of the many types and varieties ofsame species, you each are corn, beans, and squash Inunique individuals with traits one planting.that are different from those How daes this gmwinpof any other human. This is system differ from m m e r -an example o diversity f cia1 a m l t u r e t h y ?among humans. What are the advantam ofYou can learn about diversity gowing a few high-yieldingamons plants in your own varieties of corn in largebackyard. All you need are plsntings?paper and a pencil. Which system is besr inG o outside and select a terms of dive~iry7single plant species of which If a new strain of a diseaseyw can find a sizable were to appear, whichn u m b - C h m from wild system would be better forplants wch as sugar maple, long-term survival of thedandelion, ground ivy, or planting?goldenrod-there are manyto select fram!When you have decided ona plant species, k g n tracingon paper the shapes o the fleaves from different plantsof that species. As you dothis, note the differentcharacterlstks of the leaves.Are each of the leavesexactly alike? Compare thedrawinm of leaf shapes.Some leaves may have fewerlobes or divisions, and somemay be more deeply ser-rated, w toothed. Some maybe much larger than others.
Digging Deeper: Getting to Know Sister CornWhen the word corn is develop a new type of pain. Because corn fruits the yearmentioned. what do you They saved the best seed to it is plarned and has boththink of? Most Hkely you first replant and nurtured the male and female flowers. it isthink of sweet corn, that ywng maize plants by well suited for b d i n gfavorite food o summer. f weeding and warering. work.The pollen that isCorn chips and other foods mea. Incas. and Mayas transfemd from the male tosuch as tortillas also may used this grain as a staple the female flowers generallycome to mind. You are less crup, learning ways to travels with the wind. andlikely to think of corn as "the prepare and preserve It. much moss-pollinationmosr important American Eventually, maize spread occurs. Breedencovwyour~gIndian contribution to world throughout Central h r ~ c a ears with bags to preventcivilization. . . appearing in and Into both South and random pollination. When idnridualChristopher Columbuss log North Amerlca. All these the silks appear. breeders flower (male)at least twice during his first native cultures regarded uncover the ears and placevoyage." maize as a sift from their on the silk pollen fromCorn Is more than a sweet creator. ptants with deslred qualities, such as disease resistance,summer delight and a snack Corn is monoeciws Imon-food. It is a crop rich in ee-shuss). which means that earliness. or large size. Thls there are both male and keeps unwanted pollen fromhistory. In Iroquois culture, mixing up the moss.rajsing corn is an essential lemale flowers on each cornpart of life. plant WhiIe many floweringCorn is our most important plants contain male andnative crop Called mahlz by female parts withln the sameTaino. the first Native flower, In corn the male andAmericans to meet Colum- female flowers are I n different Imtions. The malebus, this member of the grassfamily is known by much of flower is known as the tasselthe world as maize and by and rests on top of the plantscientists as Zea mays. in the form o a branching f head. The female ffower isThe corn that we know today located ktween the sheathshas a rich and welldevel- o the leaf and stem. I t foped history in many conslsrs of a collection o fdifferent Native American hairs. called silks, enclosedcultures. Its origins can I ? n in the husks of what willt r a d to Mexico, where corn become the ears. These silkwas first raised about 7,000 are pollen-mivinp tubes.years ago. Farmers InMesoamerica probablycrossed wild grasses to J o e Barreiro. A h s o n of Corn.In: tndran Corn ofthe Amrkss,Gift to the W d d h b r t k ~ iIndian m t a r l y . Ithaca N.Y.:Corndl Uniwrsity Amwican lndlrmProgram. sprl@-m= 1989. P. 9.
Although &re is one Different types d corn have Despite all the corn products mentioned above long beforebotanical +es of corn, varlous uses. For example. on our grocery shelves, we Europeans came l the amany types. or races, exist, the hard, flinty kernels of eat only about fourteen or Americas. American Indianand each race consists of nint corn are best suited for fifteen of every hundred farmers were good plantmany varieties. These var- use i foods such as hominy n bushels gown in the United breeders. They kept typesieties freely cross-pollinate. or grits. Flour or soft com IS States. Most is fed to live- separate by preventing cmss-The t y p of corn frequently ~ m e because it makes d stock or used in products pollination. Uniform,vigor-grown In the United States an excellentquality flour. such as explosives and paper ous, high-yielding, seed wasinclude flint, flour, dent, and Much o the corn yown f products. More &an a saved and deliberatelysweet corn and popcorn. today In the United States is thousand modern items crossed to gnerate higher-There is also a pod corn yellow dent. Although dent come from corn! yielding hybrids, Iroquoisoften referred to as "grand- corn is often fed to animals The decorative cam asso- white a m b still grown andfather corn."This ancient In this country, it is well ciated with Halloween and enjoyed t a d ~ y la nutrition .corn has an unusual appear- suited to grinding a d is other harvest celebrations is and flavor make it anance; each kernel I c o d s used as cornmeal in many important ingedfent i many n often called Indian com, butin Its own husk. fads. S e t cam and we in fact all corn is American foods,such as tortillas, poprom speak for them- Indian m American . breakfast cereal, and corn sI! e= Indians dweloped the types bread. POP Flint ~ent Softorflwr Pod or "gmndfathrPKernels we hard Each kernel is Kernds consist of a hard, Kernels consist The mtire kemel is Each kernel may beand flinty through- endosed in a flinty matter on the of a translucent starchy and soft This endosed in a smallwt hard, flinty coat outside and a soft center; horny material form of corn is husk, while the whole and has a soft, center "dents" are due to containin% frequently gmwn by ear is endosed in starchy substance shrinking of the soft part considera le Native Americans. The large external husks. in the center. Hint of the kernel. Nearly all sugar instead of American Indian Wen planted, pod corn is best suited corn in the Midwest corn starch. Agriculture Project at corn often gives a to the Northead. belt belongs to this race, Cornell University is crop of both podded as well as all silage and currently conducting and unpodded ears. grain corns in New York research with Iroquois white flour corn.Strowbefry Ptrrple Husk Golden Banrum Hopi Blue Delaware Gmndfatber-Pops v m ; Yelh Sugor Buns Iroquois M i t e
Corn tamales or tortillas? Flwrs made from corn?How many different types of Young children love tocorn and corn products can handle different-coloredyou find? A w n is a good kernels o corn. The starf at ftime to look lor corn. S m a child care center in centraland roadside stands carry New York built a low tablemany decorative corns, with sides and filled theparticularly around Hallow- table with corn and beans ofeen. What type do you think many colors. The childrenthey are? Many times, what use it during the long winterIs sold as Indian corn is dent months as an indoor activitycorn, flint corn, o popcorn. r center. They scoop up theHow many different colors o f vain In their hands and incorn can you find? If you containers. see the manycollect them, save them for COIO~S, and let their imagina-the diversity activity ("Diver- tions run free1 Young peoplesity All around You")in the also low t glue colored osection "TheNeed for corn t construction paper oDlverslty." to create corn m m l a .Which corn p d u c t s aresold on the shelves of yourfamily grocery store? Canyou find blue cornmeal7 Jarsof baby or mlnlature corn? T~In~dvisithgMch--gaveme d i t ~ t y t o t d t b c m a t x w t t h e & ~ oomAttheOmii~~on,a~&dhehadgmwn&c same cam.His dtscriptim fit e & m . I asked where he hd gmmthe~ecd andherdcrrodmrroanodmfritndwbM ~Itfamsh6r*.Tlumty~~~thatthc~s bkwdd~aM1whmdiggingupasiaeha n m ~ w m y i a ~ W i i n , h t ~ a m d l ss$sdrxmerg~hde.chisbowl~the~ whid!hepveto~~,who~itmher~ter,& ~VCItt~the~wkoplatlbedIt
Foods Prepared from CornC a m has been enloyed in its by Arthur C. Parker. anmany g m w i r ~stages for a archamlast and a author- nlong time. Sweet corn Is i ty on Iroquois culture. Manytypically harvested for peak o the foods wlll probably be fsweetness in the m l stage, ik famlliar t y , o w such aswhlch w c u when the juice ~ boiled geen corn (this i sIn the kernel is milky in corn in the milk stag?, Incolor. Contemporary fanners whlch we usually enjoyoften harwst corn for sweet corn), but some arecanning i the "daugh"stage, very unusual. A l t h m the nwhen the sugar In the kernel text Is true t Parker and ois m r t l n g t o starch and refers to the use of thesethe kemel Is more chewy and fmls In the pist t n e es,less sweet. Dent, flint, and many are still enjoyed byflour cum and popcorn are Iroquois people today.harvested at the end of theseason, when the kernels are LeafbfesPdmnale%nlls dish was prepared frommature and dry. green corn. The kernels wereMuch of I q u o i s life has scraped from h e cob,revolved around the planting, beaten to a milky paste,care, and harvesting of corn. patted into shape, and laldIt Is not surprising, rhen, that In a strip on one end of amany Iroquois dishes Feature broad corn leaf. After foldingcorn. N a ~ v e American people in a special way, the tamaleshave used corn for every- were boiled.thing from beverages topuddings, casseroles, and Baked green corm Sweetsoups. me Imquols have corn was scraped from thebeen very m a t i v e In flnding cob, beaten to a paste, andso many ways to grepaw baked slowly overnight in wm. kettle.The following is a list of Boiled corn: Thissome common Iroquois fare dlsh is the same as corn onof old. It was adapred from the cob, with which you arean extensive record of familiar. Green corn meansIroquois uses o carn as- f the kernels are in the milksembled In the early I- stage. Tuscarora corn and sweet corn w e ~ used with e equal favor. The kernels were eaten on W cob or scraped off and eaten in dishes.
Fded green cwn: This dish CFWCkCdundrledcorn: dumpling^ Dumplings werewas prepared by maping the Thb dish used ripened but cookd with boiling meats,k w r p e l ~ o f ~ c o m f ~ o mnot dry m 7he kernels . especially game blrds. Corntfie cob, mashing It in a were crushed, kernel by meal was rnolstened withmortar, and either patting it kemel, on a flat stone, mixed boiling water, quickly moldedinto cakes or towing it In a with beans, and boiled for into cakes. and dropped Intobasket to make a loose, light sevwal houts. bollrng stack or water.mass. It was then fried. B o h l mm M Purple, : Hominy: Hominy wasSwmmsh Green mm was calico, and hominy corns -red from flint corn.Themlxed with caoked beans were used to make this corn kernels were mixed in aand seamirip and sbn- bread T h e m kernels were mortar with a Iittle watermered. bolled for fifteen to twenty and white ashes to make minutes in a weak lye bath pounding easier. The crackedBakad cob mIn the made of hardwood ashes and kernels were sifted,h d e This was a popular water. When the hulls pounded, sifted again, andway of preparing green corn loosened, the corn was winnowed. The coame,on the cob.The ashes from plaoed i a hulling basket. n granular meal that resultedthe camp or hearth O r e wet^ The corn was tinsed t wash o was cooked and eaten as abrushed aside and a row of away the loosened hulls and cereal-like dishunhusked ears were laid on the ashes, then drained andthe hot stones or the ground. H d k d ram: This favorite ground in a m o m - AfterThe e m were then covemi sifting. the resultingmeal dish was made from softwith cold ashes. and embers was moistened with water. corn, prepared i the same nwere heaped over them. A molded into a cake, and way -bed for bailedRot fire was built and boiled. corn bread. The kernels weremaintained until the corn washed until ftee o hulls, fbeneath was thought to be Early bread: Before the then boll& for several hourssufficiently baked. Corn corn was thoroughly dry &I until they were tender andbaked in this manner had a the autumn, it was plucked burst. This was a favoritefine flavor a d never became for making early bread. The feast foodscorched. unhulled corn kernels were mixed with a little water in aRaked scraped corm The mortar and lqround into akernels of green corn were pasre. The paste was moldedscraped ftom the cob, into loaves, which werepounded I a mortar or n hiled.mashed in a wooden bowlwith a stone, patted into Early corn p d d i n s Acakes, sprinkled with dry paste was made, as &-meal, and baked I small n scribed for preparing earlydishes. bread. Then it was dralned. sifted, t o s s 4 into a wet meal, and boiled down into a pudding,
Dried corn soup: For Sauyk This dlsh was made If you are not Inclined to eat winters use, the kernels of tke same way bolled corn parched corn coffee, samp, green, white. or sweet corn bread was made. except the or nut and corn pottage, rry were cut from the cob and corn was not ground so some of the ideas included In dried before a fw, taking fineIy In a mortar. Often the next section. o refer to r care that the dryins war berries or meat were mixed a coo^ Grind your own rapid enough to prwent the and cooked with samp. can, using rhe corn you milk from souring. To make have g o w n in the 1 1 r e soup, the dried corn was Pmthed a m coffeeCom Sisters plantlng system hiled for three-quarters of was roasted on coals. then discussed at the end of this an hour, or untll tender. mixed with boiling water to gulde. make a beverage. Dried corn was sometimes roasted and pounded for pudding meal. Corn pudding: White corn was roasted brown, pounded slowly in a mortar. and sifted. The coarser granules were pounded and resifted until ail the granules were uniform. The meal was then thrown into boiling water and cooked until tender. A small bag of corn pudding was often tamed by hunters. Nut & tom pottage: Thls M I dish was prepared by mixing nut meal or nut milk with parched corn meal and boiling the mixture with meat. pumpkin, beans, and chestnuts. It was sometimes sweetened wlth maple sugar. m*dcheboyMtosubmictohsr&s~~ she m l d &r no dmmthl dycaiwr. The bys grand* ding: This lavorlte puddlng &then d mawpfmtr d i n g btead cake8 and was made with parched or cattied them to the glrlb pmhmher, d m notified her ,yellowcorn meal mixed with daughterd thegirl must marryacertainm m If rbesuit was m1 sugar and boiled pumpkin or squash. The corn meal rejectdat t h e f i r a p p d , t h e w e d d i d e s w m l e f c m d e d , and the humiliated donorhad t a q o e and mixture was cooked. d a i m the d e s . Somehavc~d~tthe~d&werenevaeaurr.but probablywwe~byrhelmysiimily~~m p i t the o 8 ~ o l d ~ w hadled ttremtobelieve h o ~~writ~smiladupwl
bcpuis White Corn in My Kitchen ~ ~ o m d i u s , ~ ~ m ~ ~ d c s a r d i e s r m d c h a i rUo wf m t~ yI o~f S ~ ~, a t ~ B a y A W In our fmlly. planting. Or instead of boiling the D u r i q Augst the family At ane time people didnt harvestir@ and preparing corn, we allow it to dry to likes to prepam m s t corn. rakecareofthem.-rhey white cwn involves every- use for corn bread. In the The boys d k a fire pit didnt appreciate the gift ofI one. The family works old days we would have outside and put a meklY corn. This made the mm together, often with other pounded drted corn with a grate over it. The ears of sad, and It went away. Only families, to plant and h m t mortar and ptle, but today husked corn are then toasted then did the pmple discover the corn. When it comes we use a metal hand finder. over the fire until they how much they deperPded on time to prepare the corn and Each p e m In the family brown. We scrape the corn the corn. When the people eat it, everyone joins In. takes a turn at the grinder kernels off ttre mb after rhey promised to h thanldul o m When we make corn soup -we its hard work are roasted and then dry again for the corn, the corn t u m g the crank by handl them. In the winter we make came back, but with many the family sits around the kitchen table to sort the After the a m is ground into roastm~tosoupby W.The people had to shelled corn. We remove any caking it in water. work harder to enjoy the flour and sifted, we add corn silk, questionable beans and hot water and Eachwayof~gwhlre m . kernels or corn husks that form the mixture into cakes corn involves the entire The children responded that mIQtrt still be mixed In with about five Inches I diameter n family. Another fmlly tdd they were truty thankful for the corn.Then we add the and wo inches thick After us they bought an electric m! corn to boiling water along plunging our hands in cold grinder to replace their The time spent preparing with dean wood stove ashes. water, we smooth the hand-craM metal ander white m Is a yeat way to The mm a brrlllant surface of the cake, which bMause they wanted to save share cultural knowMge and orange, wfilch tells us that helps hold it tqether. We time and energy. But they tlme together as a family. we have used enough asha. place the cakes in a ketrte af discovered that they missed After the com MISfoe about bo31h-y water fr abut an o the time they spent together thirty minutes, we take It hour. When they rise to the while they used the hand down to the stream. where surface, the corn bread Is Qrlnder. So they put the we pour It into the cum done. Everyone comes electric grinder away and washing basket. W e dip the rumling when we annmnce only use It to make large basket into the s t ~ e a m to the a n bread Is ready. Its quantities o corn flour when f wash away all the ashes and s !dl o company i expxed. s hulls. This is fun to watch Another food we prepare As the family works together, k a w e litrle fish dart to the from white com is mush. the dldren ask questions. surface to catch che hulls. Many tlmes their questions One person (Wudly an There a e many foods we r adult) handles the cast iron can be anmePed by telling a can make now. For corn skillet in which the com Is story. One time. the young soup, we radd the washed parched until It I toasted s folks asked why com had soI comtoapotdboiling and brown, The rest of the many husks on it and why it water and cook the corn for family takes turns grinding was such h a d work putllng several hours before adding the corn wlth the metal off all h e husks. We told the prlrtder, and the children sift story that answered their the ground corn flour. The questions: gwnd corn flour is added to water and cmk& as a cereal. We eat it with real maple syrup and salt pwk
Other Uses of CornCorn has been used in manyways for food in Iroquois Husks were used to wrapculture. The use of corn has corn pudding or green corn;not ended in the kitchen,however. The Iroquois haveused various parts of theplant in many other ways. the bundles were then boiled or baked to make wedding bread. Husk bottles, trays, baskets. IStalks: Stalk tubes were moccasins, and sandals wereused to store medicine. Corn woven as well. Husk doorsyrup was extracted by mats were braided so hatboiling or evaporating the the tufts of the husk werejuice of young green corn- left protruding from the topstalks. Cornstalk "war clubs" of the braid. The braid wasand "spears" were used by then coiled to Corm an oval boys in mock battles. mat. The thick tufts were "Counting"straws were cut trimmed evenly, and the flar from the tassel stems and braids were sewn securely used to teach children how with threads oi husk to count. Many items such as cornCorn husks: Corn husks had husk mattresses. althoughmany uses. Single strips were unfamiliar to most people,pressed or lolded together are stilt created by Iroquoisand used as short-term today.lamps when matches were Have you ever seen or madescarce. A larger quantity of a corn husk doll?husks were used far kindlinga fire. Husks were shreddedand used as filling forpillows. cushions, mattresses,and lounging mats. Huskswere even braided in Jongstrands and used as clothes- Lines.
ActivitiesA Living History: Oral history has played a How did you store Food?Conduct an major role in the transfer of information in Native - Did you grow fruits andInterview vegetables at home? American culture, The story about grandfather corn Did you follow any specialYouth will relates the strong sense of gardening practices, such as demonstrate awareness of community and the awe planting by the phases of the differences and similarities people experience when they moon or inrerplanting? among people, their cultures, and their age share wisdom and when they Did you ever work on a groups; demonstrate affirm a link to their past. farm? sensitivity to or idenrify The process of building a What are the biggest with another persons living history o oral tradi- f changes that you have seen situation, feelings and tions is a valuable way to in the food you eat and rhe ideas. experience the transfer of way its grown? knowledge firsthand. It also learn to conduct an What was life like before reminds you that history is interview. the use of machinery? not simply what you read in a book or study in a class- How has your life changed room. as society has become more Set up a time TO take a pad technological? How has it o paper and pencil and talk f not changed? What do and with a senior member of dont you like about it? your community.Your After the interview discuss grandparent or other elder the following questions: relative. a neighbor, a How willing was your friend resident of an adult home, or to share his or her experi- a community historian can ences? Were you surprised be a wealth o information. If C by any o the observations? f you have access to old After you warmed up, did the photographs, local paintings, interview pass quickly? or newspaper articles, all the Although you may have better! Ask some o the f studied history, did you learn following questions, but do things from the interview not feel limited to them: thar you have not read in a What is your earliest book? How has agriculture memory? changed? How have garden- When you were a child. ing practices changed? What what was your diet like? did you l e a ~ n from the What were your favorite experience? foods? How did you shop for food?
Corn Husk Ihlk Com husk dolls are familiar Split a piece of husk In half.Youth will learn an aspect of history through creating a product to many people. but some of the beliefs and customs behind them are not. For example, most Iroquois Fold each piece i half. n - ,; -" . - / , ,. - ,, > m ::.,;:, ,-. - - . ,- , , - and enjoy worklng on a chow to make faceless dolls. task with others. They felt that if a hild wem learn to produce rt corn t mistreat or damage a do11 o these over the dolls husk doll. with a face, the doll could arms to form the shouldws- bring harm to the child. Take another strip of husk Pretty-faced dolls were and use It ro tie off the associated with conceit by walst. Trim the bottom, and thls culture mat e n m a w haw a &]I who is humdlty. wearing a h- To make a corn husk doll, you will need scissors, twine, and dried corn husks, which can be softened by soaking i warm water, Use newspa- n per to cover the surface you are working on. A corn husk doll is made in three pieces to create the head, arms, and shoulders and body. To make the head* ~fyou would like a doll with off a Piwe of husk and pants, divide the bottom in roll it into a ball. Fold a half and tie off the ankles piece of husk over this ball wth twne. and tie it with a thin strlp of husk Take another piece o husk f and roll it tubelike, len~th- wise. Atrach this below the neck, and tie it offat the ends to create wrists. Trim the edps. Experiment with other designs of your awn1
Through the activities in this Anothef variation is to roast ObserveCornorBeansection youth will some of the kernels sent1y Seeds Water over low heat in an iron Weigh two tablespms of gather information lor corn or bean seeds, then f i gpan until they are vn improvtxl problem solving. golden. If you grind these place them in a jar; cover use m m t e thinking skills roasted corn kemels into the seeds with a measured and enjoy discovery meal and then cook them m u n t of water and let learning. wlth water (much as you them stand overnight. Drain learn to share use o a tool f would oatmeal or cream or the water and measure the while working together. wheat), you can make a good amount left. How did the tasting corn c r a . eel seeds chany in slze? In produce cornmeal and weight? How much water did make measurements and Old shellers and grain mills they absorb? observations a b u t seeds can be purchased inexpen- and plant growth. gvely at "junk"and antique MeasumGmmthof shops. New oms are more Corn PlantsShelling and expensive. Cooklng supply How d o e a corn plantGrinahg Corn stores sell grain mills, and ~row-from the top o F o r rmIf there were one activity to some farm stores still carry the bottom? After corndo with youth in the fall, corn shellers. See the plants are established, placerelated to the T h e Sisters, resource section far a supply marks wlth a permanentthis might I ill Young x source. marker at the top, middle,people enjoy the very active and bottom of each plant.nature of grindlng corn Into M o n m and Measure the distancescornmeal. DJcots between the marks at weekly Sprout m e corn, bean, andFor this activity. use corn Intervals: chart the results. squash seeds. How do theyh a t has completely d r i d Where does the greatest dlffer In appearance as theydown on the cob. You can growth take place? begin to swell and take upuse a sheller to remove the water? Grasses, includingdry corn kernels from the corn,are monocots, andcob or remove them by k n s and squash are dicots.hand, Then, put the corn Can you see the singekernels in a gain mill and cotyledon (cot-ill-EEdun)ofyd to the &gee of i the corn seeds and the twofineness that ywr prefer, cotyledons o each of the ffrom a Fine flour to m r s e bean and squash d 7meal. Grlndlng with a mortar These meaty plant pamand pestle is effective but provide nutrition to thevery time-consumlng and can young plant until it can makeadd interest to the acdvlty. its own food. m i n e theTry to choose at least two spurs with a hand lens ordifferent types of for magnlfyln~ @ass. Can youcomparison. For example, see she tiny root hairs?grlnd blue flint and yellowdent. How do the twocompare in texture? In wlorand m?
Three Sisters Math Corn Relay not contain a corn product Other Activities are tapioca, white milk Are there native AmericanYouth will Youth wltl (chocolate milk is likely to identify and solve prob- folklore, lqends, or practices contribute a cooperative contain corn syrup). diet lems; gather inlormation related to gardening that you effort toward a common soda, pasta, and c o k e . for improved decision interest and enjoy partici- can discover in your area making. pating with others. For each team, lay a pile of and share with your group? products at a given distance. Invite a local speaker to talk create a planting plan. demonstrate ability to remembering to include only with your group about theUsing graph paper, design a spend time on a task one producr that does not subject.plan for a Three Sisters wisely and follow throughgarden. Use as your scale on ground rules. contain corn. When you say - Look for nonfood items START!, the first member OF -one blwk one foot. This is a Ilvely, highly each team i to go to the s that have been made from the Three Sisters or fromFirst measure 13 x 13 for the enga9ins activity that relies pr~ducts, choose one other plants. You may findoutside borders of the on reading and teamwok as that contains corn. and bring corn husk o pine needle rgarden square. Within the opposed to speed. it back. The next person goes baskets, textiles colored withgarden square, measure out to the pile. chooses a corn plant-based dyes, unusual The objective of this activity3 x 3 hills [or planting and product, and brings it back. is to discover how much papers such as rice paper,a 2 path between each hill. This prmess continues untll corn appears in many of the and many other items. PointHow many hills can you the first team flnlshes, and foods that we eat and r o out to your pmup that weplant? they all yell CORN1 to Indi- read very carefully. not only eat plants butFrom your seed collection, cate that they have finished. breathe their waste productcount out: For this activity. you will Check the winning teams (oxygen). wear them. use27 corn seeds need to Qo t the FocV o pile of products. If they them for shelter. write on45 bean seeds store and !Pr a varieY mistakenly brought back the them. heal wlth them. dye9 squash seeds foods (or raid Your cupbard one product that does not fabric with them enjoy their Or Pantry). Read b e in!Tedi- confain corn, they areDivide the seeds so that an shade and beauty, and even entS to find which contain disqualified,equal number of each seed heat our homes and travel corn products such as corngoes into each hill. How After the activity, discuss the with a product of theirmany of each seed can p . . starch or corn svruo. Cereals. number of prod~lcts that decayed remains (fuel). iuices. sauces. salad dressine.into each hill? d, contain corn. Most young Where would we be without drinklng sodas. baby foods,N e a choose a way to people are surprisd to find them? baby formulas, pet foods.arrange the three kinds of that they are eating corn . . arewired and frozen foods. when they drink soda o eatrseeds in each hill. You might and many other productswant to experiment by spaghetti sauce. Talk about contain corn syrup or starch.placing rhe seeds on the the importance of listening There are also corn oil.paper plot. Think about the TO instructions. reading popcorn, corn tortillas, andcharacteristics of each sister. carefully. and teamwork. others.How does the way each Since most relays are basedsister Qrowshelp you decide Choose several relay teams , ,-, thk ohentakeswhere to place it in the hill? Or !Pups young people+ young people by surprise.How will you arrange the For each relay team, you will Special hint: if you do notseeds in each hill? Why? . for need a ~roduct each - like the emphasis on compe-Color code the spots where member plus an additional tition, you can simply set itrhe seeds go wlth the irem (so. seven prducrs for up so that all teams arecrayons and add a key to a six-member team). All of bringing back products, andshow whlch color equals those products except for the activity is over when thewhich seed. one should contain corn in last team finishes-and then some form. Examples o f alI teams yell CORN! together. p d u a s that typically do
Experience an Iroquois GardenI this section you will learn n are used to tidy. wide rows.how to plant the Three Feel fme to adapt theStsten acrording to lroquois spacings if necessary. Mostcustom. You have already importantly, enjoy thislearned many new things exercise as an investigationabut m and her two into Native American culture.sisters a d about Irquois As they begin plantinggardening Mow you can try Iroquois people direct theirthis plantingsystem yourself thoughts to the elementsand m a t e an ancient (and that help plants grow. Whatm & m ) practice. are the elements that makeBe aware &at this system ywr garden thrive? As youmay provide some unex- prepare your @n e in thepected results. Interplanting l q u o i s tradition, you maywitltout the addition of want to consider andfertilizer may rmlt in a appreciate these elements asdecreased yield The site may well.become more crowded thanyoure accustomed to whenyou p w single phntings. Itmay seem awkward at firstto work ararnd plants thathave grown so closelytogether. especially if you
How to Plant the There are many corn vari-Three Sisters eties to choose from. Dent, flint, and flour corns areYouth will especially suited to this learn to locate resources sysrem,while popcorn often as well as develop a wider does not get tall enough and comprehension of what is may be overwhelmed by the required T r gardening. a beans and pumpkins. produce a unique Three (Iroquois white flour corn is Sisters garden. available from the Americant.Conduct a soil test, and Indian Program,450 Caldwellprepare the sarden site. Add Hall, Cornell University,compost or other materials Ithaca, NY 14853, a t a cost ofsuch as peat moss or manure $2.00 per packet.)to the soil. This will improve If you care to follow Iroquoisthe soil structure and add custom, plant the seeds withnutrients. If you have grown Traditional planting method: Corn and beans are planted . kind thoughts three daysa g m n manure cover crop together. Pumpkin is planted in every seventh hill. The pumpkin before the full moon. seeds can be planted alone, or with the corn and beans in thesuch as winter rye, turn it seventh hill. 3 After young corn plants .under two to three weeks come up, b q i n removing # mrn seed bean seed A pumpkin seedbefore planting. weeds. As you are weeding,2. Plant corn in late May. gently mound, or hill, theIt is best if the ground has soil around the young plants.warmed and is no longer 4. When the corn plants arecold and wet. Iroquois about 6 inches high, poletradition holds that planting beans and pumpkins can bebegins when the leaves of planted around rhe corndogwod are the size o aC plants. Genuine Cornfield orsquirrels ear. Scarlet Runner bean andSoak corn seeds for several Connecticut Field or Smallhours, but not more than Sugar pumpkins are heir-eight hours, before planting. loom, nonhybrid varieties(Soaked seed may dry our that are readily available yetquickly, so keep the seeds "authentic" crops for yourwell watered for the first project.w e k or two if the soil is not After thoroughly weeding.kept moist by rain showers.) plant Four or live bean seedsPrepare low hills that are 3 in each hill. Plant four orto 4 feet apart within and five pumpkin seeds in every Alternative planting method: Try planting the pumpkins in abetween the rows. Place five seventh hill, placing them row of hills between the cam and beans. h i s method is used .to seven corn seeds, evenly around the young corn more frequently among other native peoples, such as the Hidatsa. Do not feel limited to $lese designs. Feel free to try your awnspaced to a deprh o I to I / 2 f plants. (Planting pumpkins in planting methods!inches. Cover with soil. every hill would quickly overwhelm your planting site # corn seed bean seed A pumpkin seed with viny growth.)
5. Your plants will need Be sure to keep track of The Three Sisters A Communitywater each week. If it does which plants you have hand in a Basket Plantinsnot rain at least an inch per pollinated so you can If you lack space, try plant- Although growing the Threeweek, the planting will need compare them with those ing the Three Sisters in a Sisters is popular in schools.to be irrigated. If you are that have cross-pollinated. bushel basket or other large the garden season does notusing presoaked seed, 8. Harvest and store your container. Use a li&tweight often correspond to theremember to water more corn, beans. and pumpkins soil mix, Plant 2 to 3 corn school year. An excitingfrequently at first. with care. When the corn seeds, allow the plants to alternative is to form a6. Most of the nitrogen husks are dry, pick the ears reach 6 inches, and then partnership with a localconverted by the beans will and spread them out in a dry plant 3 to 4 bean seeds and 2 muwurn. historicat society,nor be available to the corn place, To prevent mold, do pumpkin seeds lor experi- Cooperative Extensionand pumpkins the first year; not store the ears when they ment with different numbers Association, or public library.the bean roots have to break are first harvested. 1C you of seeds). One of these partners maydown to release nitrogen. plan to grind the corn. let it be willing to provide space To ensure adequate pollina-Corn is a heavy nitrogen dry for several weeks. for the planting and help tion, be sure to remove thefeeder. so sidedressing with If you plan to save seed, maintain it over the summer. male flower, or rassei. fromfertilizer is necessary to Thk approach has worked choose seed from your most the corn and shake itachieve satisfactory yields. vigorous, uniform plants well for many people. The vigorously over the femaleYOU can use manure. com- from the center OF the ear. children benefit by experi- silks. Otherwise, the ear willpost, or commercial ferlilizer. After you have shelied the encing the planting in the not be pollinated and will7. If you are hoping to keep kernels, keep them in a cool, not fill out. Do this wherl the sprins and the harvest in thea variety pure--for example. dry place in covered contain- mate flower first tassels out. fall. The community partneran heirloom variety of corn- ers or plastic bag. Following or the wind will carry the benefits by having anyou will need to isolate the Iroquois tradition, do not let pollen away before you can attractive and uniquecorn rrom other varieties. If a single kernel 9 ro waste! use if. You will know demonstration planting toisolation is not possible. you whether your efforts are display during the summer You can harvest your beanswill need to hand pollinate. effective if you can see the months. The teacher benefits when they are Feen or afterThis is a challenp. but it is dustlike pollen grains by being able to introduce a the pods have shriveled andfun to experiment to see adherlng to the silks. hands-on, unique experience dried.what results you can get. without the challenges of Pick pumpkins when their summer maintenance.To hand pollinate, place color changes.waxed paper lunch bags overthe newly forming silks to 9. Try cooking a new foodkeep out unwanted pollen. from the corn, such asWhen the plants are tassei- hominy or succotash. Savelin2 out, remove the bags the husks to make baskets orbriefly and shake the desired dolls. Weave a basket; createpollen on the silks, then a corn mosaic. Use the plantsreplace the bags. Your to decorate your mailbox, adesired pollen may be that flagpole, or a tree trunk.of the same variety. If you Compost the remaining plantare experimenting with materlal. At the end of thecrosses,however, the pollen season,have a harvestmust come from another festival, Celebrate Thanksgiv-variety. You can use brown ing with the fruits of yourpaper lunch bags to collect labor and appreciate yourpollen from the tassels of the rich American heritageldesired variety.
For More InformationSo- Gathering Folklore from Elderly Contam Persons, (Part of the M i AARP Program ResourcesConverse. Harriet Maxwell. M u t o , MichaelJ., and Joseph Gerontological Imtirutes Guide DeptIDlMyths and LegwPds o the New f Bruchac K e e p m of rhe hnh: on Aging which describes F.O. Box 19269,StafIon RYark lmqmk. New York State N a m American Storksand methods for collecting folklom Wdurlgton, DC 2 0 6 03Museum and Science 5m-k hvikmment&/ActIvItles lor and gives tips for intenriewingBulletin 1% Albany, MY.: ChiIdren. Golden. Coto,: Fulcrum, Steppi* Into the Past: &H elderly people.)University of the State o New f I n c , rgBB,lg89. -1 DweIopnl?nt SpecialYwk December 1 I@.5 CQntact: h f e r e ~ ProJect. (A t 4-H Caduto, Michael J., and Joseph Extemim PublicationsFenton, William N., ed. Parkw on members guide that gives Bruchac. 1996. Nattve Amertcan 2800 MacGuire Boulevardr Impis, S y m u s c . N.Y.: k valuable tips on how to Gardening: Stories, PmJectsand Unlverslty of MiswuriSy*lcuse University Press, 1968. interview older adults; good for Recipes for Families. Golden. Cdumbia. MO b y i t children q years and older.)tewandowskr, Steve. The Three Colo.: Fulcrum. This book bring 314-882-7216 stories and gardening together. Contact:Sit=. In: IrPdian Com of theAmerkss: Gift to the World. It focuses on planning and Indlan Cam oftheArnewas: Gift Charles CoxIvwthesstlndlsn ikarterly, pp. preparing the gaden site. to the World.Nonheast Indlen State 4-HProgram Specialist41-45. Ithaca, N.Y.: Comell creating traditional native Quarterly,pp. 33-39. Ithaca, N.Y.: 205 Poultry Science BuildingUniversityAmerican Indlan gardens, making crafts. and Comell University American Oktahoma State Univecslty cookrng meals. Indian Program,spring/summer Stillwater, OK 74078-039Program. sprrng/summer 1989. 199.M . Pleasant,Jane.The lroquds t CoolWnq Wrh the 7hme 5 ~ e r s . Wltson, Gilbert L &Malo B i dSustaine-Practices of a l o q Reclp bock available f r $3.00 o Oral History in Your Commu- WCnrnansGaden.St. h u l , Mhn.:term Agriculture in the North- from the Frult and Vegmbk niry. Ohis guide gives detalled MlnnesouiHlstoriml Societyeast. In: Indian Cam ofthe klence Department, IW Plant Instructions a b u t intervlewlng, Press. I*, (OrlQinalfypublished -Americas: Gift to the W . & Science Bullding Cornell taping, and writing oral a s A ~ ~ 0 f ~ H i d a r nNorthe&st IrIdMrl Qlmrfet-iy,pp. Univemity, I t h a , NY 14853. histories. It is an excellent IIlGhR An Indian Intekpmta33-39. Itham, N.Y.: Comell Cornelius, Carol. TAe Slx N a t W resource for older children and r . m1UnMityAmerican Indian teachets!leadars.l Swles. h h a c ~N.Y.: Cornell , for ffie sheller:Prosranlspsing/-m 1989- University Amerlcan Indian Contact: Rapld Hand Corn Sheller.Parker,A. C I-& Uses of Program, 1990.(Both student and Carolynne M. Keiffer Operated by a hand crank hasMaize m 0 t hFood Plan& i teacher guides are aval lable.) ( d o Dr. Leo Ctamm) self-contained clamps andNew Y w k State Museum Bulletin Missouri Gerontology quickly attaches to a wooden Dennee, Joanne.Jack Peduui,14. Albany, N.Y.: U r d m i t y of lnstlhfie box or barrel. Cob ejector and Julia Hand, and Carolynthe Smte of New Y k 1910. m 404 Lwvls Hall ttpplng attachment are In- Pedwi. 1996. I the 7?1n?e nReprint. Ontario. Canada: Unkerslty of Mlsswri cluded. For more information, Sjstecz Garden: Natlvew a f t s Ltd., 1983. Columbia. MO 6pi1 get a catalog from the Stories and Seammi ActiviW Cumberland General Store. 4 f r the C~wmus o Udd. Dubuque, Rmjnimwce: Findng Meaning Highway 68. Crossville. Tenn. Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Thts in Memories. (Developed by the comprehensive manual Intre 38555.1-800-334-4640. Arnerlcan Assoclatlon of Retired duces children t h e nVee o Pwsons (AARPI, these project Slstefs through year-kny materials include essays and actMties. There are stories, articles about the benefits of pmr o . aaivitie. and reminiscing with elders. Included are sections that teach visiting, interviewing, and listening sWlls. leebreaken and exercises are also outlined in the leaders guide. These materials are supplemented with slides and a 13-minuteaudiocassette.)
The Three Sisters: Exploring an Iroquois GardenMember EvaluationAs a 4-H member, youve become an expert on good ways to learn about subjects that Interest you and about activities thatare both fun and educational. Please answer the following quatiom to help us understand what you learned and enjoyed.We value your Input! I. What are the Three Sism? z What do you feel youve learned by participating in the Three Sisters project? Please h e c k all that apply. I I I-learnedabout nadve culture. n I l e a d to appreciate plants and rood from another culture. I learned to p m r e a f d . n I learned about diversity and why It is Important, rl I planned and carried out an activlty. I ; I better understand what is n d d to plan and plant a garden. 3. List three things that you learned a b u t Iroquois culture that you didnt know befm. 4 Can you name at least three types ofcorn? 5 Could you name these three ~jpes corn before you did the Three Sisters project? of 6. Can you draw ~e 7 m Sisters? h
7. What is diversity? 8. Can you name one way that diversity relates to the Three Sisters? 9. What ideas did you learn from the Three Sisters that you could use to develop into a report or topic for a publlc presentarion?10. Do you have a favorite crop of the Three Sisters? If so, why is it ywr Famite?II What was your favorite activity? What did you like about It, and what did you learn from it?rz. I there anything else about the Three Sisters project that you would like to comment on? s