Polyculture and Integrated Tilapia Farming Systems - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


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Polyculture and Integrated Tilapia Farming Systems - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Polyculture and Integrated Tilapia Farming Systems - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

  1. 1. POLYCULTURE AND INTEGRATED TILAPIA FARMING SYSTEMSKevin Fitzsimmons, Cesar Hernandez, Jason Licamele, Rafael Martinez University of Arizona Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia November 4, 2009
  2. 2. Global food crisis Rapidly increasing population Diversion of foods to bio-fuels Increased costs for water, fertilizer, fuel Multiple demands for farmland (urban sprawl, industrial and mining, solar and wind generation, wildlife conservation, watershed protection, global warming, etc.) Need for second generation biofuels
  3. 3. Need new model for food production Green Revolution – huge increase in food production, but heavy reliance on irrigation, fuel and fertilizer Blue Revolution – almost 50% of seafood is farm raised, but many environmental impacts (effluents causing eutrophication, algae blooms, cage and raft conflicts with other users in oceans, bays and lakes)
  4. 4. Historical perspective Traditional farming around the world integrated livestock and crops East and South Asian farmers have long tradition of integrating agriculture and aquaculture Asian sustainable farming systems support huge populations Fish – vegetable – rice (complex carbohydrate) diet is recommended by most nutrition experts
  5. 5. Historical perspective Modern agriculture cannot follow Asian model of small-farm integrated systems (gardening) We need an industrial version merging aqua- and agri- cultures Taking the best of the Green and Blue Revolutions
  6. 6. Green Revolutions weaknesses are Blue Revolutions needs and vice-versa1. Fertilizer demand 1. Aquaculture effluent rich in N and P2. Increase in irrigation 2. Fish grow well in irrigation water3. Chemical fertilizers 3. Fish wastes are slow pollute groundwater release, organic4. Industrial crops with by- 4. Fish feeds need products alternatives for fish meal and oil
  7. 7. Tropical Inland Integrated System Tilapia oil palm, rice, sugar cane
  8. 8. Tilapia and citrus in Hainan, China
  9. 9. Arid Integrated SystemsTilapia Grapes, wheat, olives, barley, sorghum, cotton, melons, peppers Safford, AZ Marana, AZ
  10. 10. Desert Springs Tilapia, Hyder AZ
  11. 11. Gila Farms, AZ
  12. 12. Tilapia/koi/catfish tocotton/barley irrigation
  13. 13. Road Well 101 W.W. 102 F.E. + S.F. 103 F.E. Barley (Cotton) 104 W.W + S.F. (Larger Pond) 201 F.E. + S.F. - not to scale 202 W.W. + S.F.Road 203 F.E. Barley (Cotton) 204 W.W. siphon IRRIGATION 301 W.W. + S.F. 302 F.E. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>> PIPES 303 W.W. Barley (Cotton) Tilapia 304 F.E. + S.F. PUMP 401 F.E. Fish Pond 402 W.W. Floating Cages 403 W.W. + S.F. Barley (Cotton) small pond (not to scale) 404 F.E. + S.F. 160 ft 15 ft Road
  14. 14. Data report – Tilapia effluents irrigating cotton Water pH reduced from 8.3 to 8.0 Added 19.7 kg/ha total N during one crop. Total N applied with water (kg/ha) 25 20 15 Well 10 Pond 5 0 t ay r ne ly il us be pr Ju M Ju ug m A e A pt Se
  15. 15. Results - Integration of aquaculture and agriculture Contributed 2.6 kg/ha P to crop.Total P applied with water (kg/ha) 3 2.5 2 Well 1.5 Pond 1 0.5 0 t ay r ne ly il us be pr Ju M Ju ug m A e A pt Se
  16. 16. Tilapia and barley study
  17. 17. Arid Integrated Systems Tilapia cages to cotton Tilapia to hydroponics Ak Chin, AZ University of Arizona
  18. 18. AquaponicsTilapia and lettuce
  19. 19. RESULTS Effluent nutrient values 0.07 mg/L NH3, 0.321 mg/L NO2, 21.2 mg/L NO3, 0.17 mg/L total P Fertilizer value about 43 kg/ha N and 0.34 kg/ha P
  20. 20. Olives with aquacultureOlives with well water effluent
  21. 21. Height (m) 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Mar-02 Apr-02 May-02 Jun-02 Jul-02 Aug-02 Sep-02 Oct-02 Nov-02Effluent Dec-02 Jan-03 Feb-03 Mar-03Fertilizer Apr-03 May-03 Jun-03 Olive Tree Height Over Time Jul-03Well Water Aug-03 Sep-03 Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04 Data report -Olives irrigated with effluent
  22. 22. Use of Tilapia/shrimp sludge as a soil amendment for tomatoes Chad King Environmental Research Lab University of Arizona
  23. 23. Research Design Collected and dried fresh sludge from a tilapia/shrimp farm in western Arizona, USA Treatments of 5, 10 and 20% sludge application by volume, 402, 805 and 1,610 g/plant Mechanically mixed shrimp sludge and potting soil mix (concrete sand, mulch, vermiculite) Randomly transplanted and arranged 28 ‘Roma’ tomato starts in a greenhouse, one plant per pot Each plant received 4 L of water daily, over four applications by drip irrigation Response measured in mass of tomatoes produced
  24. 24. Tilapia / shrimp sludge characteristicsSample Total Total Total NO3-N Olsen Soluble EC N PO4-P K P K % dry % dry % dry µg/g µg/g µg/g dS/m matter matter matter 1 0.13 0.10 0.23 1497.4 22.60 27.3 2 0.48 0.21 0.20 4.36 73.50 53.6 8.5 Total N, PO4-P and K show total plant macronutrients NO3-N, Olsen P and soluble K show plant available nutrients EC provides a measurement of soil salinity
  25. 25. Tomato Production Treatment Tomato Mass SEM (g/plant) 0% (Control) 39.2a 11.54 5% 65.1a 11.14 402 g/plant 10% 141.1b 20.73 805 g/plant 20% 113.6b 19.9 1,620 g/plantDifferent superscripts indicate a significant difference, p<0.05
  26. 26. Results Applications of 10% and 20% increased plant production Land application will benefit crop production while providing a disposal mechanism Soil salinity must be monitored Sludge is highly variable, depending on pond management
  27. 27. Coastal Integrated Systems Shrimp / tilapia Halophytes and seaweeds
  28. 28. Shrimp/tilapia and edible seaweeds
  29. 29. Data report - Daily growth rates ofGracilaria with effluent over 4 weeks 10 9% growth per day 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 In effluent Transferred Chemical Not fertilzed channel to ocean fertilizer
  30. 30. Tilapia-shrimp-halophytes Eritrea Salicornia Mangroves Mangroves Salicornia Shrimp and tilapia ponds
  31. 31. Shrimp and Salicornia (halophyte)
  32. 32. Tilapia – shrimp – seaweed polyculture in Indonesia
  33. 33. Gracilaria ShrimpTilapia
  34. 34. Polyculture tilapia/shrimp/algae aquaculture Algae represent the largest aquaculture crop on global basis Algae are a major component of diet in Asia and Pacific cuisine Algae are a growing sector for niche markets in the US
  35. 35. Demonstration ponds stocked with Gracilaria KAB. ACEH PIDIE (5.073) Ha Aceh Besar KAB. BIREUN(6.710) HaKAB. ACEH BESAR(3.450) Ha
  36. 36. Initial stocks from Ohama corporate farm (1000 kg) brought to Sumatra Material loaded from farm Fresh material Gracilaria distributed into ponds
  37. 37.  Workshops and training Field visits to farmers
  38. 38. Brackish water tilapia – seaweedsFish cage effluents(feed and feces)fertilize seaweed
  39. 39.  Fresh Gracilaria from the tilapia/shrimp pond
  40. 40. Conclusions Our planet has limited water resources and we should embrace multiple use and generate at least two crops from each drop Integrated aquaculture – agriculture is sustainable and profitable