Engagement• Schlechty: high aCenDon and commitment – task or acDvity has inherent meaning or value to the student • Stuart Shanker – self-‐regulaDon; calmly focused and alert • Brownlie and Schnellert – voice and choice
Highly Engaged ClassSource: Schlechty Center for Leadership in School Reform. (2006). Accessed online at h"p://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/55/07879616/0787961655.pdf. Accessed November, 2010.
Stuart Shanker: stages of arousalInhibiDon asleep drowsy hypoalert calmly focused and alert *** hyperalert ﬂooded AcDvaDon
The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and CreaDvity at Work – Amabile & Kramer • Analyzed 238 electronic daily diaries from people doing innovaDve work in 7 companies • What was the #1 source of engagement?
#1 source of engagement • Making progress on a task that day, no maCer how trivial
Causes of disengagement • Micro-‐management or a lack of autonomy • Failure of management to communicate clear goals
BC Learning Principles• Learning requires the acDve parDcipaDon of the learner • People learn in a variety of ways and at diﬀerent rates • Learning is both an individual and a group process • Ministry of EducaDon
FrameworksIt’s All About Thinking – Brownlie & Schnellert, 2009
Universal Design for LearningMulDple means: -‐to tap into background knowledge, to acDvate prior knowledge, to increase engagement and moDvaDon -‐to acquire the informaDon and knowledge to process new ideas and informaDon -‐to express what they know. Rose & Meyer, 2002
Backwards Design• What important ideas and enduring understandings do you want the students to know? • What thinking strategies will students need to demonstrate these understandings? McTighe & Wiggins, 2001
Open-ended teaching Assessment for learning & gradual releaseWorkshop & Cooperative Inquiry learning learning Differentiation & MI Literature and information circles
Model Guided practice Independent practice Independent application Pearson & Gallagher (1983)
Assessment for LearningPurpose Guide learning, inform instrucDon Audience Teachers and students Timing On-‐going, minute by minute, day by day Form DescripDve Feedback ¶what’s working? •what’s not? •what’s next? Black & Wiliam, 1998 Hake & Timperley, 2007
1. Learning Intentions“Students can reach any target as long as it holds sDll for them.” -‐ SDggins -‐ 2. Criteria Work with learners to develop criteria so they know what quality looks like. 3. Questions Increase quality quesDons to show evidence of learning
4. Descrip+ve Feedback Timely, relevant descripDve feedback contributes most powerfully to student learning! 5. Self & Peer AssessmentInvolve learners more in self & peer assessment6. OwnershipHave students communicate their learning with others
Formative assessmentto determine students strengths and needs Brownlie, Feniak & Schnellert, 2006; Earl & Katz, 2005; Schnellert, Butler & Higginson, in press; Smith & Wilhelm, 2006
Goal: Learning IntenDons, self assessment Kate Giﬃn, Queen Alexandra, gr. 4/5 Learning Quiz Mastery Prac+ce on Assistance Where I get Inten+on my own please! stuck… I can create equivalent fracDons. I can reduce a fracDon to its lowest terms.
Math Centres – gr. 1/2 Michelle Hikada • 4 groups • 1 with Michelle, working on graphing (direct teaching, new material) • 1 making paCerns with diﬀerent materials (pracDce) • 1 making paCerns with sDckers (pracDce) • 1 graphing in partners (pracDce)
• With your partner, choose a bucket of materials and make a bar graph. • Ask (and answer) at least 3 quesDons about your graph. • Make another graph with a diﬀerent material.
Goal: develop and apply mathematical language• Sit back to back with a partner • Partner A observes the diagram and describes it to partner B • Partner B draws what he hears Partner A describing • Reﬂect: what worked in the partnership? What didn’t? How can it be improved?
Inuit Study • Now try the same strategy with content. • Back to back drawing. • Ater each sketch, check out the image and write a one sentence synthesis of what is important – or generate 5-‐8 key phrases describing the picture. • Students walk through the ‘gallery’ and observe the other pictures and statements/phrases. • Students web what they now know.
Engaging All Learners – what works? Universal Design for Learning Backwards Design• Open-‐ended teaching and gradual release • Assessment for learning • Inquiry • DiﬀerenDaDon and mulDple intelligences • Literature and informaDon circles • Workshop and cooperaDve learning
Think Aloud: Students need • A model • Guided pracDce in following the model • An opportunity to pracDce the strategy, with support as needed • Choice in the degree of complexity they use to complete the task
Sea OCer Pup -‐ Victoria Miles (Orca) There is a forest of seaweed in the ocean. It is a forest of kelp. At the boCom of the kelp forest, Mother sea oCer searches for food.
High above, her pup is waiDng. He is wrapped in a piece of kelp so he can’t drit away while Mother is down below.
He bobs, ﬂoaDng on his back in the cold waves, holding his front paws and hind ﬂippers above the water to keep them dry.
Resources • Grand ConversaDons, ThoughHul Responses – a unique approach to literature circles – Brownlie, 2005 • Student Diversity, 2nd ed. – Brownlie, Feniak & Schnellert, 2006 • Reading and Responding, gr. 4,5,&6 – Brownlie & Jeroski, 2006 • It’s All about Thinking – collaboraDng to support all learners (in English, Social Studies and HumaniDes) – Brownlie & Schnellert, 2009 • It’s All about Thinking – collaboraDng to support all learners (in Math and Science) -‐ Brownlie, Fullerton & Schnellert, 2011 • Learning in Safe Schools, 2nd ed – Brownlie & King, Oct., 2011 • Assessment & InstrucDon of ESL Learners, 2nd ed – Brownlie, Feniak, & McCarthy, in press