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What should we focus on?
Spelling?
 
Punctuation?
 
Grammar?
The Adventures of…  CAPTAIN GRAMMAR Help! They stolen my purse! Stop right there! Yes!  It’s “They  have  stolen,” granny!...
M any  teachers react primarily to surface errors, treating the composition as if it  were  a series of separate sentences...
What about Cohesion?
Mary Smith arrived early at Mary Smith’s office. There was no one else around at Mary Smith’s office. Mary Smith tried to ...
Mary Smith arrived early at her empty office, approached the unlocked door, and entered. The office door closed loudly beh...
the property of unity in a written text or a segment of spoken discourse that stems from links among its surface elements,...
Cohesion is the glue that holds a piece of writing together. In other words, if a paper is cohesive, it sticks together fr...
Example: Be assured of  this . Most people do not want to fight.  However ,  they  will  do so  when provoked.  This   ref...
Overview <ul><ul><li>Use of consistent pronouns  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition of key nouns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Consistent pronouns (avoiding vagueness)
It was a beautiful day on planet Earth.  Birds were singing. Kids were playing.  Nothing could possibly go wrong… or could...
Suddenly, people saw a flash of light and the whole planet started trembling.  The surface began to crack and people panic...
Then came the explosion.  No more planet Earth!  But… what had happened?
Meanwhile, on a spaceship not far from there…
IT WAS ACCORDING TO YOUR ORDERS, SIR. YOU SAID, “IF ANY UNAUTHORIZED SHIP LEAVES THAT PLANET, DESTROY  IT .” COMMANDER, OU...
If that spider bites my dog, I’ll kill it.
I’ll kill that spider if it bites my dog.
Repetition of  Key Nouns Repetition of  Key Nouns Repetition of  Key Nouns Repetition of  Key Nouns
Gold , a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, it has a lustrous beauty that is resis...
Gold , a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all,  it  has a lustrous beauty that is res...
Gold , a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all,  gold  has a lustrous beauty that is r...
Gold , a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics.  First of all,  gold  has a lustrous beauty that is ...
Transition Signals
A difference among the world’s seas and oceans is that the salinity varies in different climate zones. The Baltic Sea in N...
Another  difference among the world’s seas and oceans is that the salinity varies in different climate zones.  For example...
 
 
I love vegetables. I hate broccoli. I love vegetables ; however,  I hate broccoli. I love vegetables , but  I hate broccol...
 
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Cohesion

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Cohesion

  1. 1. What should we focus on?
  2. 2. Spelling?
  3. 4. Punctuation?
  4. 6. Grammar?
  5. 7. The Adventures of… CAPTAIN GRAMMAR Help! They stolen my purse! Stop right there! Yes! It’s “They have stolen,” granny! Thanks you, Captain Grammar! Oh, no! Arghhh!!! To be continued…
  6. 8. M any teachers react primarily to surface errors, treating the composition as if it were a series of separate sentences or even clauses, rather than as a whole unit of discourse . V. Zamel
  7. 9. What about Cohesion?
  8. 10. Mary Smith arrived early at Mary Smith’s office. There was no one else around at Mary Smith’s office. Mary Smith tried to open the door of Mary Smith’s office. The door of Mary Smith’s office was unlocked. Mary Smith opened the door of Mary Smith’s office. Mary Smith went through the door of Mary Smith’s office. Mary Smith shut the door behind Mary Smith. Suddenly there was a loud noise. The loud noise made Mary Smith jump.
  9. 11. Mary Smith arrived early at her empty office, approached the unlocked door, and entered. The office door closed loudly behind her and made her jump.
  10. 12. the property of unity in a written text or a segment of spoken discourse that stems from links among its surface elements, as when words in one sentence are repeated in another, and esp. from the fact that some words or phrases depend for their interpretation upon material in preceding or following text (www.dictionary.com) What is Cohesion?
  11. 13. Cohesion is the glue that holds a piece of writing together. In other words, if a paper is cohesive, it sticks together from sentence to sentence and from paragraph to paragraph. (Literacy Education Online) In other words…
  12. 14. Example: Be assured of this . Most people do not want to fight. However , they will do so when provoked. This refers to the two sentences that follow. They refers back to most people Do so substitutes for the preceding verb fight. However relates the clause that follows to the preceding sentence. (www.dictionary.com)
  13. 15. Overview <ul><ul><li>Use of consistent pronouns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition of key nouns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of transition signals </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Consistent pronouns (avoiding vagueness)
  15. 17. It was a beautiful day on planet Earth. Birds were singing. Kids were playing. Nothing could possibly go wrong… or could it?
  16. 18. Suddenly, people saw a flash of light and the whole planet started trembling. The surface began to crack and people panicked.
  17. 19. Then came the explosion. No more planet Earth! But… what had happened?
  18. 20. Meanwhile, on a spaceship not far from there…
  19. 21. IT WAS ACCORDING TO YOUR ORDERS, SIR. YOU SAID, “IF ANY UNAUTHORIZED SHIP LEAVES THAT PLANET, DESTROY IT .” COMMANDER, OUR MISSION WAS TO ENSURE THAT NO UNAUTHORIZED SHIPS LEAVE PLANET EARTH! UNDER WHOSE AUTHORITY DID YOU DECIDE TO DESTROY THE PLANET? GRRR! THE SHIP? THE PLANET?
  20. 22. If that spider bites my dog, I’ll kill it.
  21. 23. I’ll kill that spider if it bites my dog.
  22. 24. Repetition of Key Nouns Repetition of Key Nouns Repetition of Key Nouns Repetition of Key Nouns
  23. 25. Gold , a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, it has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. It never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another of its important characteristics is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. Its most recent use is in astronaut’s suits. Astronauts wear heat shields made from it for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, it is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. Gold
  24. 26. Gold , a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, it has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. It never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another of its important characteristics is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. Its most recent use is in astronaut’s suits. Astronauts wear heat shields made from it for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, it is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. Gold
  25. 27. Gold , a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another important characteristics of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronaut’s suits. Astronauts wear heat shields made from it for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. Gold
  26. 28. Gold , a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronaut’s suits. Astronauts wear heat shields made from it for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. Gold
  27. 29. Transition Signals
  28. 30. A difference among the world’s seas and oceans is that the salinity varies in different climate zones. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is only one-fourth as saline as the Red Sea in the Middle East. There are reasons for this. In warm climates, water evaporates rapidly. The concentration of salt is greater. The surrounding land is dry and does not contribute much fresh water to dilute the salty sea water. In cold climate zones, water evaporates slowly. The runoff created by melting snow adds a considerable amount of fresh water to dilute the saline sea water.
  29. 31. Another difference among the world’s seas and oceans is that the salinity varies in different climate zones. For example , the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is only one-fourth as saline as the Red Sea in the Middle East. There are reasons for this. First of all , in warm climates, water evaporates rapidly; therefore , the concentration of salt is greater. Second , the surrounding land is dry and, consequently , does not contribute much fresh water to dilute the salty sea water. In cold climate zones, on the other hand , water evaporates slowly. Furthermore , he runoff created by melting snow adds a considerable amount of fresh water to dilute the saline sea water.
  30. 34. I love vegetables. I hate broccoli. I love vegetables ; however, I hate broccoli. I love vegetables , but I hate broccoli. Although I love vegetables , I hate broccoli.

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