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Gender Based Violence Teaching Guide for Suha and Karim


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The short-film “Suha” was produced as a form of entertainment-education,
or edutainment, to inform viewers and advocate for change. It grew out of
Y-PEER’s diverse experience in the entertainment education field.

Suha & Karim movie can be reached at:

Published in: Entertainment & Humor
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Gender Based Violence Teaching Guide for Suha and Karim

  1. 1. The ToolkiTSrdjan Stakic, ed.D.
  2. 2. Background 4IntroductIon 5 objecTiveS — 5 backgrounD — 5 auDience — 6 SubjecT maTTer — 6 Film anD ToolkiT uSeS — 6 ToolkiT uSerS — 6ExErcIsEs 9 noTe To The FaciliTaTor — 9 exerciSe 1: WhaT DiD you Think — 10 exerciSe 2: human righTS – WhaT are They? — 12 exerciSe 3: breaking The Silence anD geTTing help — 16 exerciSe 4: violence ThaT We Do – anD ThaT’S Done unTo uS — 22 exerciSe 5: iS iT Sexual violence or noT? — 26rEFErEncEs 10
  3. 3. Suha & karim — ToolkiT Suha & karim — ToolkiT considered a form of violence. • To inform the audience rape and sexual harassment are not about specific issues reported due to the stigma the victims covered in the Dr. Wesam hassan might encounter. The short-film “Suha” was produced as a form • To motivate the audienceviolence against women is in arab States, gender inequality is of entertainment-education, to take action.defined as “any act of identified as one of the most significant or edutainment, to informgender-based violence that barriers to human development. 4 viewers and advocate for Backgroundresults in, or is likely to result This inequality takes place in the fields change. it grew out ofin, sexual or mental harm or of education and employment as well y-peer’s diverse experience entertainment-education is a strategysuffering to women, including as in participation in and access to in the entertainment- that uses entertainment media tosuch acts as coercion or services including those concerned education field. educate an audience about a particulararbitrary deprivations of with sexual and reproductive health. issue and influence their behaviour. 5liberty, whether occurring violence against women, and The story of “Suha” was developedin private and public life.” 1 sometimes men, occurs in the arab by ornela colic, and the script was There is heightened interest in States as well. Stereotypical gender written by colic and roberta marie entertainment education as well asForms of violence, which can be roles, which are passed on from munroe. assistance on cultural and increased scientific scrutiny related toeverywhere, even within families, generation to generation, limit women other questions during the writing assessments providing evidence forinclude battering, sexual and verbal from making their own informed and and production process was provided its effectiveness. certain limitationsabuse, rape, female genital mutilation free choices. by Wesam hassan and nessryne continue to be associated with thisand cutting, and early marriage. jelalia, along with marya abdul model. These include ethical problems,Some acts of violence such as sexual youth peer education network rahman, elie Samir al kazzi, Dina misinterpretation of intended messagesharassment and intimidation as well as (y-peer), pioneered by the united jaffery and bothaina Qamar. The by audience members and counter-sex trafficking and forced prostitution nations population Fund (unFpa), is input of Dr. aleksandar bodiroza productive behaviour. below is aoccur within all communities and a youth-to-youth movement that has and the rest of unFpa arab States brief introduction to the underlyingacross all geographic, political, religious been using peer education, behavioural regional office was invaluable in all theories of why edutainment works.and socioeconomic strata. all too change strategies, youth participation steps of development of the film and parasocial relationships are creditedfrequently national laws and policies and youth-adult partnerships to this toolkit. The film was directed by for much of the effect of entertainmentthat should protect women and girls educate young people about their munroe and was produced by brooklyn education. in a parasocial relationship,are poorly drafted and unenforceable. health and well-being. y-peer started reptyle Films in association with audience members believe they haveadditionally, there is a conspicuous in 2002 in eastern europe and central y-peer in the fall of 2009. The film a direct relationship with a medialack of services for treatment and asia and launched in arab States in and toolkit will be distributed through character. They believe it is similar to 2protection for the victims of violence. 2005. now, the network is active in y-peer’s network throughout arab the interpersonal relationships they 42 countries and has been expanded States. have with people in their social group.globally, up to six out of every 10 to latin america and the asia entertainment education can alsowomen experience physical and/or pacific region as well. y-peer has a oBjEctIvEs stimulate social learning. conversationssexual violence in their lifetime. That comprehensive peer education toolkit among audience members regardingis why violence against women and which is designed to develop and The film and toolkit have three the subject matter in the programsgirls is considered one of the most maintain high quality peer education objectives: may create a social environment that 3widespread violations of human rights. programs. This facilitators’ manual is serves as a catalyst for behaviouralnevertheless, our societies all too meant to be added to that toolkit to • To engage the audience change. bandura’s Social learning 6frequently overlook its occurrence. help young people grapple with the on an emotional level with (and later Social cognitive) theorySometimes, wife beating is not issue of sexual violence. the characters. accounts for this change process. 04 05
  4. 4. Suha & karim — ToolkiT Suha & karim — ToolkiTmodeling of behaviours (witnessing self-esteem and violence. below are some examples of activities toolkIt usErspositive and negative consequences you may organize in your community:of difference behaviours or decisions) The topics can be addressed from The exercises included in this toolkithas an additional effect on learning. 7 a variety of perspectives including BroadcastIng on should be used by experiencedFinally, entertainment education relies the social (parents and friends, for natIonal tElEvIsIon facilitators although no particularon the theory of collective efficacy, example), medical (the quality of health & dIscussIng personal and professional backgroundwhich refers to the degree to which services) and legal (going to police and is required. For example, facilitatorsindividuals in a community believe pressing charges against perpetrators). The film may be broadcast on national may be teachers or peer educators,they can organize a course of action to television stations, followed by television anchors or medical or legalachieve their collective goals. 8 FIlm and toolkIt usEs interactive talk show-style programs professionals. The important thing isa group of people identifies a problem in which local experts in women’s that they understand the principles ofaffecting them and merges their The film is short, approximately 12 rights, human trafficking and gender- interactive teaching methodologies andskills, power and other resources to minutes in length. This allows for based violence are invited to speak are sensitive to interpersonal dynamicsovercome it. viewing and discussion even for groups about the issues. audience members and the well-being of individuals within pressed for time. The film, which shows may participate in person, call in or the group.audIEncE domestic violence in an upper-middle- e-mail their questions for a more class family, is set in cairo, egypt, but interactive experience. For additional information on howalthough the film and toolkit address the story could take place anywhere in to facilitate sensitive topics, pleasesome sensitive topics that may not be the world. it is applicable to families of communIty scrEEnIngs consult the y-peer peer educationappropriate for young children, the any socioeconomic, religious or ethnic and dIscussIons Training of Trainers manual availablepotential audience is broad. however, background. it is highly recommended online at Thisit was made with two specific ones in that as a facilitator, you view the The film can be screened in various manual was developed in a similarmind: film prior to screening it before any public settings, including schools, fashion to the one produced for the audience so that you may decide if this community centres, health-care short film “maja,” which was alsonational and international stakeholders material is appropriate for your group centres, etc. in order to achieve commissioned by y-peer. The topicswho need to be informed and motivated and how best to debrief your audience the best results, it is important to are similar, but it was also felt to beto get more engaged in the subject members after the viewing. receive proper permission from local important to preserve some degree ofmatter. stakeholders, explain the nature and consistency in programming. n.b. Some audiences may content of the film, and carefullyyoung people, both boys and girls and require permission from key select exercises that will best matchyoung men and women, who may be stakeholders, such as parents, the needs of your specific audienceaffected by physical or other forms of teachers or other community members.violence. members. please ensure that you have these before scrEEnIngs & dIscussIonssuBjEct mattEr showing the film. durIng proFEssIonal conFErEncEsThe film focuses primarily on gender- once you have secured the necessarybased and domestic violence. however, permissions, you can set up a screening professional conferences are anothera number of other topics might surface of the film and began to plan activities good opportunity for screening andduring a discussion of the film. These around it. Though the activities fall into discussing the film. cultural nights andinclude the rights and responsibilities two overarching categories – advocacy discussion seminars are good platformsof men versus women; the responsibility and education – some may achieve for this.of family and community in relation to both ends.domestic violence, and other issues of 06 07
  5. 5. Some of the exercises can be used only after the audiencemembers have viewed “Suha,” while others can be usedindependently of the film.additionally, all the exercises can be used individuallyor as a group, depending on your schedule and preferences.Finally, facilitators are encouraged to adapt the exercises tobest fit their teaching styles as well as the needs of their targetaudience. notE to thE FacIlItatorplease note that the film and the exercises may provoke various emotionalresponses in the audience members. Some participants may know individualswho have gone through similar experiences, or perhaps they have been victimsthemselves.make sure that you set basic ground rules to ensure a safe environment (whatis shared in the room, stays in the room) and a comfort level in participation(participants share only what they feel comfortable sharing.) make sure thatparticipants can approach you individually after the screening if they shouldneed to discuss anything in private. also, make sure you have referrals to localcounseling professionals and other related services and that you readily sharethese with your participants whether they ask or not. 09
  6. 6. exerciSe 1 early marriage, relationships, households when such a situation poverty, education, etc. ask occurs. These are complicated and them if there are additional interrelated issues that affect all topics that might not have cultures and religions within the arab been covered in the film that States and beyond. you should try may be relevant. examples to obtain up-to-date local statisticsExErcIsE typE oBjEctIvEs include legal assistance for on gender-based violence. youSmall and large group discussion. Discuss feelings produced by the film and the topics it covered / bring up any additional points / highlight the needy, depression, cultural may find out this information fromprEparatIon/rEsourcEs nEEdEd relevance of these issues locally and give additional and social norms, gender local government agencies, unFilm and equipment for viewing. resources. inequality, etc. organizations or ngos. although notTwo blank pieces of paper and pens for each participant covered in the film, viewers may bringFlip chart and markers. 30 mInutEs stEp 6 up related subjects including hiv and Finally, ask the group if they other sexually transmitted infections; think the subject matter is depression, alcoholism or drug use; relevant to their own lives divorce; various cultural and social and if so, how. ask whether norms; education and employment; andactIvItIEs/procEss stEp 3 they think these issues occur issues of self-esteem, etc. be prepared invite them to divide into in their own communities and to explain the complex dynamicsstEp 1 groups of three to five how big a problem they think among these topics. The facilitatorafter viewing the film, ask individuals (depending on they are. remind them how should be prepared to address culturalparticipants to share one word the size of your group) and the film made them feel, and and religious sensitivities in the arabthat describes their feelings. to share their thoughts in the ask if they feel motivated to States toward gender-based violence,as an example, you could small groups about the topics learn more about the issues gender equality and other issues.suggest “moved,” “sad” or covered in the film. ask them and how they can help. refer Finally, make sure you come prepared“glad.” go around the room to come up with a joint list of those who want to learn more with information about locally basedmaking sure that everyone has three key concepts covered by to your local y-peer network organizations dedicated to thesehad a chance to share. Thank the film. give them 5 minutes or to other local resources issues where audience membersthem for their responses and to do this. such as ngos working in the can find out more information, callexplain that although the film field. for help or advice, or inquire aboutis short, it may provoke strong stEp 4 volunteering, donations or other formsemotions in different people. invite the groups to share dEBrIEFIng/ of participation. and explain their conclusions takE-homE poIntsstEp 2 without repeating points other although it is only 12 minutes long, handoutsnow ask the group to write groups have made. the film can provoke a host of name, address and contact informationat least three words describing feelings in individuals – from fear or of local resource centres, ngos,issues covered in the film and stEp 5 panic over Suha’s future to anger or advocacy groups, rate them from the most now summarize all the issues sadness toward kareem to confusionto the least important. give brought up by the students about what to do in such a situation. traInErs’ notEparticipants 5 minutes to and add any that were audience members will respond to This exercise can be extended if you have the time. or, to keep the exercisecomplete this task. left out or misinterpreted. the film in different ways. Still, they short, you can invite participants to Topics commonly identified are likely to focus on gender-based approach you individually after the include domestic violence, violence and the appropriate responses session if they have additional questions. lack of respect for women, of family, friends, men and heads of 10 11
  7. 7. exerciSe 2 QuEstIons use the questions below to facilitate a discussion about rights 9 and how they are or aren’t protected in the communities where the group members live, focusing especially on the plight of young women. Q1 — What other rights are violated or not respected in your community?ExErcIsE typE oBjEctIvEsSmall and large group discussion and role playing To discuss the meaning of human rights and how they affect the lives of young women and others in the Q2 — are there rights other than those on the handout that are also important toprEparatIon/rEsourcEs nEEdEd audience members’ communities. the lives and well-being of young women?Flip chart paper, markers and copies of human rightshandout. optional: newspaper and magazine articles 2 hours Q3 — Do women and men in your community have the same rights? Why or why not?actIvItIEs/procEss Q4 — Do single women have different rights than married or divorced women?ask participants what comes to mind when they hear the phrase Q5 — how about single men versus married men? explain.“human rights.” on a flip chart write down their responses.Summarize what they said. Then, distribute copies of the Q6 — Do youth and adults in your community have the same rights?handout. review the definition and examples of human rights. Why or why not?now, divide them into smaller groups of approximately four to five participants. Q7 — Do you think there is a connection between power and rights? explain.Tell them that they will have 20 minutes to think of a story from their own lives,their communities or the news in which one of the rights listed in the handout was Q8 — Who is responsible for protecting the rights of people in your community?violated. ask each group to prepare a presentation or skit based on that story. Q9 — how about of special members like young women, minorities, etc.?alternative: rather than asking them to come up with their own stories, give themnewspapers and/or magazines from which they can select a story. or prepare Q10 — how can you help protect your rights and the rights of othersexamples beforehand drawn from the local community. in your community?after each presentation, each group should address the following questions: encourage participants to reflect on how they can organize and advocate for theirWhose rights were violated? rights within their communities. Suggest that they write a letter to the editor of a newspaper or magazine, or to an organization involved in community advocacy, toWhich rights were violated? express their opinion about human rights in their communities. The facilitator canhow were those rights violated? provide information about local resources or help with writing a letter.Was gender, age, race, ethnicity, economic status or religion a factor in the story?how? traInErs’ notE read the handout carefully. Try to research some local examples of violations of youngWhat could the protagonist (leading person in the story) and other individuals women’s rights that can be discussed during this activity. if possible, find out how local andhave done differently? (if the group wants, it can also act out different possible national laws do or don’t uphold these rights.resolutions for the story.) is this type of situation common in your community? 12 13
  8. 8. exerciSe 2dEBrIEFIng/ takE-homE poInts ExcErpts impartial tribunal in the and supplemented, ifevery human being – rich or poor, male or female, young or old – has rights, From thE determination of his necessary, by otherincluding the right to have an opinion, to education and health, and to live a life unIvErsal rights and obligations means of socialfree from violence and discrimination. dEclaratIon and of any criminal protection. oF human charge against him. 4. everyone has the rightunfortunately, women’s rights (as well as men’s) are not always respected. rIghts artIclE 16: to form and to join tradeThere have been significant successes in the last few decades in the struggle 1. men and women unions for the protectionfor women’s rights, but there is still a long way to go. artIclE 1: of full age, without of his interests. all human beings are any limitation due toan important step is to ensure that more women are aware of their born free and equal artIclE 24: race, nationality orrights and how to exercise them. in dignity and rights. everyone has the right religion, have the right They are endowed with to rest and leisure, to marry and to foundhandouts reason and conscience including reasonable a family. They are and should act towards limitation of working entitled to equal rightsWhat arE human rIghts? one another in a spirit of hours and periodic as to marriage, duringhuman rights are the basic rights and freedoms that belong to all people brotherhood. holidays with pay. marriage and at itseverywhere. The united nations was created in 1945 with the intent of preservingworld peace and promoting human rights. Today, all countries belong to it. artIclE 2: dissolution. artIclE 25: everyone is entitled 1. everyone has the 2. marriage shall beThe universal Declaration of human rights was adopted by the united nations to all the rights and right to a standard of entered into only withgeneral assembly in 1948. it is the basis for human rights protection and freedoms set forth in living adequate for the the free and full consentpromotion around the world and has been endorsed by all countries. many this declaration, without health and well-being of of the intending spouses.countries have included its provisions in their basic laws or constitutions. distinction of any kind, himself and of his family, such as race, colour, artIclE 23: including food, clothing,in 1979, the un adopted the convention on the elimination of all Forms of sex, language, religion, 1. everyone has the right housing, and medicalDiscrimination against Women (ceDaW), often described as an international bill political or other opinion, to work, to free choice of care and necessaryof rights for women. it defines discrimination against women as “...any distinction, national or social origin, employment, to just and social services, and theexclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose property, birth or other favourable conditions of right to security in theof impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, status. work and to protection event of unemployment,irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, against unemployment. sickness, disability, artIclE 5:of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, widowhood, old age or no one shall be 2. everyone, without anycultural, civil or any other field.” other lack of livelihood subjected to torture or discrimination, has the in circumstances beyond to cruel, inhumane or right to equal pay for his control. degrading treatment or equal work. punishment. 2. motherhood and 3. everyone who works childhood are entitled artIclE 10: has the right to just and to special care and everyone is entitled in favourable remuneration assistance. all children, full equality to a fair ensuring for himself and whether born in or out of and public hearing by his family an existence wedlock, shall enjoy the an independent and worthy of human dignity same social protection. 14 15
  9. 9. exerciSe 3 QuEstIons use the questions below to facilitate a discussion about the difficulties involved in 10 speaking out about violence and some possible solutions. Q1 — Why might women not want to speak about the violence in their lives? Q2 — Why would someone remain in an abusive relationship? Would youngExErcIsE typE oBjEctIvEsSmall and large group discussion and role playing To discuss the culture of silence that exists in relation women have different reasons than adult women? Does economic dependence to violence in families and relationships. To reflect on influence whether a woman remains in an abusive relationship? if so, how?prEparatIon/rEsourcEs nEEdEd what young women can do when they or someoneFlip charts and markers they know are in an abusive relationship. Q3 — if you were violent or suffered from violence, do you think you would talk 2 hours about it? report it? Talk about how you feel? if not, why not? Q4 — Do you think men who are abused face challenges similar to those facingactIvItIEs/procEss women? Why or why not?Divide participants into two groups and tell them they have 25 minutes to createa role-playing situation. consider dividing them into groups by gender (boys and Q5 — how does it feel to know that a friend or someone you know is sufferinggirls) if necessary or appropriate. from violence? how can you bring up the subject if you are worried about a friend?ask the first group to create a scenario that presents an individual who is Q6— how can you support a friend or a relative who has suffered from violenceexperiencing violence in an intimate relationship or in his or her family and is or aggression?thinking about talking to someone about it. Tell them to think about the doubts orconcerns this person might have about “breaking the silence.” traInErs’ notE as with the other activities, it is important to research existing resources in theask the second group to create a scenario that presents the challenges community to help women who have experienced domestic violence. The list should includeof reaching out and supporting someone who is a victim of violence. hospitals, clinics and support groups that deal specifically with gender-based or domesticTell them to think about the doubts or concerns that a person might have violence as well as recommended social workers and psychologists. if possible, create ain reaching out to support a friend, family member, co-worker or neighbor. handout to distribute at the end of the activity with listings of available medical, social and legal services. During the activity, pay close attention to the reactions of the participantsask the two groups to present their skits to the entire group and then open a and determine whether anyone might need special attention due to the subject matter.discussion using the questions below. every group may not get a chance to act outits skit if there are a large number of participants and limited time. dEBrIEFIng/takE-homE poIntsFollowing the presentations and discussion, ask the group to list all the community it can be very difficult for women who suffer from violence to speak out andresources they are aware of for women in abusive relationships. seek help. Some women may fear that their partner will take revenge if they seekconsider asking: if you thought your friend or sister or cousin was in an abusive help or try to leave. others may feel obliged to stay in an abusive relationship ifrelationship, to whom or where would you suggest she turn for help? Would your they are married and/or if there are children involved. Some may face emotionalreaction depend on your relationship to the woman? pressure from their own families to keep quiet about it in order not to destroy the family’s reputation. Some women may be discouraged by female members ofas participants list community resources, write them on the flip chart, and then their families who justify or normalize gender-based violence. For some women,add your own. Distribute the handout listing the resources. the economic consequences of leaving an intimate male partner outweigh the emotional or physical suffering. 16 17
  10. 10. exerciSe 3others may fear that the authorities would not support or protect them, especially violent, but it can reinforce some of if she is your spouse. Sexual violence isconsidering the social stigma towards divorced women in the arab States. their beliefs – and our general belief not defined by the type of relationship as a society – that men’s violence is but by the lack of consent.all in all, there are various factors that influence a woman’s response to violence. normal, or even is important not to judge women who do not leave relationships in which they myTh: a woman who has previouslyare experiencing violence, and to think about how we can support them. We myTh: violent men are out of control. consented to marry and/or to haveshould focus on helping both women and men understand the consequences of TruTh: a violent person is not out sexual relations with someone cannotviolence and the importance of creating communities where women can live their of control. even men who say they be raped by that person.lives free of violence. lose control when they hurt their TruTh: any occasion in which a partners do not use violence in every person does not want to have sexualhandouts situation, nor with every person. They relations but is forced into it is a are selectively violent – in other words, violation or rape. accepting kisses andmyths & truths aBout vIolEncE their violence is a choice. touches does not mean accepting sex. a person can say “no” to sex at anymyTh : it’s easy to recognize not violent, and many who are violent myTh: violent men are mentally ill. point, no matter what happened up toa violent relationship. do not use drugs and alcohol. TruTh: only a small number of men that point.TruTh : it can be difficult for who use violence actually suffer fromwomen to recognize violence in their myTh : men are violent by nature. mental illness. in general, men’s use myTh: it is easy for a woman to leaverelationships. young women learn TruTh : researchers of violence of violence is not associated with a violent relationship, so if a womanabout relationships from other people, are nearly unanimous in stating that mental illness but with gender norms remains in a violent relationship, it mustespecially family members, mothers, while there may be some limited male that uphold violence as an acceptable, be because she enjoys it.aunts and grandmothers. many times biological basis for aggressive and risk- or “masculine” means of resolving TruTh: There are personal, social,what they learn reinforces stereotypes taking behaviour, the majority of men’s conflicts. cultural, religious and economic forcesand normalizes gender-based violence. violent behaviour is explained by social that keep a woman in a relationship,Their views also can be distorted by and environmental factors. in sum, boys myTh: violence against young women even a violent one. moreover, mentelevision and ideas of romantic love. are not born violent. They are taught is not as severe as violence against who are violent toward their partners to be violent through messages they adult women. frequently create conditions that makemyTh : anger causes violence. receive from society and their families. TruTh: violence against young women it difficult for the women to leave.TruTh : Those who mistreat others many men learn to resolve conflicts is just as severe and results in the same These include threats (against thedo not feel any more rage than other and maintain their control over other negative effects as violence against woman or their children), asking forpeople, but they use their rage as an people by using violence. however, adult women. forgiveness and showing remorse, and/excuse and a justification for their just as violence is learned, it can be or manipulating the victim into thinkingbehaviour against people who have unlearned. myTh: a young violent man is not as she is the one to blame or that itless power than they do. dangerous as an adult violent man. won’t happen again, even as the cycle myTh: The media makes boys violent. TruTh: a young man can cause the repeats itself.myTh : violence is caused by drugs TruTh: Some studies have found same harm to his partner, girlfriend orand alcohol. that viewing violent media images friend as an adult man, including even myTh: When a woman says no to sexTruTh : There is no single cause of may be associated with carrying out homicide. it is only because she’s ashamed to sayviolence – rather, it is caused by many violence, but the causal connection myTh: Sexual violence does not exist yes. “no” can mean maybe or even yes.different factors. Drugs and alcohol can is not entirely clear (mcalister 1998). within relationships. TruTh: “no” is always no.increase violent behaviour, but many Watching violence on Tv or in movies TruTh: having sex with a femalepeople who use drugs and alcohol are probably does not “cause” boys to be without her consent is a violation, even 18 19
  11. 11. exerciSe 3myTh: violence is the responsibility of done. regardless of the circumstances,the person who provokes it. violence cannot and should not beTruTh: violence is not an adequate justified.response to a provocation and it is theresponsibility of the person who uses it. myTh: violence is a problem amongTherefore, it is the aggressor who must poor people who lack education.take responsibility for the violence. TruTh: violence occurs among all demographic groups, regardless ofmyTh: Domestic violence is a private race, colour, class, sexual orientation,matter within the family. occupation, or one else should get involved.TruTh: Domestic violence is a public myTh: Women provoke rape by thehealth and human rights issue and way they behave: wearing provocativetherefore, a problem for all of society. clothing, getting drunk, hanging out inWith social support, victims of violence the street at night, etc.can decide to leave a violent relationship. TruTh: no one asks to be sexually victimized. The aggressor is the only onemyTh: Women are safer at home than responsible for the crime.with strangers or out of the home.TruTh: contrary to the view that the myTh: The majority of sexual assaultsfamily represents a safe refuge, young are committed by strangers.and adult women are at greater risk of TruTh: The majority of sexual assaultsviolence in their own homes and at the are committed by someone the victimhands of someone they know than they already knows. in fact, a large percentageare outside the home. of rapes occur inside the victim’s home or at the home of a friend, neighbor ormyTh: Women commit as much violence acquaintance.against men as mencommit against women. myTh: it is mainly women who raiseTruTh: When there is violence in a men; therefore they are responsiblerelationship between men and women, for men’s violent behaviour.generally the violence (verbal, physical, TruTh: even though it is the mothersexual or other) the man commits who often has the most contact withis more severe. When women utilize her son, it is not only the mother whoviolence it is generally in response to a influences her son’s behaviour. otherpartner’s violence, and in many cases, family members, friends, teachers, andtheir partners react with more violence. the community at large also teach men how to act. This means that society asmyTh: Those who behave badly deserve a whole is responsible for the actions ofto be beaten. violent individuals, but people have theTruTh: no person deserves to be power to perpetuate or modify specificbeaten, no matter what they have attitudes and behaviours. 20 21
  12. 12. exerciSe 4 QuEstIons 11 after all the responses have been read, ask the following questions: Q1 — What is the most common type of violence practiced against us? Q2 — how do we feel about being a victim of this type of violence?ExErcIsE typE oBjEctIvEsSmall and large group discussion To speak openly about the violence we endure Q3 — are different people prone to different types of violence? men versus and violence we perpetrate. To speak about waysprEparatIon/rEsourcEs nEEdEd of stopping the victim-aggressor cycle. To identify women; sexual minorities; ethnic minorities, etc.?Flip charts. Sheets of paper resources.(minimum 4 per participant) and pens Q4 — What is the most common type of violence we commit against others? 1 hour how do we know if we are really committing violence against someone? against whom do we most commonly commit violence?actIvItIEs/procEssbegin by reviewing what happened in the film. remind the group that the lead Q5 — is there any connection between the violence we practice and the violencecharacter in the film experienced physical violence inflicted by her husband. we are victims of?explain that the purpose of the activity is to talk about the violence we may haveinflicted and experienced, and how we feel about it. Q6— how do we feel when we practice violence? is there any kind of violence that is worse than another?Designate one flip chart for each of the four questions below. Distribute foursheets of paper per person and invite everyone to answer the questions on Q7 — in general, when we are violent or when we suffer violence, do we talk aboutseparate sheets of paper: it? Do we report it? Do we talk about how we feel? Why or why not?What are examples of violence practiced against me? Some researchers say that violence is like a cycle, that is to say, someone who is a victim of violence is more likely to commit acts of violence later. From yourWhat are examples of violence that i practice against others? experience, is this true? if so, how can we interrupt this cycle of violence?how do i feel when i practice violence? Finally, ask the group what it was like for them to talk about the violence they havehow do i feel when violence is practiced against me? experienced. if anyone in the group requires special attention as a result of being a victim of violence, consider referring them to appropriate services and discuss theremind people to only share what they feel comfortable with. Tell them they don’t matter with senior staff at your organization.have to write much, just a few words or a phrase. Then instruct them to place theresponses on the corresponding flip chart. allow about 10 minutes for this task.invite the group to read from the responses that are nearest to them. you mayask them to read their own responses or the responses of others. if they choose traInErs’ notE if anyone in your group reports that he or she has recently suffered or is suffering any typethe latter option, the original authors can identify themselves if they wish and add of violence or abuse and is under 18 years old, in some countries you might be requiredor explain anything. encourage everyone to ask questions and share their own by law to notify authorities. before carrying out this exercise, you should consult your ownexperiences. organization to clarify relevant ethical and legal requirements. you may choose to divide participants by gender throughout this exercise so they may speak more freely. 22 23
  13. 13. exerciSe 4dEBrIEFIng/takE-homE poIntsmost everyone has been exposed to some form of violence and most everyone hascommitted violence against others. most commonly, the violence involves thoseclosest to us, although this is not always the case.Some people are more prone to violence and less likely to seek and receive help.These groups include women, the elderly, children, men who do not appearvery masculine, ethnic and racial minorities, people with physical or mentalimpairments, etc. however, individuals who do not belong to these groups alsoreceive (and commit) violence, but are often less likely to talk about it. This isespecially common for men in societies where it is taboo for men to talk aboutthese things.The cycle of violence – from victim to perpetrator – can be interrupted, and helpis available for those who need it. make sure you come prepared with informationabout locally based organizations such as shelters for women and children andorganizations dedicated to violence prevention and conflict resolution.handoutshandout with local resources, including organization names,addresses (if available), contact numbers, etc. 24 25
  14. 14. exerciSe 5 you may refer to the legislation in your country on sexual abuse and sexual violence. The attached handout would also be helpful. Discuss the following QuEstIons 12 Q1 —are these situations realistic? Q2 — What is sexual violence?ExErcIsE typE oBjEctIvEslarge group discussion To speak openly about what is and is not sexual Q3 — What is gender violence? violence. To discuss how we can reduce or preventprEparatIon/rEsourcEs nEEdEd sexual violence.Flip charts / pens and tape Q4 — is all sexual violence a crime? 1 hour Q5 — What can we do to prevent sexual violence? Q6 — Who is more subject to sexual violence, men or women? Why?actIvItIEs/procEssbefore starting the activity, write the following phrases Q7 — can a man also be a victim of sexual violence?on separate sheets of paper: Q8 — What do you think are the consequences of having suffered sexual violence?it is sexual violence. traInErs’ notEit is not sexual violence. if anyone in your group reports that he or she is suffering from or has recently suffered any type of violence or abuse and is under 18 years old, in some countries you might be requiredi am not sure or i don’t know. by law to notify authorities. before carrying out this exercise, you should consult your own organization to clarify relevant ethical and legal requirements.explain to the group that you are going to read a series of stories and you want you may divide participants by gender during the exercise if you believe it will allow themthem to think about whether the situation described represents sexual violence. to speak more freely. please adapt this exercise as necessary to fit cultural and otherTell them if they do not know or are not sure, they can say so. considerations of your audience. you should warn the group ahead of time that because of the nature of sexual violence, they may be uncomfortable with certain sensitive topics in the exercise.Stick the three “posters” on the wall, leaving space between them. Tell the groupyou want them to decide which poster fits each story: “it is sexual violence,” “it is before the exercise, it may be useful to gather data about the prevalence of sexual violencenot sexual violence,” “i am not sure or i don’t know.” in your community or country, the laws against it and organizations set up to offer support to victims of sexual violence. This information may be useful when responding to questionsFor each of the three positions, one or more members of the group will be askedto defend their point of view. 13earlier you will have decided whether the stories are appropriate and perhaps thrEE storIEs: Is It vIolEncE?substituted others. now read each of the stories aloud. story 1The large group should break up into three smaller groups corresponding to the ahmed likes a girl, Sonia, in his neighborhood. They often see one another. onthree posters on the wall. allow each group about 5 to 7 minutes to discuss each one occasion they have the chance to be together alone. They start to kiss eachcase and debate which category it falls under. other. ahmed persuades Sonia to take off her clothes, and eventually she agrees 26 27
  15. 15. exerciSe 5to it. but Sonia gets upset and wants to stop. ahmed tries to convince her that handoutsthey have come this far and they can still go farther. he repeatedly insists on Soniahaving sex with him. he tells her that she looks beautiful and that he cares about reSource SheeT: Defining gender violenceher. ahmed doesn’t use any physical coercion. is this violence? inceST: sexual relations between blood relativesstory 2 (fathers/daughters, mothers/sons, brothers/sisters, etc.).basim liked to tease girls on the local bus. Whenever the girls smiled or laughed,he tried to touch their bodies. even then, some girls laughed and smiled, and Sexual abuSe: refers to any type of intimate (sexual) physical contact betweenbasim thought they liked what he did. if he touches a girl and she smiles, then is it an adult and a child.violence? rape: the use of physical force or threat in order to obtain sexual relations withstory 3 penetration (oral, vaginal or anal).jamal and amira have been married for two years and they have an enjoyablesex life. Sometimes, jamel comes home late and by that time amira is fast asleep. Sexual exploiTaTion: taking advantage of or involving children or adolescentsjamal generally wakes her up and ask for sex. often, even if amira is not willing, in the sexual satisfaction of adults, including activities such as child prostitutionshe gives in to jamal. is this violence? and pornography.story 4 Sexual haraSSmenT: indecent proposals, obscene words and pressure to haveahmed and Daliyah are engaged to be married. increasingly, ahmed has started to sexual relations which the other party does not want and which may also result inyell at Dalyah for no obvious reason. The smallest things she does that are not to physical violence.his liking annoy him and he puts her down, calls her derogatory names and offendsher. initially, he would only do this when they were alone, but now he is doing it in emoTional violence: insults, humiliation, threats, lack of affection, etc.front of their family and friends as well. is this violence? The consequence for men and women may be low self-esteem, distrust and emotional insecurity. physical violence: punching, kicking, shoving and otherdEBrIEFIng/takE-homE poInts acts which can provoke injury, endangering the health of a man or woman.explain the meaning of gender violence and the various forms it takes asdescribed in the handout is believed that many adult men who are sexually violent were also victims ofsome type of violence in their childhood or is important to identify cases of sexual and other acts of violence againstchildren and adolescents in order to interrupt the cycle of violence. 28 29
  16. 16. Suha & karim — ToolkiTrEFErEncEs1 un Declaration on the elimination of violenceagainst Women, adopted by the general assemblyon 20 December 1993.2 convention on the elimination of all Forms ofDiscrimination against Women, article 2.3 2005 arab human Development report (ahDr):“Towards the rise of Women in the arab World.”5 papa, m.j., et al. (2000). entertainment-educationand Social change: an analysis of parasocialinteraction, Social learning, collective efficacy,and paradoxical communication. journal ofcommunication, 50(4): 31-55.6 bandura, a. (1977). Social learning theory.englewood cliffs, nj: prentice-hall.7 papa, m.j., et al., 31-55.8 bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise ofcontrol. new york: Freeman.9 institute promundo, Salud y género, ecoS, institutopapai and World education. (2008). Working withyoung Women: empowerment, rights and health.10 ibid.11 population council. (2006). yaari Dosti: a Trainingmanual. new Delhi: population council.12 yaari Dosti: a Training manual.13 The stories here are not linked to the film you justwatched. 30