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Naturalism And Realism
Emile
Zola
Biography
• Born in Paris, 1840
• Only child of Italian immigrant
and French mother
• Father died when Zola at 9,
leaving ...
Biography(Cont.)
• 1862 to 1877, struggling along, publishing about a novel a year
• With L'Assommoir, becoming famous, ga...
Biography(Cont.)
• Rougon-Macquart series, his great
contribution to French literature
• Twenty volumes depicting various
...
Biography(Cont.)
• Later life, becoming a champion of
many causes
• Intervention in Dreyfus affair
• Famous article "J'acc...
Biography(Cont.)
• Famous for views about naturalism
• Novelists utilize scientific method in creating characters for fict...
Introduction To Realism
• By 1840 Romanticism worn out
• Variety of factors: political, economic, social, scientific, inci...
Introduction To Realism(Cont.)
• Reflection, mirror, reproduction
• Emphasis on daily life
• Objectivity
• Visible, observ...
The Medieval Outlook
• World and our lives Teleological (They have a purpose, an aim)
• Absolutist world in religious and ...
Challenges to the Old World View
Copernican Model of Universe
–Earth no longer center of God’s universe
–New timetables fo...
Challenges to the Old World View(Cont.)
Shift from Religious tradition and authority to Scientific Method
Rise of inductiv...
The Rise of Naturalism
• Descartes: Universe purely mechanical and materialistic
The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.)
• Newton: Detailed formulas for physical determinism with study of
inertia and gravity
The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.)
• Hegel: Theory of historical determinism
• we all play scripted parts in progress of world
The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.)
• Charles Darwin: Theory of biological determinism
The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.)
• Karl Marx: Idea of economic determinism
• Arguing social class and economic conditions in ...
The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.)
• Freud: Psychological determinism
• Prenatal and early childhood experiences determine much...
The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.)
• B. F. Skinner similar theory of psychological determinism
• Human shaped by stimulus-respo...
Characteristics Of Naturalism
• Humanity trapped by forces out of control
• Restricted life to ugly and unpleasant
• Reduc...
Characteristics Of Naturalism(Cont.)
• Objective
• Detached method of narration
• Darwinist--survival of the fittest
• Lan...
Characteristics Of Naturalism(Cont.)
• Characters--lower socioeconomic class
• Attention to setting, point of saturation
•...
Characteristics Of Naturalism(Cont.)
• Naturalists observe, then write. About the black, darker side of life.
• "Pessimist...
Zola And Naturalism
• Systematic, objective, and scientific
extension of Realism
• Duty of the novelist: Presenting as
acc...
Zola And Naturalism(Cont.)
• Purpose: presenting
understanding contemporary
social milieu
• A "corner of reality seen thro...
Zola And Naturalism(Cont.)
• Themes:
• “Conflict 'man against nature' or 'man
against himself‘
• Characters struggling to ...
The Experimental Novel
• Importance of hereditary and environmental determinism
• Application of “scientific method” to li...
The Experimental Novel(Cont.)
• History, social and economic
conditions shaping protagonists
• Collective protagonists
• I...
The Experimental Novel(Cont.)
• Not focusing on “beautiful”
• Sex, brutality, violence, crude
language
• Image of reality ...
THANK YOU
PREPARED AND PRESENTED BY:
FATEMEH GHAHRAMAN
LITERARY CRITICISM 1
Emile Zola
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Emile Zola

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Emile Zola

  1. 1. Naturalism And Realism Emile Zola
  2. 2. Biography • Born in Paris, 1840 • Only child of Italian immigrant and French mother • Father died when Zola at 9, leaving him in extreme poverty • Learning about poverty, often appearing in many subsequent novels
  3. 3. Biography(Cont.) • 1862 to 1877, struggling along, publishing about a novel a year • With L'Assommoir, becoming famous, gaining profit
  4. 4. Biography(Cont.) • Rougon-Macquart series, his great contribution to French literature • Twenty volumes depicting various aspects of life and society under second empire in France • Nana, the most successful • Reading from one to another, struck by tremendous imagination
  5. 5. Biography(Cont.) • Later life, becoming a champion of many causes • Intervention in Dreyfus affair • Famous article "J'accuse"(I Accuse) A bible for left-wing radicals
  6. 6. Biography(Cont.) • Famous for views about naturalism • Novelists utilize scientific method in creating characters for fiction • Theoretical criticism influenced course of modern literature • Making his presence felt in almost every area of literary world • Called father of naturalism
  7. 7. Introduction To Realism • By 1840 Romanticism worn out • Variety of factors: political, economic, social, scientific, incidental • Death of main Romantics • Rejection of metaphysical / transcendental • New set of ethical, political, social challenges
  8. 8. Introduction To Realism(Cont.) • Reflection, mirror, reproduction • Emphasis on daily life • Objectivity • Visible, observable • Middle class
  9. 9. The Medieval Outlook • World and our lives Teleological (They have a purpose, an aim) • Absolutist world in religious and political thought • Earth’s design and purpose centers on God’s plan for our Earthly existence • Earth, center and centerpiece of God’s creations
  10. 10. Challenges to the Old World View Copernican Model of Universe –Earth no longer center of God’s universe –New timetables for Earth’s age
  11. 11. Challenges to the Old World View(Cont.) Shift from Religious tradition and authority to Scientific Method Rise of inductive methods of scholarship Mechanistic view of Nature Expansion of Secular Learning Rise of Humanism and democratic reform
  12. 12. The Rise of Naturalism • Descartes: Universe purely mechanical and materialistic
  13. 13. The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.) • Newton: Detailed formulas for physical determinism with study of inertia and gravity
  14. 14. The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.) • Hegel: Theory of historical determinism • we all play scripted parts in progress of world
  15. 15. The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.) • Charles Darwin: Theory of biological determinism
  16. 16. The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.) • Karl Marx: Idea of economic determinism • Arguing social class and economic conditions in which humans found themselves largely responsible for what they are
  17. 17. The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.) • Freud: Psychological determinism • Prenatal and early childhood experiences determine much of life
  18. 18. The Rise of Naturalism(Cont.) • B. F. Skinner similar theory of psychological determinism • Human shaped by stimulus-response conditioning same Pavlov’s dogs • Much of modern psychology based on such theories. Yes, Master!
  19. 19. Characteristics Of Naturalism • Humanity trapped by forces out of control • Restricted life to ugly and unpleasant • Reduced to level of animal • Caught in hostile universe • Pessimistic determinism
  20. 20. Characteristics Of Naturalism(Cont.) • Objective • Detached method of narration • Darwinist--survival of the fittest • Language--formal; piling on of images ("wretched excess") • Deterministic natural and socioeconomic forces stronger than man • Human unable to stand against enormous weight of circumstances
  21. 21. Characteristics Of Naturalism(Cont.) • Characters--lower socioeconomic class • Attention to setting, point of saturation • Heredity determines character • Violence--force against force • Static characters • Animal imagery • Taboo topics
  22. 22. Characteristics Of Naturalism(Cont.) • Naturalists observe, then write. About the black, darker side of life. • "Pessimistic materialistic determinism" • Characters conditioned or controlled by environment, heredity, instinct or chance but they have compensating humanistic value affirms the significance of individual • Characters not have free will (determinism)
  23. 23. Zola And Naturalism • Systematic, objective, and scientific extension of Realism • Duty of the novelist: Presenting as accurate a picture of life as possible • Functioning as scientifically and as objectively as possible • Representatives of working class
  24. 24. Zola And Naturalism(Cont.) • Purpose: presenting understanding contemporary social milieu • A "corner of reality seen through a temperament“ • Character shown as product of his environment and heredity • People's actions, like those of a beast
  25. 25. Zola And Naturalism(Cont.) • Themes: • “Conflict 'man against nature' or 'man against himself‘ • Characters struggling to retain a 'veneer of civilization' despite external pressures that threaten to release 'brute within' • Nature, indifferent to man • Universe, deterministic
  26. 26. The Experimental Novel • Importance of hereditary and environmental determinism • Application of “scientific method” to literature • Man seen as another animal • Novel as laboratory • Godless universe
  27. 27. The Experimental Novel(Cont.) • History, social and economic conditions shaping protagonists • Collective protagonists • Including all aspects of human experience
  28. 28. The Experimental Novel(Cont.) • Not focusing on “beautiful” • Sex, brutality, violence, crude language • Image of reality emphasizing social injustices and defects • Readers saw in it a means of rebellion against dominant classes
  29. 29. THANK YOU PREPARED AND PRESENTED BY: FATEMEH GHAHRAMAN LITERARY CRITICISM 1

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