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Altitude San Francisco 2018: Building the Souther Hemisphere of the Internet

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As a global organization, Fastly carefully selects and deploys POP locations to service the greater audience of the Internet. Fastly currently has 52 global POPs across the Internet, 13 of which are located in the Southern Hemisphere. Another 3 are outside North America, Europe, and Asia. During this talk, VP of Infrastructure Tom Daly will share our experience in building Fastly's network of POPs south of the equator, where, in some cases, the Internet we know here in San Francisco, is much different. Tom will explore the physical datacenter infrastructure, network topology, and network policy that pose of unique challenges when operating in these parts of the world.

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Altitude San Francisco 2018: Building the Souther Hemisphere of the Internet

  1. 1. presents Building the Southern Hemisphere of the Internet Tom Daly | VP, Infrastructure
  2. 2. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET 54x POPs; 25Tbps Edge; 65x IXPs
  3. 3. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET 13x POPs; 2Tbps Edge; 21x IXPs ● Chile x1 ● Argentina x1 ● Brazil x3 ● South Africa x2 ● Australia x4 ● New Zealand x2
  4. 4. Experiences building critical internet infrastructure south of the Equator
  5. 5. • IP Transit • Interconnection • Colocation • Power • Cooling Infrastructure Availability
  6. 6. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET Networks, Datacenters & Exchanges Country Population HE.net ASNs PeeringDB DCs PeeringDB IXPs People/DC Argentina 44,688,864 914 14 25 3,192,062 Australia 24,772,247 2,494 84 21 294,908 Brazil 210,867,954 6,188 122 33 1,728,426 Chile 18,197,209 301 22 9 827,146 New Zealand 4,749,598 617 31 8 153,213 South Africa 57,398,421 527 18 6 3,188,801 United States 326,766,748 27,162 250 117 1,307,067 Sources: • Retrieved from http://worldpopulationreview.com/ • Retrieved from http://bgp.he.net/ • Retrieved from http://www.peeringdb.com/
  7. 7. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET ● Chile, Argentina, Brazil ○ Fledgling Carrier Neutral Ecosystems; otherwise Carrier-centric ● South Africa ○ Carrier Neutral; yet few choices ● Australia ○ Diverse Carrier Neutral Ecosystems ● New Zealand ○ Carrier-centric options. Datacenter Models
  8. 8. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET ● Chile, Argentina, Brazil ○ Broadly distributed national or regional exchanges ○ Layer 2 (optional MLPE) and Layer 3 (forced MLPE) models ○ Government subsidized; partial divestitures ● South Africa ○ Limited Local Datacenter or Metro Exchanges ○ Private Operators ● Australia / New Zealand ○ Diverse Local Datacenter or Metro Exchanges ○ Private Operators IXP Models
  9. 9. • Cost of Space / Power • Cost of IP Transit • Cost of IXP Economics
  10. 10. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET Benchmark Cost per kVA
  11. 11. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET Benchmark Cost per Megabit IPT
  12. 12. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET Benchmark Cost per 10G IXP Port
  13. 13. • Regional Preference • Network Gravity • Throughput vs. Latency • Burst Capped Capacity • Submarine Cable Systems Topology
  14. 14. Building in South America • Start in Miami • Backup in New York
  15. 15. Building in South America • Start in Miami • Backup in New York • São Paulo
  16. 16. Building in South America • Start in Miami • Backup in New York • São Paulo • Diversity in Rio de Janeiro
  17. 17. Building in South America • São Paulo • Diversity in Rio de Janeiro • Santiago / Buenos Aires • Rio de Janeiro now provides provides performance, not diversity • Miami and New York become become irrelevant backup paths
  18. 18. Source City São Paulo New York 140ms Miami 110ms Buenos Aires 51ms Santiago 32ms São Paulo ~10ms
  19. 19. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET Impact to TCP/HTTP Throughput
  20. 20. New York Miami Santiago Buenos Aires Local Markets Throughput to São Paulo
  21. 21. Reduced Latency = More (Throughput + Connectivity + Caches)
  22. 22. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET ● Purchase a 10GE Port Burst Capped Capacity 10G
  23. 23. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET ● Purchase a 10GE Port ○ Provide required 20% commit to cap Burst Capped Capacity 2G
  24. 24. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET ● Purchase a 10GE Port ○ Provide required 20% commit to cap ○ Carrier also forces 3:1 burst cap Burst Capped Capacity 2G 4G
  25. 25. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET ● Purchase a 10GE Port ○ Provide required 20% commit to cap ○ Carrier also forces 2:1 burst cap ○ Effectively rate limiting port to 4GE ● Circuit now limited to 6GE ○ Additional capacity planning attention required Burst Capped Capacity 2G 4G 4G
  26. 26. Submarine Cable Systems West (x3): • WACS • SAT-3 • ACE East (x5): • IOX • SAFE • TGN, • Eassy • Africa-1
  27. 27. Common Fates • Shared submarine capacity between IP providers • Double/triple fault conditions result in segmentation • Mitigate through review and audit
  28. 28. *** Dates, Locations, Capacity subject to change. Outlook • Invest in performance • Enable growth through capacity • Respond to customer needs
  29. 29. 100GE Enabled Santiago Buenos Aires São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Cape Town Sydney Melbourne
  30. 30. BUILDING THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OF THE INTERNET Global POP Roadmap: 67x POPs
  31. 31. presents Building the Southern Hemisphere of the Internet Tom Daly | VP, Infrastructure

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