npv cash flow future value present value lagrange method duality in optimization analysis optimization with constraint implicit differentiation optimization calculus company cost of capital arbitrage pricing model security market line market portfolio sharpe ratio capital market line capital allocation line efficient portfolios markovitz frontier capm capital asset pricing model market risk portfolio risk diversification of assets portfolio risk & return profitability index rule aar rule payback rule internal rate of return accounting flow financial assets maturity of bonds bond valuation annuity term structure stock and shares perpetuity equity valuation yield curve rate of return compound rate of interest time value of money opportunity cost corporation corporate governance balance sheet budget line maximization of utility inter-temporal choice lagrange multiplier unconstrained optimisation envelope theorem vectors cramer's rule adjoint matrix inverse matrix co-factors minors determinant diagonal matrix transposed matrix scalar order of matrices different types of matrices matrix linear transformation anova hypothesis testing about parameters partial correlation coefficient blue residuals ols method regression parameters population regression function sample regression function determination coefficient line of best fit regression analysis pearson coefficient correlation improper integrals fundamental theorem of calculus integration by parts substitution method definite integral indefinite integral primitive function rules of integration anti-derivative function integration bias estimation parameter estimation interval estimation central limit theorem statistical hypothesis testing t-distribution f distribution chi-squared distribution normal distribution normal standard distribution z-table poisson distribution binomial distribution discrete random variable variance expected value probability distribution mutually exclusive probability lagrange function jacobian determinant hessian determinant saddle point total differential higher order partial derivatives chain rule partial derivatives partial differentiation two-variable functions mapping correspondence rules multi-variable function convexity inflection point slope differential basic functions second derivative first derivative elementary functions rules of differential rules of differentiation concavity higher order derivatives local maximum local minimum one-variable functions functions capitalist economy investment decision instability business cycle kalecki finance economics
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