Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Infrared in mobile communications and networks

3,960 views

Published on

In this presentation you will get information about infrared technology in Mobile Networks and complete details of IrDA.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Infrared in mobile communications and networks

  1. 1. INFRARED
  2. 2. Origin of the Term The name means below red, Latin infra meaning“below”. Red has the longest wavelength. INFRAED=INFRA+RED
  3. 3. HISTORY The infrared radiation was discovered byWilliam Herschel, the astronomer, in theearly 19th century. Herschel published hisresults in 1800 before the Royal Society ofLondon IrDA (Infrared Data Association) was formedin 1993 60 companies met to establish standards forexchanging data between mobile devices.
  4. 4. Infrared Transmission“Infrared transmission refers to energy inthe region of the electromagneticradiation spectrum at wavelength longerthan those of visible light but shorterthan those of radio waves.”
  5. 5. Infrared Technology Infrared technology allows computing devices tocommunicate via short-range wireless signals. With infrared, computers can transfer files andother digital data bidirectionally. Computer infrared network adapters both transmitand receive data through ports on a device.
  6. 6. Range IrDA spans very short distances. Short-range communications (under 5 meter) Within a fairly narrow cone (15 degree minimum,30 degree maximum half angle). Works in direct “Line of Sight”.
  7. 7. PerformanceIrDA-SIR (slow speed)data rates up to 115 KbpsIrDA-MIR (medium speed)data rates up to 1.15 MbpsIrDA-FIR (fast speed)data rates up to 4 MbpsIrDA-VFIR ( very fast speed)data rates up to 16 Mbps
  8. 8. Performance
  9. 9. Factors Affecting IrDAAngleDistanceNoiseHeatLight
  10. 10. IrDA Devices Remote control for TV Laptops Smart phones Net books Printers Play stations Image scanners Air conditioners
  11. 11. IrDA Protocol Stack An IrDA protocol stack is the layered set ofprotocols particularly aimed at point-to-pointinfrared communications.
  12. 12. Types of ProtocolsRequired IrDA ProtocolsOptional IrDA
  13. 13. Required Protocols• Physical Layer• IrLAP• IrLMP• IAS
  14. 14. Optional Protocols• Tiny TP• IrOBEX• IrCOMM• IrLAN
  15. 15. Infrared Layersconstitute the complete InfraredCommunication Protocolfor Data Transfer and Communicationbetween IrDA devicesthese layers combine to form the InfraredCommunication possible in this network
  16. 16. IrDA Protocol Stack
  17. 17. IrPHY (Infrared PhysicalLayer)equivalent to Physical layer ofOSI modelhandles the Mediumtransformation rates andconnectivity characteristics
  18. 18. IrLAP (Infrared Link AccessProtocol)Access controlDiscovery of potential communicationpartnersEstablishing of a reliable bidirectionalconnectionNegotiation of the Primary/Secondarydevice roles
  19. 19. Embedded stack Layers
  20. 20. IrLMP (Infrared Link ManagementProtocol)LM-MUX (Link ManagementMultiplexer)lies on top of the IrLAP layer.provides multiple logical channelsallows change of Primary/SecondarydevicesLM-IAS (Link ManagementInformation Access Service)provides a list, where serviceproviders can register their servicesother devices can access theseservices via querying the LM-IAS.
  21. 21. Tiny TP (Tiny TransportProtocolprovides Transmissionand Flow control featuresin IrDA Network
  22. 22. IrCOMM (Infrared CommunicationsProtocol)acts like a serial or parallel porton top of transmission layerfor application integration
  23. 23. IrOBEX (Infrared ObjectExchange)OBEX is optional (Object Exchange)provides the exchange of arbitrary dataobjects (e.g., vCard, vCalendar or evenapplications) between infrared devices
  24. 24. IrLAN (Infrared Local AreaNetwork) the optional IrLAN (Infrared Local Area Network)provides the possibility to connect an infrared deviceto a local area network.MethodsAccessPointPeer toPeerHosted
  25. 25. IrS (IrSimple)enhancing transfer rates 4 – 10timesprovides backward compatibilitywith other IrDA Protocols
  26. 26. IrSS (IrSimpleShot)used by Infrared Camera to transferpictures to PrintersIt has the functionality of TV remotecontrol with transfer rates of up to 16Mbps.
  27. 27. Establishing an InfraredNetworkIn an infrared network two devices are alignedin such a way as to establish a networkconnection which has no wires and other warerequirementsThe only requirement from a connectionstandpoint is that a direct line of sight existsbetween the two devices.
  28. 28. Steps in Establishing an InfraredNetwork
  29. 29. Example: remote control for televisiona remote containsan infraredemitterWhen you pressa button on theremote, it emitspulses of infraredlightThese pulses arereceived by theinfrared receiveron televisiona chip inside theremote causesthe infraredreceiver to flash adifferent patternof invisible lightfor each buttonpressed
  30. 30. USES
  31. 31. Infrared imaging Infrared imaging is used extensively for militaryand civilian purposes. Military applications includetarget acquisition , surveillance, night vision ,homing and tracking. Non-military uses includethermal efficiency analysis, remote temperaturesensing, short-ranged wireless communication ,weather forecasting .
  32. 32. Infrared astronomy Infrared astronomy uses sensor-equippedtelescopes to penetrate dusty regions of space,such as molecular clouds ; detect objects such asplanets .
  33. 33. Infrared ApplicationsNight VisionThermographyTrackingHeatingCommunicationsMeteorologyAstronomy
  34. 34. Night Vision Infrared is used in night vision equipment whenthere is insufficient visible light to see. Night vision devices operate through a processinvolving the conversion of light photons intoelectrons which are then amplified by a chemicaland electrical process and then converted backinto visible light.
  35. 35. Thermography Infrared radiation can be used to remotelydetermine the temperature of objects .This istermed Thermography . Thermography (thermal imaging) is mainly usedin: USESMilitaryIndustrialCar’s Cameras
  36. 36. Thermography(Cont….)
  37. 37. Tracking Infrared tracking or infrared homing, refers to apassive missile guidance system which uses theemission from a target of electromagneticradiation in the infrared part of the spectrum totrack it. Missiles which use infrared seeking are oftenreferred to as “heat-seekers”
  38. 38. Tracking (Cont….)
  39. 39. Heating Infrared radiation can be used as a deliberateheating source. For example it is used to remove ice from thewings of aircraft ( de-icing ). It is also gaining popularity as a safe method ofnatural health care & physiotherapy.
  40. 40. Meteorology Weather satellites equipped with scanningradiometers produce thermal or infrared imageswhich can then enable a trained analyst todetermine cloud heights and types, to calculateland and surface water temperatures, and tolocate ocean surface features.
  41. 41. Meteorology(Cont…)
  42. 42. Infrared Advantages Low power requirements Low circuitry costs Simple circuitry Higher security Portability High noise immunity
  43. 43. Infrared Disadvantages Line of sight Short range Blocked by common materials Light, weather sensitive Speed
  44. 44. Security Risks Point-to-point lasers which can cause burns orblindness Prolonged microwave exposure which has beenlinked to cancer and leukemia
  45. 45. FUTURE WORK
  46. 46. Future I Phones A newly discovered Apple patent reveals thatfuture iPhones could use infrared technology toprovide sophisticated cameras that communicatewith the objects around them.

×