Inovasi muzik

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Inovasi muzik

  1. 1. Inovasi muzik wayang kulit dalam P&P PENGGUNAAN muzik tradisional wayang kulit dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran (P&P) berjaya meningkatkan minat pelajar untuk hadir ke sekolah di samping menggalakkan generasi muda untuk mencintai warisan budaya bangsa. Penerima Anugerah Guru Inovasi Hari Guru 2011, Mohd Asmawi Isa berkata, penggunaan muzik dalam P&P terbukti berkesan dalam menarik minat pelajar datang ke sekolah bagi melibatkan diri dalam aktiviti sebelah petang dan pada hujung minggu. "P&P luar bilik darjah ini bukan sahaja membolehkan pelajar menguasai notasi muzik dengan cepat dan mudah malah mampu mempromosi Malaysia di mata dunia," kata Guru Muzik Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (SMK) Sering, Kota Bharu, Kelantan ini. Beliau memberitahu, kumpulan wayang kulit sekolahnya telah membuat persembahan di United Kingdom, Bulgaria, Itali, China, Scotland dan Kanada. "Pendedahan di peringkat antarabangsa ini dapat memupuk minat pelajar untuk menguasai dan memelihara seni budaya bangsa agar tidak pupus," katanya ketika ditemui di Festival Hari Guru 2011 di Kuching, Sarawak baru-baru ini. Modul pembelajaran notasi muzik wayang kulit ciptaan Mohd Asmawi sesuai digunakan oleh semua peringkat usia dari tahap prasekolah hingga ke universiti termasuk untuk orang dewasa. Ketika ini, ujarnya, modul tersebut digunakan di Sekolah Seni Sarawak dan Sekolah Seni Johor. Dalam pada itu, menurut Mohd Asmawi, pelajar boleh menjana pendapatan sendiri melalui persembahan di luar sekolah seperti dalam majlis perkahwinan atau acara sambutan orang kenamaan. "Pelajar juga diajar kemahiran untuk membuat sendiri peralatan wayang kulit," tambahnya. Selain itu, modul P&P ciptaannya turut menerapkan kemahiran merentas subjek seperti lukisan, bahasa Melayu, sejarah, matematik dan KOMSAS. Mohd Asmawi (bertali leher kuning) bersama ahli kumpulan wayang kulit SMK Sering selepas membuat persembahan di Festival Hari Guru 2011, Kuching, Sarawak, baru-baru ini.
  2. 2. Sebagai contoh, cerita dan asal usul wayang kulit merupakan sebahagian daripada subjek Sejarah manakala bahasa yang digunakan pula satu bentuk pembelajaran bahasa Melayu. Permainan muzik dan wayang kulit ini turut meningkatkan kemahiran psikomotor melalui pelbagai gabungan pergerakan anggota tubuh pelajar. Music in the Classroom Instructor's handy guide for bringing music into your classroom By Jennifer O. Prescott CDs That Rock Music Activities & Teacher Tips In the popular film School of Rock, Jack Black, as substitute teacher Dewey Finn, leaps to the front of the classroom, whips out an electric guitar, and plays an original Led-Zeppelin-esque tune for his stunned fifth graders. Most teachers´ experiences with music in the classroom are a far cry from Black´s maniacal rock-and-roll antics—they find themselves on easier terms with a paper-towel-tube maraca than with a flaming red electric guitar. But any teacher—even those who discreetly mouth the words to “Happy Birthday”—can find ways to access the enormous educational benefits of music. Sustained and rich school music programs are the ideal, and many teachers, parents, and community members-armed with a wealth of research-have taken action to protect them. (See “Parents Demand More Music”, below.) But even if your school´s marching band, musical theater program, and after-school ukulele club eventually fall under the budgetary ax, music does not have to be banished from your school. Integrating music with other academic subjects is one way to salvage some of its strengths and to enrich the entire curriculum. Math Set to Music “Kids come to school knowing 'Mary Had a Little Lamb' and 'Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star,'” says Kay Smitherman, a retired math teacher from Angleton, Texas. “Wouldn't it be nice if children came to school already knowing math formulas by heart?” Smitherman, whose “Math Songs” activities appear in the January/February issue of Instructor, has made a second career of setting math-themed lyrics to popular tunes to help kids memorize essential formulas and skills. “With music, the steps are already implanted in your brain,” she explains. “Students can hum while a test is being taken—it's right there in their heads.” Once, she recalls, a student walked up to her after a test and confessed that a group of children had cheated. “What?” she asked, surprised. “How?” The sheepish student explained: “When we got to that part about mean,
  3. 3. median, range, and mode, we hummed until we got to that part, then wrote it down.” Getting students to participate in the music-making can add another level of engagement. Math educator Robyn Silbey, from Gaithersberg, Maryland, encourages the teachers she trains to “use music to help students recall basic multiplication facts, for example. The teachers challenge kids to reinforce these facts by making up new words to a well-known song. “This strategy is an effective way to have students embed anything they need to learn for mastery or to memorize,” says Silbey. “I like it because all the kids are involved in teaching and learning, it's less work for the teacher, and it's fun and gets the job done.” Lyrics and Language As the self-styled Ms. Music, Beth Butler spent years visiting preschools throughout her home state of Florida, using songs to teach little ones the days of the week, parts of the body, and more. Then she made a discovery: “Using music is exactly the way to teach a new language,” she says. A fluent Spanish speaker, Butler started Boca Beth (www.bocabeth.com), a Spanish-English language program that uses songs, movements, and puppets to teach Spanish vocabulary and phrases. The familiar songs on Butler's DVDs and CDs—such as “Five Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed”-alternate between English and Spanish stanzas. “Children are such sponges,” says Butler. “They pick it up quickly, and music makes it so much easier for them.” Just 10 minutes a day can put kids on the road to building a decent bilingual vocabulary—with no effort at all. Kids can just relax and listen. While music can help kids retain a new language, it also helps them with basic skills in their native language. Christina Ledbetter, who has taught first grade for three years at Plumb Elementary in Clearwater, Florida, explains that “in the beginning of first grade, it is important for children to know that we read from left to right and then back down to the next row.” To get kids to understand this, Ledbetter uses a tune by songwriter Jack Hartmann called “The Way We Read” (www.jackhartmann.com), which kids act out with their hands and bodies as they sing along. Children with language difficulties in particular can benefit from music, says Susan Stackhouse, a support teacher for second through fifth grade and a regular seventh- and eighth- grade classroom teacher at McDonald Elementary School in Warminster, Pennsylvania. To accommodate some of her students' disabilities, Stackhouse makes up her own lyrics to popular tunes. For example, her version of “Hokey Pokey” starts with a word like train. She sings: You take the “t” out and put a “g” in, you take the “r” out, and look at what you have.You put the sounds together and you try to sound it out. (Kids clap.) What is the new word? Kids: Gain! “I have children self-talk through a difficult word by singing a song and applying it to their reading,” says Stackhouse. “It's very effective.” Musical Intelligence
  4. 4. When Diane Connell taught a lesson on honeybees to third graders—including children with special needs—she looked for a way to make the subject come alive. A quick browse through the local music store turned up Rimski-Korsakov's “Flight of the Bumblebee.” Back in class, the children got out of their seats and “buzzed” around the room to the fast, jerky rhythm of the composition. “The music helped them feel exactly what I was talking about in the lesson,” says Connell, now an associate professor at Rivier College in Nashua, New Hampshire. Teaching the students in this fashion engages the emotions. “If students really care about something, they'll remember it,” asserts Connell. As one of Howard Gardner's major intelligence areas, music is valuable for its own sake as well as for what it can add to a lesson. Linda DiPasquale-Morello, a teacher at John C. Milanesi Elementary in Buena, New Jersey, feels that music is “just as or even more important than reading, writing, and math.” She says, “Many children who do not show academic awareness or excellence have the ability to show their forte in the arts—either musical or visual art. That's why I am so against using just standardized testing for knowledge and understanding. We need all kinds of people with all kinds of talents!” As Greg Percy, a teacher of art for 20 years in Madison, Wisconsin, has discovered, a musical intelligence can even help kids with—what else?—other types of art. Percy's greatest hits (www.songsinthekeyofart.com) include the “Picasso Polka,” “From Matisse to You,” “Michaelangelo Mad,” and “The Red and Yellow Blues”-the latter a catchy ditty on primary colors. In his art classes, Percy will show some samples of an artist's work, talk about the artist, and then play an original song pertaining to that day's art lesson. For example, his song “Van Gogh (No Stereo)” appeals to kids because they remember one gruesome fact about the Dutch master: that he cut off his ear—and, as the song goes, couldn't hear “in stereo.” The songs ignite the kids' interest and help them remember important facts and elements of art history. “The kids are learning, but they don't know they're learning,” says Percy. “That's the best situation.” Culture and Music The students that Teri Tibbett meets are often isolated—with sometimes as few as six children and one teacher to a rural schoolhouse—and starved for artistic experiences. Tibbett, an itinerant music teacher based in Juneau, Alaska, brings the only musical exposure that these students have. With younger children, Tibbett emphasizes movement: clapping, bouncing, and finger play. Older kids in fifth through eighth grade learn about the music's “background, where it came from, and the sociology of the music style.” In the summertime, Tibbett works with native youth —mostly of the Tlingit and Haida tribes—in a juvenile detention center. She starts with a Native American unit from her book Listen to Learn: Using American Music to Teach Language Arts and Social Studies (Jossey-Bass, 2004). “They get excited,” she says, “because that's who they are. They realize this isn't the typical music appreciation class. Then they're hooked on it.” The older kids also get to see and handle instruments from various cultures. Tibbett asks questions that get them to analyze and compare: “Here's a rattle. Touch it, look at it. Why does
  5. 5. this instrument belong in the idiophone family? How is this like sticks banging together, or two goat hooves clacking together?” Tibbett links her music lessons with history, such as the Ghost Dance that took place before the Massacre at Wounded Knee in the late 1800s. The dancers performed the dance as a healing ritual, but “the military perceived it as a war dance,” she says. “It made them nervous—and the massacre followed.” Playing music that accompanied the Ghost Dance can bring history alive for students. By analyzing their own gut reactions to the music, students can gain a better understanding of how the military might have interpreted the Ghost Dance and the dancers' intentions. Jennifer Rodin, who trains elementary-level teachers at the Oglala Lakota College in Kyle, South Dakota, develops social studies lessons based upon various types of music—percussion, hip-hop, and call-and-response. A teacher can link music and social studies, suggests Rodin, by sending students to the Internet to do a guided search. For example, a search of “music + instruments + Ancient Egypt” turns up images and descriptions of lyres, flutes, and cymbals. A teacher can encourage kids to discuss why these instruments might have been developed, what materials they were made of, and what tools were used to construct them. Using easy-to-find materials such as pie pans, beads, spoons, duct tape, and plastic eggs, kids can measure and build their own versions of these instruments. Lastly, “if you're lucky enough to find recordings of the actual music,” says Rodin, “then you can make math connections by talking about the music's counting and rhythm patterns.” Music Promotes Wonder Music Promotes Wonder Beyond the research, teachers know from the expressions on their students' faces that music's benefits go far beyond what can be assessed. Put simply, students enjoy, gain nourishment from, and build their confidence through participation in the arts. Writes Norman Weinberger, Ph.D., a professor in the department of Psychobiology at the University of California, Irvine, “Arts education appears to really bring out the best in students, capitalizing on their natural curiosity and allowing it to flourish in a varied, stimulating environment.” For the student who has given up on school or has never found his or her strength, music is sometimes the incentive needed to show up every day. “Everyone has a gift to explore and develop,” says Jackie Buckner, a third-grade teacher at Frank Kohn Elementary School, in Tulare, California. “Part of my job as a teacher is to assist in locating and developing those gifts.” Take away the opportunity for children to find these strengths, and you are doing a disservice to society, says Ann Fennell, a third- through eighth-grade music teacher at the Vista Academy of Visual and Performing Arts in San Diego. Fennell is director of Music Ventures, a program that trains teachers how to integrate music into the curriculum. “It's imperative to teach all of the arts,” she says, “because we don't know whom we are denying. Take Louis Armstrong. Had he never held a trumpet, what would the world have lost? Many kids do not get these chances at home. As a teacher, you have to open up every door, to every child, to let them discover their infinite possibilities.”
  6. 6. Music Under Seige While the arts have been deemed a core subject by NCLB, there is no standardized test in place to measure how skillfully one strums a guitar chord. As a result, music programs in many schools are thought to be expendable. According to the Music Education Coalition, the current round of budget cuts will deprive 60 percent of K–12 students of an education that includes music. “To have music education stricken from the school system is devastating,” says composer Bruce Adolphe, music and education advisor to the Lincoln Center's Chamber Music Society. “Education should help create a whole human being, and it's not going to if you have to only do well on English and math tests and excel in sports . . . Music is a language without barriers, and it creates a community that's a model for humanity.” Higher Test Scores The reduction in school music programs is not only damaging from an aesthetic standpoint, it also flies in the face of research that suggests kids who study music perform better on tests. Numerous studies reveal that kids who participate in music programs show improved spatial- temporal skills, enhanced academic performance, and better social skills. According to a 2001 College Entrance Examination Board study, students with coursework or experience in music performance scored 57 points higher on the verbal section of the SAT and 41 points higher on the math; those who participated in music appreciation scored 63 and 44 points higher, respectively, than those students with no arts participation. A 1999 study from the UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies showed that gains from music were just as great or greater for students of low socioeconomic status as for privileged students. Parents Demand More Music Ninety-five percent of parents say that music is a key component in a child's education,” says Laura Johnson, associate executive director of the American Music Conference, a nonprofit organization that promotes the benefits of music-making. People sense intuitively that “kids who study music do better in school and in life,” she says, “and that's backed up by a great deal of research.” The community at large supports music education; according to a 2003 Gallup poll, 97 percent of respondents believe that playing music is “a good hobby” and “a good means of expression” that “provides a sense of accomplishment.” For advice on how to assemble a campaign to save music in your school, visit www.supportmusic.com. On the site, you'll find an arsenal of facts about music education and a step-by-step action plan. Jennifer O. Prescott is the managing editor of Instructor. This article was originally published in the January/February 2005 issue. Tools Home Index Issue 5 Send
  7. 7. PDF (English) Printer-friendly version Selected articles • Fishing for genes: DNA microarrays in the classroom • Designing a school: taking science out of the classroom • How to write a good science story: writing competition • Design the cover for Science in School! • The Bone Trail: generating enthusiasm for earth sciences in the classroom Home » Issue 5 » Using music in the science classroom Using music in the science classroom Submitted by sis on 06 June 2007 Image courtesy of Pixelquelle/T. Kemnitz Caroline Molyneux, from Balshaw’s Church of England High School, UK, explains how she kick-starts her classes and helps her students remember certain lessons, facts or concepts. Music is known to affect our feelings and energy levels (Brewer, 1995). It can prompt memories, enhance brain activity and stimulate the mind. In today’s consumer-driven society, a piece of classical music can make us think of a certain make of car. A popular song can conjure up thoughts of a famous perfume brand. Why not harness this subliminal messaging method for learning? In a multimedia society, any tool that can be used to engage pupils is invaluable (Beady, 2001). As a pilot project, I experimented with the use of music to inspire my tutorial group at the start of the day. I used any feel-good tune, which I called ‘music of the day’. I would write the name and composer of the music on the chalkboard, along with a ‘thought for the day’. These were motivating phrases or quotes that were provided by the school, to be read out to all tutorial groups each morning. Examples of ‘thought for the day’ include:
  8. 8. • Why is abbreviation such a long word? • Only the guy who isn’t rowing has time to rock the boat • Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new • Imagination is more important than knowledge (Albert Einstein) I found that simply reading these out loud did not have a great effect on pupils. But when the thought for the day was displayed alongside the music of the day, with the music playing, pupils began to take a lot more notice of both. They wanted to know exactly what the music was and who wrote or sang it, and then what the thought for the day was. The response was amazing. Each day the pupils would be excited to enter the room to hear what was playing. Pupils would be waiting at the door before I arrived, eager to hear what the day’s selection would be. I found that the most successful songs were those that pupils had heard before but did not know by name (or composer), such as Ravel’s ‘Bolero’ and Rossini’s ‘William Tell Overture’. I developed the idea of having theme weeks, in which the music would follow a theme such as ‘French music’ or ‘The musicals’. Portrait of Giocchino Rossini by an unknown artist Public domain image; Image source Wikimedia Commons Pupils began to make requests, and it wasn’t popular chart music that they were asking for. All the pupils got involved – both confident and quiet, boys and girls. We took it in turns to pick the music so that everyone got a chance. Pupils would compete to find the most obscure but interesting music. Requests included the classical piece ‘Dance of the Knights’ from Prokofiev’s Romeo and Juliet (pupils were studying Shakespeare’s play in their drama class) and ‘Matchstalk Men’ by Brian & Michael – a song about the famous early 20th-century Manchester artist L. S. Lowry. The music boosted pupils’ general knowledge as well as entertaining them. They discovered that the composer John Williams wrote the theme music for the Harry Potter films, and that several famous comedians, including John Cleese of James Bond-film fame (previously one of the Monty Python team) collaborated to produce the well-known novelty song ‘Always Look on the Bright Side of Life’. Some pupils even recognised the song from football chants but had no idea where it came from. Early-morning morale amongst my tutorial group soared and pupils would go off to lessons happy to begin the day. I received visits from other pupils and members of staff who had heard about the music and had come to investigate. The project lasted for a full term (approximately four months), and was so popular that I have continued to use this idea. If I ever forget to put a piece of music on in the morning then I get complaints!
  9. 9. Statue of Freddie Mercury Image courtesy of Paranoid; Image source Wikimedia Commons Next, I began to develop a portfolio of music to link to the science curriculum. At the time, I was writing the schemes of work (detailed lesson plans for a whole year group) for the new GCSE in core science, so I linked music to the topics and included them in the scheme of work. I would play the music as pupils entered the classroom. Immediately they would begin to search for the link between the music and the lesson title and objectives which I had displayed on the board. Before pupils had even sat down, opened their bags or taken out their pens and pencils, they had begun to think about the lesson. I began to challenge the higher-ability pupils by making the links more tenuous. One example of this was ‘Under Pressure’ by Queen, which I used to introduce a lesson entitled ‘Salt in the Diet’. Several pupils guessed that too much salt in the diet must cause high blood pressure. Pupils had begun to guess the outcomes of the lesson before I had introduced anything other than the lesson title! The idea began to develop. My websitew1 displays the lesson titles for the following week; pupils would visit the website, look at the titles and suggest music that could be used to begin the lesson. Pupils were inadvertently preparing themselves for future lessons! In search of appropriate music, I linked not only the titles but also the lyrics of some songs to the curriculum: ‘Big Yellow Taxi’ by Joni Mitchell includes the line “They paved paradise and put up a parking lot.” This was perfect for use with lessons on how humans affect their environment. Pupils listened attentively, waiting for a link to the lesson. I developed the idea even further by using other types of music for effect during presentations. ‘Carmina Burana’ by Carl Orff is an extremely dramatic piece that I linked to a presentation on the huge negative impact of microwave meals on the UK population’s diet. Jane Birkin & Serge Gainsbourg’s ‘Je T’Aime Moi Non Plus’ was used during a lesson on hormones to indicate the effect that they have on adolescent boys and girls. The Old Opera House in Frankfurt, Germany
  10. 10. Image courtesy of Pixelquelle/Martina Taylor To evaluate the effectiveness of the idea, I would play a piece of music used in a past lesson and give the pupils the duration of the song to summarise the key points of that lesson. I found that the music provoked memories of facts and skills that the pupils had learned. I would simply play the music and pupils would immediately remember facts. During Diana Ross’s ‘Chain Reaction’, which had been linked to a lesson on nerves and reflex reactions, some pupils managed to write down the sequence of events in a reflex arc! This highlighted the success of the project, along with the positive comments made by the pupils: “Miss Molyneux has a song for every occasion” and “Can we have more music throughout the lesson?” Pupils were overheard telling prospective students and their parents about the music and how it made the start of lessons exciting. Below are some examples of the music I have used. Song Science Curriculum Link ‘Danger, Danger High Voltage’ – Electric Six Electricity – KS3 and Year 10 Physics (new GCSE) ‘The Drugs Don’t Work’ – The Verve Drugs – Biology Year 10 (new GCSE) ‘Rock DJ’ – Robbie Williams Rocks – Chemistry Year 8 ‘Me and My Shadow’ – Various Light – Physics Year 8 ‘Oliver Twist’ – Food Glorious Food Food and Digestion – Years 8 & 10 ‘Fast Food Rockers’ – Fast Food Song Malnutrition and Obesity – Year 10 In the future I hope to expand the idea across the school, perhaps involving the music teachers, who could suggest pieces to play and link science topics with their curriculum. I already produce a revision CD for pupils, on which I read out useful tips and facts for the GCSE examinations. Incorporating some of the music that has been used during lessons might give pupils a further boost in their preparation for exams. Is this a gimmick? Well, yes, it probably is. But we live in a society full of gimmicks that work. I believe that any way to get pupils to pay attention, learn and retain information is worth trying.
  11. 11. References Beady Jr CH (2001) Whatever It Takes (2 Motivate 2-Daze Youth). Piney Woods, MS, USA: Dr Beady Brewer C (1995) Music and Learning: Seven Ways to Use Music in the Classroom. Tequesta, FL, USA: LifeSounds Web references w1 – Caroline Molyneux’s website Resources For more information or if you would like further examples of music that can be used in the science classroom, visit our website, and click on ‘Science’ then ‘Science Teacher Area’. Mike Fleetham’s Thinking Classroom website has information on music and learning. Music in the Classroom Songs for Teaching For an excellent article on the science in music, see: Woodhouse J, Galluzzo PM (2004) Why is the violin so hard to play? Plus Magazine 31. Theory of multiple intelligences From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Human intelligence Abilities, traits and constructs • Abstract thought • Communication • Creativity • Emotional intelligence
  12. 12. • g factor • Intelligence quotient • Knowledge • Learning • Memory • Problem solving • Reaction time • Reasoning • Understanding • Visual processing Models and theories • Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory • Fluid and crystallized intelligence • Theory of multiple intelligences • Three stratum theory • Triarchic theory of intelligence • PASS theory of intelligence Fields of study • Cognitive epidemiology • Evolution of human intelligence • Psychometrics • Heritability of IQ
  13. 13. • Impact of health on intelligence • Environment and intelligence • Neuroscience and intelligence • Race and intelligence • v • t • e This article is about Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. For other uses, see Intelligence. The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities[disambiguation needed ] , rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability. Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, and that there are only very weak correlations among them. For example, the theory predicts that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily generally more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task. The child who takes more time to master simple multiplication 1) may best learn to multiply through a different approach, 2) may excel in a field outside of mathematics, or 3) may even be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level, or perhaps as an entirely different process. Such a fundamentally deeper understanding can result in what looks like slowness and can hide a mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite a less detailed understanding of the process of multiplication. The theory has been met with mixed responses. Traditional intelligence tests and psychometrics have generally found high correlations between different tasks and aspects of intelligence, rather than the low correlations which Gardner's theory predicts. Nevertheless many educationalists support the practical value of the approaches suggested by the theory.[1]
  14. 14. Contents • 1 The multiple intelligences o 1.1 Logical-mathematical o 1.2 Spatial o 1.3 Linguistic o 1.4 Bodily-kinesthetic o 1.5 Musical o 1.6 Interpersonal o 1.7 Intrapersonal o 1.8 Naturalistic o 1.9 Existential • 2 Use in education • 3 Critical reception o 3.1 The definition of intelligence o 3.2 Tautology o 3.3 Neo-Piagetian criticism o 3.4 Spatial intelligence o 3.5 Modern IQ tests measure many abilities o 3.6 Lack of empirical evidence • 4 See also • 5 Notes • 6 References • 7 Further reading • 8 External links The multiple intelligences This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2010)
  15. 15. Gardner articulated several criteria for a behavior to be an intelligence.[2] These were that the intelligences: 1. Potential for brain isolation by brain damage, 2. Place in evolutionary history, 3. Presence of core operations, 4. Susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression), 5. A distinct developmental progression, 6. The existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people, 7. Support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings. Gardner believes that eight abilities meet these criteria:[3] • Spatial • Linguistic • Logical-mathematical • Bodily-kinesthetic • Musical • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • Naturalistic He considers that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion.[4] The first three are closely linked to fluid ability, and the verbal and spatial abilities that form the hierarchical model of intelligence[5] Logical-mathematical This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning and numbers and critical thinking. While it is often assumed that those with this intelligence naturally excel in mathematics, chess, computer programming and other logical or numerical activities, a more accurate definition places less emphasis on traditional mathematical ability and more on reasoning capabilities, recognizing abstract patterns, scientific thinking and investigation and the ability to perform complex calculations.[citation needed] Logical reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and to general ability.[6] Spatial
  16. 16. Main article: Spatial intelligence (psychology) This area deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind's eye. Careers which suit those with this type of intelligence include artists, designers and architects. A spatial person is also good with puzzles.[citation needed] Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical model of intelligence. Linguistic This area has to do with words, spoken or written. People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates. They tend to learn best by reading, taking notes, listening to lectures, and by discussing and debating about what they have learned.[citation needed] Those with verbal-linguistic intelligence learn foreign languages very easily as they have high verbal memory and recall, and an ability to understand and manipulate syntax and structure.[citation needed] Verbal ability is one of the most g-loaded abilities.[7] Bodily-kinesthetic Main article: Kinesthetic learning The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one's bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully (206). Gardner elaborates to say that this intelligence also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses so they become like reflexes. In theory, people who have bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should learn better by involving muscular movement (e.g. getting up and moving around into the learning experience), and are generally good at physical activities such as sports or dance. They may enjoy acting or performing, and in general they are good at building and making things. They often learn best by doing something physically, rather than by reading or hearing about it. Those with strong bodily- kinesthetic intelligence seem to use what might be termed "muscle memory," drawing on it to supplement or in extreme cases even substitute for other skills such as verbal memory. Careers that suit those with this intelligence include: athletes, pilots, dancers, musicians, actors, surgeons, builders, police officers, and soldiers. Although these careers can be duplicated through virtual simulation, they will not produce the actual physical learning that is needed in this intelligence.[8] Musical Further information: auditory learning This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. People with a high musical intelligence normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. Since there is a strong auditory component
  17. 17. to this intelligence, those who are strongest in it may learn best via lecture. Language skills are typically highly developed in those whose base intelligence is musical. In addition, they will sometimes use songs or rhythms to learn. They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody or timbre. Careers that suit those with this intelligence include instrumentalists, singers, conductors, disc jockeys, orators, writers and composers. Research measuring the effects of music on second language acquisition is supportive of this music-language connection. In an investigation conducted on a group of elementary-aged English language learners, music facilitated their language learning. [9] Gardner's theory may help to explain why music and its sub-componenets (i.e., stress, pitch, rhythm) may be viable vehicles for second language learning. Interpersonal This area has to do with interaction with others. Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand others. In theory, individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to others' moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. According to Gardner in, How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, "Inter- and Intra- personal intelligence is often misunderstood with being extroverted or liking other people..."[10] Interpersonal intelligence means that you understand what people need to work well. Individuals with this intelligence communicate effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They typically learn best by working with others and often enjoy discussion and debate. Careers that suit those with this intelligence include sales, politicians, managers, teachers, counselors and social workers.[11] Intrapersonal This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what your strengths/ weaknesses are, what makes you unique, being able to predict your own reactions/emotions. Philosophical and critical thinking is common with this intelligence. Many people with this intelligence are authors, psychologists, counselors, philosophers, and members of the clergy. Naturalistic This area has to do with nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings. Examples include classifying natural forms such as animal and plant species and rocks and mountain types; and the applied knowledge of nature in farming, mining, etc. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include naturalists, farmers and gardeners. Existential
  18. 18. Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a possible additional type. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an "existential" intelligence may be a useful construct.[12] The hypothesis of an existential intelligence has been further explored by educational researchers.[13] Ability to contemplate phenomena or questions beyond sensory data, such as the infinite and infinitesimal. Careers or callings which suit those with this intelligence include shamans, priests, mathematicians, physicists, scientists, cosmologists, psychologists and philosophers. Use in education Gardner (1999) defines an intelligence as ‘‘biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture’’ (pp. 33–34). According to Gardner, there are more ways to do this than just through logical and linguistic intelligence. Gardner believes that the purpose of schooling "should be to develop intelligences and to help people reach vocational and avocational goals that are appropriate to their particular spectrum of intelligences. People who are helped to do so, [he] believe[s], feel more engaged and competent and therefore more inclined to serve society in a constructive way."[14] Traditionally, schools have emphasized the development of logical intelligence and linguistic intelligence (mainly reading and writing). IQ tests (given to about 1,000,000 students each year) [citation needed] focus mostly on logical and linguistic intelligence. Upon doing well on these tests, chances of attending a prestige college or university increase, which in turn creates contributing members of society (Gardner, 1993). While many students function well in this environment, there are those who do not. According to Helding (2009)[15] , "Standard IQ tests measure knowledge gained at a particular moment in time, they can only provide a freeze-frame view of crystallized knowledge. They cannot assess or predict a person’s ability to learn, to assimilate new information, or to solve new problems," (pp.196). Gardner's theory argues that students will be better served by a broader vision of education, wherein teachers use different methodologies, exercises and activities to reach all students, not just those who excel at linguistic and logical intelligence. It challenges educators to find ‘‘ways that will work for this student learning this topic’’ (Gardner, 1999, p. 154). Many teachers[who?] see the theory as simple common sense. Some[who?] say that it validates what they already know: that students learn in different ways. The challenge that this brings for educators is to know which students learn in which ways. On the other hand, James Traub's article in The New Republic notes that Gardner's system has not been accepted by most academics in intelligence or teaching. Gardner states that, ‘‘while Multiple Intelligences theory is consistent with much empirical evidence, it has not been subjected to strong experimental tests. . . Within the area of education, the applications of the theory are currently being examined in many projects. Our hunches will have to be revised many times in light of actual classroom experience’’ (Gardner, 1993, p. 33). George Miller, the psychologist credited with discovering the mechanisms by which short-term memory operates, wrote in The New York Times Book Review that Gardner's argument boiled
  19. 19. down to "hunch and opinion" (p. 20). Gardner's subsequent work has done very little to shift the balance of opinion. A recent issue of Psychology, Public Policy, and Law devoted to the study of intelligence contained virtually no reference to Gardner's work. Most people who study intelligence view M.I. theory as rhetoric rather than science, and they are divided on the virtues of the rhetoric[citation needed] . The application of the theory of multiple intelligences varies widely. It runs the gamut from a teacher who, when confronted with a student having difficulties, uses a different approach to teach the material, to an entire school using M.I. as a framework. In general, those who subscribe to the theory strive to provide opportunities for their students to use and develop all the different intelligences, not just the few at which they naturally excel.[citation needed] There are many different online tests teachers can have their students take in order to determine which of the intelligences are best suited for their personal learning. Of the schools implementing Gardner's theory, the most well-known[citation needed] is New City School, in St. Louis, Missouri, which has been using the theory since 1988. The school's teachers have produced two books for teachers, Celebrating Multiple Intelligences and Succeeding With Multiple Intelligences and the principal, Thomas Hoerr, has written Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School as well as many articles on the practical applications of the theory. The school has also hosted four conferences, each attracting over 200 educators from around the world and remains a valuable resource for teachers interested in implementing the theory in their own classrooms[16] Thomas Armstrong argues that Waldorf education organically engages all of Gardner's original seven intelligences.[1] Critical reception The definition of intelligence One major criticism of the theory is that it is ad hoc: that Gardner is not expanding the definition of the word "intelligence"; rather, he denies the existence of intelligence as traditionally understood and instead uses the word "intelligence" whenever other people have traditionally used words like "ability". This practice has been criticized by Robert J. Sternberg (1983, 1991), Eysenck (1994), and Scarr (1985). Defenders of MI theory argue that the traditional definition of intelligence is too narrow, and thus broader definition more accurately reflects the differing ways in which humans think and learn. They would state that the traditional interpretation of intelligence collapses under the weight of its own logic and definition, noting that intelligence is usually defined as the cognitive or mental capacity of an individual, which by logical necessity would include all forms of mental qualities, not simply the ones most transparent to standardized I.Q. tests. Some of these criticisms arise from the fact that Gardner has not provided a test of his multiple intelligences. He originally defined it as the ability to solve problems that have value in at least
  20. 20. one culture, or as something that a student is interested in. However, he added a disclaimer that he has no fixed definition, and his classification is more of an artistic judgment than fact: Ultimately, it would certainly be desirable to have an algorithm for the selection of an intelligence, such that any trained researcher could determine whether a candidate's intelligence met the appropriate criteria. At present, however, it must be admitted that the selection (or rejection) of a candidate's intelligence is reminiscent more of an artistic judgment than of a scientific assessment. (Gardner, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, 1985) Gardner argues that by calling linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities intelligences, but not artistic, musical, athletic, etc. abilities, the former are needlessly aggrandized. Certain critics balk at this widening of the definition, saying that it ignores "the connotation of intelligence...[which] has always connoted the kind of thinking skills that makes one successful in school."[17] Gardner writes "I balk at the unwarranted assumption that certain human abilities can be arbitrarily singled out as intelligence while others cannot."[18] Critics hold that given this statement, any interest or ability is now redefined as "intelligence". Thus, by adopting this theory, studying intelligence becomes difficult, because it diffuses into the broader concept of ability or talent. Gardner's addition of the naturalistic intelligence and conceptions of the existential and moral intelligences are seen as fruits of this diffusion. Defenders of the MI theory would argue that this is simply a recognition of the broad scope of inherent mental abilities, and that such an exhaustive scope by nature defies a simple, one-dimensional classification such as an assigned IQ value. Tautology The theory and definitions have been critiqued by Perry D. Klein as being so unclear as to be tautologous and thus unfalsifiable. Having a high musical ability means being good at music while at the same time being good at music is explained by having a high musical ability.[19] Neo-Piagetian criticism Andreas Demetriou suggests that theories which overemphasize the autonomy of the domains are as simplistic as the theories that overemphasize the role of general intelligence and ignore the domains. He agrees with Gardner that there indeed are domains of intelligence that are relevantly autonomous of each other.[20] In fact, some of the domains, such as verbal, spatial, mathematical, and social intelligence are identified by most lines of research in psychology. However, in Demetriou's theory, one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development, Gardner is criticized for underestimating the effects exerted on the various domains of intelligences by processes that define general processing efficiency, such as speed of processing, executive functions, working memory, and meta-cognitive processes underlying self-awareness and self- regulation.[citation needed] All of these processes are integral components of general intelligence that regulate the functioning and development of different domains of intelligence. Thus, it is argued that the domains are to a large extent expressions of the condition of the general processes. At the same time, the domains may vary because of their constitutional
  21. 21. differences but also differences in individual preferences and inclinations. Moreover, their functioning both channels and influences the operation of the general processes.[21][22] Thus, one cannot satisfactorily specify the intelligence of an individual or design effective interventions programs unless both the general processes and the domains of interest are evaluated.[23][24] Spatial intelligence Gardner argues that IQ tests only measures linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities. Psychologist Alan S. Kaufman argues that IQ tests have measured spatial abilities for 70 years. [25] Modern IQ tests measure many abilities Modern IQ tests are greatly influenced by the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory which incorporates a general intelligence but also many more narrow abilities. While IQ tests do give an overall IQ score, they now also give scores for many more narrow abilities.[25] Lack of empirical evidence According to a 2006 study many of Gardner's "intelligences" actually correlate with the g factor, supporting the idea of a single dominant type of intelligence. According to the study, each of the domains proposed by Gardner involved a blend of g, of cognitive abilities other than g, and, in some cases, of non-cognitive abilities or of personality characteristics.[26] Linda S. Gottfredson (2006) has argued that the results of thousands of studies support the importance of IQ for school and job performance. IQ also predicts or correlates with numerous other life outcomes. In contrast, empirical support for non-g intelligences is lacking or very poor. She argued that despite this the ideas of multiple non-g intelligences are very attractive to many due to the suggestion that everyone can be smart in some way.[27] A critical review of MI theory argues that there is little empirical evidence to support it: "To date there have been no published studies that offer evidence of the validity of the multiple intelligences. In 1994 Sternberg reported finding no empirical studies. In 2000 Allix reported finding no empirical validating studies, and at that time Gardner and Connell conceded that there was "little hard evidence for MI theory" (2000, p. 292). In 2004 Sternberg and Grigerenko stated that there were no validating studies for multiple intelligences, and in 2004 Gardner asserted that he would be "delighted were such evidence to accrue" (p. 214), and he admitted that "MI theory has few enthusiasts among psychometricians or others of a traditional psychological background" because they require "psychometric or experimental evidence that allows one to prove the existence of the several intelligences" (2004, p. 214)." (Waterhouse, 2006a, p. 208). The same review presents evidence to demonstrate that cognitive neuroscience research does not support the theory of Multiple Intelligences:
  22. 22. "the human brain is unlikely to function via Gardner’s multiple intelligences. Taken together the evidence for the intercorrelations of subskills of IQ measures, the evidence for a shared set of genes associated with mathematics, reading, and g, and the evidence for shared and overlapping "what is it?" and "where is it?" neural processing pathways, and shared neural pathways for language, music, motor skills, and emotions suggest that it is unlikely that each of Gardner’s intelligences could operate "via a different set of neural mechanisms" (1999, p. 99). Equally important, the evidence for the "what is it?" and "where is it?" processing pathways, for Kahneman’s two decision-making systems, and for adapted cognition modules suggests that these cognitive brain specializations have evolved to address very specific problems in our environment. Because Gardner claimed that the intelligences are innate potentialities related to a general content area, MI theory lacks a rationale for the phylogenetic emergence of the intelligences." (From Waterhouse, 2006a, p. 213). A number of articles have surveyed the use of Gardner's ideas and conclude that there is little to no academically substantiated evidence that his ideas work in practice. Steven A. Stahl found that most of the previous studies which claimed to show positive results had major flaws: Among others, Marie Carbo claims that her learning styles work is based on research. {I discuss Carbo because she publishes extensively on her model and is very prominent in the workshop circuit...} But given the overwhelmingly negative findings in the published research, I wondered what she was citing, and about a decade ago, I thought it would be interesting to take a look. Reviewing her articles, I found that out of 17 studies she had cited, only one was published. Fifteen were doctoral dissertations and 13 of these came out of one university—St. John’s University in New York, Carbo’s alma mater. None of these had been in a peer-refereed journal. When I looked closely at the dissertations and other materials, I found that 13 of the 17 studies that supposedly support her claim had to do with learning styles based on something other than modality.[28] To date, the current No Child Left Behind test legislation in the United States does not encompass the multiple intelligences framework in the exams' design and/or implementation.[29] See also • Learning styles • Aptitude • General intelligence factor • Intelligence quotient • Social intelligence Notes 1. ^ a b "Waldorf education embodies in a truly organic sense all of Howard Gardner's seven intelligences...not simply an amalgam of the seven intelligences. Many schools are currently attempting to construct curricula based on Gardner's model simply through an additive process (what can we add to what we have already got?). Steiner's approach, however,
  23. 23. was to begin with a deep inner vision of the child and the child's needs and build a curriculum around that vision." Thomas Armstrong, cited in Eric Oddleifson, Boston Public Schools As Arts- Integrated Learning Organizations: Developing a High Standard of Culture for All 2. ^ Lynn Gilman, Human Intelligence 3. ^ Robert Slavin Educational Psychology, 2009, p. 117 ISBN 0-205-59200-7 4. ^ Gardner . infed.org (2008-06-15). Retrieved on 2011-10-22. 5. ^ P. E. Vernon. (1950). The structure of human abilities. University of Michigan 6. ^ J. B. Carroll. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. Cambridge University Press 7. ^ D. Wechsler. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III. 8. ^ Gardner, "Heteroglossia: A Global Perspective" Interdisciplinary Journal of Theory of Postpedagogical Studies (May 1984) 9. ^ Medina, Suzanne L. (1993). The Effect of Music Upon Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Center for Applied Linguistics. 10. ^ Gardner, H. (1995). How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom --Administrators' Version ISBN# 1-887943-03-X -- National Professional Resources Dr. Howard Gardner, along with teachers and students from Fuller Elementary School in Gloucester, MA, discuss the theory behind Multiple Intelligences and demonstrate how they have integrated it into their classrooms and community.(41 minutes) 11. ^ Gardner "Interpersonal Communication amongst Multiple Subjects: A Study in Redundancy," Experimental Psychology (2002) 12. ^ Gardner, Howard. (1999) "Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century." New York: Basic Books. 13. ^ Tupper, K.W. (2002). "Entheogens and Existential Intelligence: The Use of Plant Teachers as Cognitive Tools"
  24. 24. . Canadian Journal of Education 27 (4): 499–516. doi:10.2307/1602247 . 14. ^ This information is based on an informal talk given on the 350th anniversary of Harvard University on September 5, 1986. Harvard Education Review, Harvard Education Publishing Group, 1987, 57, 187-93. 15. ^ Helding, L. (2009). Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Journal of Singing, 66(2), 193-199. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. 16. ^ http://www.newcityschool.org/WhatisMI_19.aspx 17. ^ Willingham, "Check the Facts: Reframing the Mind," 2004 18. ^ Gardner, Howard (1998). "A Reply to Perry D. Klein's 'Multiplying the problems of intelligence by eight'". Canadian Journal of Education 23 (1): 96–102. doi:10.2307/1585968 . JSTOR 1585790 . 19. ^ Klein, Perry D. (1998). "A Response to Howard Gardner: Falsifiability, Empirical Evidence, and Pedagogical Usefulness in Educational Psychologies". Canadian Journal of Education 23 (1): 103–112. doi:10.2307/1585969 . 20. ^ Demetriou, A., Spanoudis, G., & Mouyi, A. (2011). Educating the Developing Mind: Towards an Overarching Paradigm. Educational Psychology Review: 23, 4, 601-663. 21. ^ Demetriou, A., Efklides, A., & Platsidou, M. (1993). The architecture and dynamics of developing mind: Experiential structuralism as a frame for unifying cognitive developmental theories. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58, Serial Number 234. 22. ^ Demetriou, A., Christou, C., Spanoudis, G., & Platsidou, M. (2002). The development of mental processing: Efficiency, working memory, and thinking. Monographs of the Society of Research in Child Development, 67, Serial Number 268.
  25. 25. 23. ^ Demetriou, A., & Kazi, S. (2006). "Self-awareness in g (with processing efficiency and reasoning". Intelligence 34 (3): 297–317. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2005.10.002 . 24. ^ Demetriou, A., Mouyi, A., & Spanoudis, G. (2010). The development of mental processing. Nesselroade, J. R. (2010). Methods in the study of life-span human development: Issues and answers. In W. F. Overton (Ed.), Biology, cognition and methods across the life-span. Volume 1 of the Handbook of life-span development (pp. 36–55), Editor-in-chief: R. M. Lerner. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 25. ^ a b IQ Testing 101, Alan S. Kaufman, 2009, Springer Publishing Company, ISBN 978-0- 8261-0629-2 26. ^ Visser, Beth A.; Ashton, Michael C.; Vernon, Philip A. (2006). "g and the measurement of Multiple Intelligences: A response to Gardner" . Intelligence 34 (5): 507–510. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2006.04.006 . 27. ^ Gottfredson, L. S. (2006). Social consequences of group differences in cognitive ability (Consequencias sociais das diferencas de grupo em habilidade cognitiva). In C. E. Flores- Mendoza & R. Colom (Eds.), Introducau a psicologia das diferencas individuais (pp. 433–456). Porto Allegre, Brazil: ArtMed Publishers. 28. ^ Stahl, "Different Strokes for Different Folks: A Critique of Learning Styles" 29. ^ Rothstein, R., & Jacobsen, R. (2006). "What Is Basic?" . Principal Leadership 7 (4): 14–19. References • Eysenck, M. W (1994) "Intelligence". In M. W. Eysenck, (ed.), The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology (pp. 192–193). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers. • Gardner, Howard. (1983) "Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences." New York: Basic Books.
  26. 26. • Gardner, Howard. (1993) "Multiple Intelligences: The Theory In Practice." New York: Basic Books. • Gardner, Howard. (1999) "Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century." New York: Basic Books. • Gardner, Howard. (1998) "A Reply to Perry D. Klein's 'Multiplying the problems of intelligence by eight'" Canadian Journal of Education, 23(1), 96–102. • Gardner, Howard, and Seana Moran. (2006). The science of Multiple Intelligences theory: A response to Lynn Waterhouse. Educational Psychologist, Volume 41, Issue 4, Fall 2006, pp. 227– 232. • Gardner, H. (2004) Changing minds: The art and science of changing our own and other people's minds. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, p. 196. • Kavale, Kenneth, A., and Steven R. Forness, 1987. "Substance over style: Assessing the efficacy of modality testing and teaching", Exceptional Children 54:228–239. • Klein, Perry, D. (1997) "Multiplying the problems of intelligence by eight: A critique of Gardner's theory", Canadian Journal of Education, 22(4), 377–394. • Klein, Perry, D. (1998) "A response to Howard Gardner: Falsifiability, empirical evidence, and pedagogical usefulness in educational psychology" Canadian Journal of Education, 23(1), 103– 112. • Kornhaber, Mindy. (2004) "Psychometric Superiority? Check the Facts" • Kornhaber, Mindy, Edward Fierros and Shirley Veenema. (2003) "Multiple Intelligences: Best Ideas from Research and Practice" • Lohman, D. F.(2001). "Fluid intelligence, inductive reasoning, and working memory: Where the theory of Multiple Intelligences falls short." In N. Colangelo & S. Assouline (Eds.), Talent Development IV: Proceedings from the 1998 Henry B. & Jocelyn Wallace National Research Symposium on talent development (pp. 219–228). Scottsdale, AZ: Gifted Psychology Press.Link • Scarr, S. (1985) "An authors frame of mind [Review of Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences]" New Ideas in Psychology, 3(1), 95–100. • Sempsey, James, "The Pedagogical Implications Of Cognitive Science and Howard Gardner's M.I. Theory (A Critique)" 10.19.93 • Steven A. Stahl "Different Strokes for Different Folks?: A Critique of Learning Styles", American Educator, Fall, 199 [1] • Sternberg, R. J. (1983, Winter) "How much Gall is too much gall? {Review of Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences}". Contemporary Education Review, 2(3), 215–224.
  27. 27. • Sternberg, R. J. (1988) The triarchic mind: A new theory of human intelligence New York: Penguin Books. • Sternberg, R. J. (1991) "Death, taxes, and bad intelligence tests", Intelligence, 15(3), 257–270. • Tupper, K.W. (2002) Entheogens and Existential Intelligence: The Use of Plant Teachers as Cognitive Tools . Canadian Journal of Education. 27(4), 499–516 • Traub, James (1998, October 26). Multiple intelligence disorder, The New Republic • Waterhouse, Lynn. (2006a). Multiple Intelligences, the Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence: A critical review. Educational Psychologist, 41(4), Fall 2006, pp. 207–225. • Waterhouse, Lynn. (2006b). "Inadequate Evidence for Multiple Intelligences, Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence Theories." Educational Psychologist, 41(4), Fall 2006, pp. 247–255. • Willingham, Daniel T. (2004) "Check the Facts: Reframing the Mind," Education Next

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