Tone & Texture

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Tone & Texture

  1. 1. TONE & TEXTURE
  2. 2. TONE & TEXTURE • WHILE LINES ARE ESSENTIAL TO THE TASK OF DELINEATING CONTOUR AND SHAPE; • WE RELY ON THE RENDERING OF TONAL VALUES, IN ORDER TO ACCENTUATE SHAPE, LIGHT, MASS AND SPACE.
  3. 3. TONE & TEXTURE • THROUGH A COMBINATION OF LINES AND TONAL VALUES, WE CREATE THE TACTILE SENSATION AND APPEARANCE WE CALL ‘TEXTURE’
  4. 4. TONAL VALUE • THE PATTERNS OF LIGHT AND DARK IS ESSENTIAL TO OUR PERCEPTION OF OBJECTS: • DARKER AREAS OCCUR WHERE THERE IS AN ABSENCE OF LIGHT; • LIGHTER AREAS OCCUR WITH THE REFLECTION OF RADIANT ENERGY ONTO ILLUMINATED SURFACES
  5. 5. TONAL VALUE • CREATING TONAL VALUES: USE TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF PENCIL AND PEN/INK TO MAKE DARK MARKS ON A LIGHT SURFACE • THERE ARE (4) BASIC TECHNIQUES FOR CREATING TONAL VALUES: (1) HATCHING (3) SCRIBBLING (2) CROSSHATCHING (4) STIPPLING
  6. 6. HATCHING • CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF PARALLEL LINES, • WHEN SPACED CLOSELY, THE LINES LOSE THEIR INDIVIDUALITY AND MERGE TO FORM A TONAL VALUE • THEREFORE, WE RELY PRIMARILY ON THE SPACING AND DENSITY OF LINES TO CONTROL THE LIGHTNESS OR DARKNESS OF A VALUE
  7. 7. HATCHING • MAINTAINING THE DIAGONAL DIRECTION OF THE STROKES IS KEY, IN ORDER TO AVOID CONFUSION WITH THE UNDERLYING DRAWING AND UNIFIES THE VARIOUS TONAL AREAS OF A DRAWING COMPOSITION • USE CONSTRUCTION LINES TO DESCRIBE CONTOUR AND SHAPE IN A PURE-TONE DRAWING
  8. 8. CROSSHATCHING • UTILIZES 2 OR MORE SERIES OF PARALLEL LINES TO CREATE TONAL VALUES • THE SIMPLEST CROSSHATCHING CONSISTS OF 2 PERPENDICULAR SETS OF PARALLEL LINES • USE 3 OR MORE LAYERS PROVIDE A GREATER RANGE OF TONAL VALUES AND SURFACE TEXTURES
  9. 9. CROSSHATCHING • WE OFTEN COMBINE HATCHING AND CROSSHATCHING INTO A SINGLE TECHNIQUE • WHILE SIMPLE HATCHING CREATES THE LIGHTER RANGE OF VALUES IN A DRAWING, CROSSHATCHING RENDERS THE DARKER RANGE
  10. 10. SCRIBBLING • IS A FREEHANDED SHADING TECHNIQUE THAT INVOLVES DRAWING A NETWORK OF RANDOM, MULTIDIRECTIONAL LINES • BY MAINTAINING A DOMINANT DIRECTION, WE PRODUCE A GRAIN THAT UNIFIES THE VARIOUS AREAS AND SHADES OF VALUE
  11. 11. SCRIBBLING • THE STROKES MAY BE BROKEN OR CONTINUOUS, STRAIGHT OR CURVILINEAR, JAGGED OR SOFTLY UNDULATING • AS WITH HATCHING, WE MUST PAY ATTENTION TO BOTH SCALE AND DENSITY OF THE STROKES, AND BE AWARE OF THE QUALITIES OF SURFACE, TEXTURE, PATTERN, & MATERIAL THEY CONVEY
  12. 12. STIPPLING • A SHADING TECHNIQUE BY MEANS OF VERY FINE DOTS. THE BEST RESULTS OCCUR WHEN USING A FINE-TIPPED INK PEN ON A SMOOTH DRAWING SURFACE • APPLYING STIPPLING IS A SLOW & TIME-CONSUMING PROCEDURE THAT REQUIRES PATIENCE & CARE IN CONTROLLING THE SIZE & SPACING OF THE DOTS
  13. 13. STIPPLING • SINCE THERE ARE NO CONSTRUCTION LINES TO DESCRIBE CONTOUR AND SHAPE IN A PURE-TONE DRAWING; • WE RELY ON A SERIES OF DOTS TO PROFILE SPATIAL EDGES AND DEFINE THE CONTOURS OF FORMS. • USE TIGHTLY SPACED DOTS TO DEFINE SHARP EDGES, AND A LOOSER SPACING OF DOTS TO IMPLY SOFTER, MORE ROUNDED CONTOURS.
  14. 14. VALUE SCALE • WHITE REPRESENTS THE LIGHTEST POSSIBLE VALUE AND BLACK THE DARKEST VALUE • IN BETWEEN EXISTS A “RANGE OF GRAYS” • THIS RANGE IS REPRESENTED (BELOW) BY A GRAY VALUE OF (9) GRADATIONS FROM WHITE TO BLACK
  15. 15. MODELING • REFERS TO THE TECHNIQUE OF RENDERING THE ILLUSION OF VOLUME AND DEPTH (3D) ON A 2-DIMENSIONAL SURFACE BY MEANS OF SHADING WITH TONAL VALUES – DARK AREAS CAN APPEAR TO RECEDE INTO THE DEPTH OF THE DRAWING SURFACE – LIGHT AREAS CAN EMERGE FROM A DARK BACKGROUND LIKE MOUNDS RISING FROM THE EARTH
  16. 16. MODELING • EDGES HELPS US RECOGNIZE SHAPE; • WE LOOK TO EDGES TO DISCOVER THE SURFACE CONFIGURATION OF A 3-DIMENSIONAL FORM • THERE ARE MAINLY (2) TYPES OF EDGES: HARD AND SOFT
  17. 17. MODELING • HARD EDGES DELINEATE SHARP BREAKS IN FORM OR DESCRIBE CONTOURS THAT ARE SEPARATED FROM THE BACKGROUND
  18. 18. MODELING • SOFT EDGES DESCRIBE VAGUE BACKGROUND SHAPES, GENTLY CURVING SURFACES AND ROUNDED FORMS, AND AREAS OF LOW CONTRAST
  19. 19. MODELING • WE CREATE SOFT EDGES WITH A GRADUAL CHANGE IN TONAL VALUE OR DIFFUSE TONAL CONTRAST
  20. 20. MODELING • WE CAN CREATE ANY SHAPE AND FORM USING BOTH HARD AND SOFT EDGES
  21. 21. CONVEYING LIGHT • LIGHT IS THE RADIANT ENERGY THAT ILLUMINATES OUR WORLD AND ENABLES US TO SEE 3-DIMENSIONAL FORMS IN SPACE • WE DO NOT ACTUALLY SEE THE LIGHT BUT RATHER THE EFFECTS OF LIGHT
  22. 22. CONVEYING LIGHT • TONAL VALUE IS THE GRAPHIC EQUIVALENT OF SHADE AND SHADOW; • AND CAN ONLY INDICATE LIGHT BY THE DESCRIBING ITS ABSENCE
  23. 23. CONVEYING LIGHT • WHEN LIGHT STRIKES AN OBJECT, IT CREATES A LIGHT SIDE, A SHADED SIDE, AND A CAST SHADOW
  24. 24. CONVEYING LIGHT • ALMOST EVERYTHING WE SEE COMPRISES A COMBINATION OF SIMPLE GEOMETRIC FORMS: THE CUBE, THE PYRAMID, THE SPHERE, THE CONE, AND THE CYLINDER • WE MUST UNDERSTAND HOW LIGHT ILLUMINATES EACH OF THE FUNDAMENTAL SOLIDS, AND ITS LIGHT-DARK PATTERNS, IN ORDER TO RENDER THE EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON MORE COMPLICATED SHAPES AND FORMS
  25. 25. CONVEYING LIGHT • ALMOST EVERYTHING WE SEE COMPRISES A COMBINATION OF SIMPLE GEOMETRIC FORMS: THE CUBE, THE PYRAMID, THE SPHERE, THE CONE, AND THE CYLINDER LIGHT VALUES OCCUR ON ANY SURFACE TURNED TOWARD THE LIGHT SOURCE
  26. 26. CONVEYING LIGHT • ALMOST EVERYTHING WE SEE COMPRISES A COMBINATION OF SIMPLE GEOMETRIC FORMS: THE CUBE, THE PYRAMID, THE SPHERE, THE CONE, AND THE CYLINDER TONAL VALUES SHIFT AS A SURFACE TURNS AWAY FROM THE LIGHT SOURCE, WITH INTERMEDIATE GRAY VALUES
  27. 27. CONVEYING LIGHT HIGHLIGHTS APPEAR AS LUMINOUS SPOTS ON SMOOTH SURFACES SHADE REFERS TO THE DARK VALUES OF SURFACES AWAY FROM THE LIGHT SOURCE AREAS OF REFLECTED LIGHT LIGHTEN THE TONAL VALUE OF A SHADED SURFACE SHADOWS ARE THE DARK VALUES CAST BY AN OBJECT UPON A SURFACE
  28. 28. LIGHT, SHADE & SHADOW • THE CLARITY AND TONAL VALUE OF SHADED SURFACES AND CAST SHADOWS PROVIDE CLUES TO THE QUALITY OF THE LIGHT SOURCE BRILLIANT LIGHT PRODUCES STRONG LIGHT-DARK CONTRASTS WITH SHARPLY DEFINED SHADOWS DIFFUSED LIGHT CREATES LESS VALUE CONTRAST BETWEEN LIT SURFACES AND SHADOWS
  29. 29. LIGHT, SHADE & SHADOW • CAST SHADOWS DISCLOSE THE RELATIVE POSITION OF OBJECTS IN SPACE CAST SHADOWS ANCHOR AN OBJECT TO THE SURFACE ON WHICH ITS SITS
  30. 30. LIGHT, SHADE & SHADOW • CAST SHADOWS DISCLOSE THE RELATIVE POSITION OF OBJECTS IN SPACE EVEN WHEN FORMS ARE HIDDEN FROM VIEW, THE SHADOWS THEY CAST CAN REVEAL THEIR SHAPE
  31. 31. LIGHT, SHADE & SHADOW • SHADED SURFACES ARE OFTEN LIGHTER IN VALUE THAN SHADOWS CAST SHADOWS ARE DARKER WHERE THEY MEET A SURFACE IN SHADE, BECOMING LIGHTER TOWARD ITS OUTER EDGES DEFINE THE OUTER EDGES OF SHADOWS WITH A CONTRAST IN VALUE, NEVER WITH A DRAWN LINE
  32. 32. LIGHT, SHADE & SHADOW • AREAS OF SHADE AND SHADOW ARE ALMOST NEVER UNIFORM IN VALUE !!!
  33. 33. MAPPING VALUES • THE MAPPING OF LIGHT-DARK PATTERNS IS THE EASIEST WAY TO BEGIN MODELING WHEN SHADE OR SHADOW SEEMS INDISTINCT, WE MUST IMPOSE BOUNDARIES
  34. 34. MAPPING VALUES • THE MAPPING OF LIGHT-DARK PATTERNS IS THE EASIEST WAY TO BEGIN MODELING WHEN SHADE OR SHADOW SEEMS INDISTINCT, WE MUST IMPOSE BOUNDARIES MAPPING INVOLVES BREAKING DOWN ALL AREAS OF LIGHT, SHADE AND SHADOW THAT WE SEE ON A SUBJECT OR IN A SCENE INTO DEFINITE SHAPES
  35. 35. MAPPING VALUES • THE MAPPING OF LIGHT-DARK PATTERNS IS THE EASIEST WAY TO BEGIN MODELING WHEN SHADE OR SHADOW SEEMS INDISTINCT, WE MUST IMPOSE BOUNDARIES MAPPING INVOLVES BREAKING DOWN ALL AREAS OF LIGHT, SHADE AND SHADOW THAT WE SEE ON A SUBJECT OR IN A SCENE INTO DEFINITE SHAPES DECISIVENESS IS NECESSARY
  36. 36. MAPPING VALUES • THE MAPPING OF LIGHT-DARK PATTERNS IS THE EASIEST WAY TO BEGIN MODELING WHEN SHADE OR SHADOW SEEMS INDISTINCT, WE MUST IMPOSE BOUNDARIES MAPPING INVOLVES BREAKING DOWN ALL AREAS OF LIGHT, SHADE AND SHADOW THAT WE SEE ON A SUBJECT OR IN A SCENE INTO DEFINITE SHAPES DECISIVENESS IS NECESSARY USE CONSTRUCTION LINES
  37. 37. MAPPING VALUES • MAPPING REQUIRES REDUCING THE MANY TONAL VARIATIONS THAT WE SEE INTO JUST A FEW WE BEGIN BY SORTING THE RANGE OF TONAL VALUES INTO TWO GROUPS: LIGHT AND DARK; OR THREE GROUPS: LIGHT, MEDIUM AND DARK
  38. 38. TEXTURE • WHENEVER WE USE HATCHING OR STIPPLING TO CREATE A TONAL VALUE, WE SIMULTANEOUSLY CREATE TEXTURE WE USE THE TERM TEXTURE MOST OFTEN TO DESCRIBE THE RELATIVE SMOOTHNESS OR ROUGHNESS OF A SURFACE
  39. 39. TEXTURE • WHENEVER WE USE HATCHING OR STIPPLING TO CREATE A TONAL VALUE, WE SIMULTANEOUSLY CREATE TEXTURE WE USE THE TERM TEXTURE MOST OFTEN TO DESCRIBE THE RELATIVE SMOOTHNESS OR ROUGHNESS OF A SURFACE IT CAN ALSO DESCRIBE THE CHARACTERISTIC SURFACE QUALITIES OF FAMILIAR MATERIALS: STONE, WOOD GRAIN, WEAVE OF A FABRIC
  40. 40. TEXTURE • WHENEVER WE USE HATCHING OR STIPPLING TO CREATE A TONAL VALUE, WE SIMULTANEOUSLY CREATE TEXTURE OUR SENSES OF SIGHT AND TOUCH ARE CLOSELY INTERTWINED. AS OUR EYES READ THE VISUAL TEXTURE OF A SURFACE, WE OFTEN RESPOND TO ITS APPARENT TACTILE QUALITY WITHOUT ACTUALLY TOUCHING IT.
  41. 41. TEXTURE • THE SCALE OF THE STROKES OR DOTS WE USE TO CREATE A TONAL VALUE, RELATIVE TO THE SIZE OF THE TONED AREA AND THE DRAWING COMPOSITION, INHERENTLY CONVEYS THE VISUAL TEXTURE OF A SURFACE
  42. 42. TEXTURE • VISUAL TEXTURE CAN ALSO RESULT FROM THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SMOOTH AND ROUCH DRAWING SURFACE
  43. 43. TEXTURE • CONTRAST, SCALE, DISTANCE, AND LIGHT ARE IMPORTANT MODIFYING FACTORS IN OUR PERCEPTION OF TEXTURE AND THE SURFACES THEY ARTICULATE
  44. 44. TEXTURE • CONTRAST INFLUENCES HOW STRONG OR SUBTLE A TEXTURE WILL APPEAR TO BE: - A TEXTURE SEEN AGAINST A COARSE BACKGROUND WILL APPEAR TO BE FINER AND SMALLER IN SCALE - WHEN SEEN AGAINST A UNIFORMLY SMOOTH BACKGROUND, THE TEXTURE WILL APPEAR MORE OBVIOUS. SMOOTH BACKGROUND COARSE BACKGROUND
  45. 45. TEXTURE • THE RELATIVE SCALE OF A DRAWING DETERMINES WHETER WE READ A TEXTURE AS BLADES OF GRASS, A FIELD OF GRAIN, OR A PATCHWORK QUILT OF FIELDS
  46. 46. TEXTURE • LIGHT INFLUENCES OUR PERCEPTION OF TEXTURE: -SMOOTH SHINY SURFACES REFLECT LIGHT BRILLIANTLY AND APPEAR SHARPLY IN FOCUS -SURFACES HAVING A MATTE TEXTURE ABSORB AND DIFFUSE LIGHT UNEVENLY, THEREFORE APPEAR LESS BRIGHT

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