Solar PV Systems (Engineering, wiring & grid connection) - Martin Cotterell (Sundog Energy)


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Solar PV Systems (Engineering, wiring & grid connection) - Martin Cotterell (Sundog Energy)

  1. 1. Solar photovoltaic systemsEngineering, wiring & grid connection<br />
  2. 2. PV array options<br />Siting & design considerations<br />Component selection<br />Grid connection<br />MCS & installer selection<br />
  3. 3. Sundog Energy<br /> Installing systems since 1995<br /><ul><li> Installed hundreds of systems across the UK
  4. 4. Installations on houses, schools, offices, community centres, churches, village halls, libraries, museums, farms, railway stations and more. </li></ul>Sundogs (or parhelia) are brilliant spots of light sometimes seen around a solar halo<br />
  5. 5. Sundog Energy current live projects<br />Kings Cross Station<br />Client – Kier / Network Rail<br />Project size – 240kWp / £1.3M<br />Technology – Bespoke PV glazing<br />Ferrier Point<br />Client – Rydon / Newham Council<br />Project size – 50kWp / £200K<br />Technology – PV facade<br />
  6. 6. PV module<br />Semiconductor devices that convert sunlight directly into electricity<br /><ul><li> No moving parts
  7. 7. PV modules typically offer a 25 years performance warranty (life expectancy ~50 years)</li></li></ul><li>Grid connected PV systems<br /><ul><li> Solar array – generates DC electricity
  8. 8. Inverter – converts DC to AC
  9. 9. Connected to Fuse Box / Distribution Board
  10. 10. Electricity used in property and/or exported</li></li></ul><li>Array options<br />Above roof systems<br /><ul><li> Cost effective solution
  11. 11. Comprise standard framed modules, fixed to a mounting assembly just above the existing roof.
  12. 12. Robust and weather-tight fixings are available for almost all roof types (slates, tiles, metal sheet etc). </li></li></ul><li>Pitched roof - Integrated systems<br /><ul><li> Directly replaces conventional roofing materials
  13. 13. Various products available Selection depends on tile type and the visual effect desired. Small format PV tiles are typically more costly than larger format solutions
  14. 14. Typically installed on new roofs or as part of re-roofing schemes. </li></ul> <br />
  15. 15. Flat roof systems<br /><ul><li> Can be installed to a fixed frame or to a ballasted mount
  16. 16. Ballasted systems are the simplest (rely on the weight of the ballast to resist wind loads); require no roof penetrations; simple to move for any subsequent roofing works.
  17. 17. Fixed frames are typically new build / re-roofing solution</li></ul> <br /> <br />
  18. 18. PV glazing systems<br /><ul><li> Can replace glass in roofs, skylights and facades
  19. 19. Cell layout, cell spacing, single / double glazing and desired light transmission all variable
  20. 20. As a bespoke product is a more expensive option - typically of interest for commercial or high value projects</li></ul> <br /> <br /> <br />
  21. 21. PV facades<br /><ul><li> PV modules and PV glazing can be used within building façades
  22. 22. Often use bespoke modules or laminates, but standard modules can be used in some circumstances
  23. 23. Wind loading issues to be considered on large facades</li></ul> <br /> <br />
  24. 24. Ground mounted<br /><ul><li> Huge variety of locations and structures will accept PV array
  25. 25. Ground mounting often very cost effective & practical option
  26. 26. Structures such as pergolas, shelters and canopies can be created or adapted to take PV
  27. 27. Tracking devices can boost performance by 20% or more</li></ul> <br /> <br /> <br />
  28. 28. Siting considerations<br />Orientation and pitch<br />Ideal site is one that faces south with a slope of around 30-40 °. <br />Other orientations and pitches may also be viable with relatively little drop in performance<br /> <br />
  29. 29. Other factors<br />Shade - Any shade, such as from trees or neighbouring buildings, can make a large impact on performance<br />To work effectively, the whole PV array needs to be free from shade for the majority of the day<br />Size - a 1kWp PV array will occupy at least 8m² of roof. Positioning an array too close to the edges of a roof may compromise the aesthetics of the installation and has implications on wind loading. <br />Rule of thumb: 1kWp array per year …<br /> <br /><ul><li> Generate approx 800kWh (units) of electricity
  30. 30. Save approx 0.4 tonnes of CO2</li></ul> <br /> <br /> <br />Not a sundog site!<br />
  31. 31. Field array<br />Land usage rules of thumb<br /><ul><li> Dense layout ~ 4acres / MWp
  32. 32. Open layout ~ 5acres / MWp</li></ul>Site shape, slope and shade factors all influence capacity<br />
  33. 33. System performance modelling<br />Software models such as PVSyst can estimate can estimate likely performance <br />
  34. 34. System Monitoring<br /><ul><li> Optimising yield
  35. 35. Ensuring performance
  36. 36. Rapid fault detection</li></li></ul><li>System selection - Key components<br />Site<br />connection <br />to main<br />distribution board<br />FIT meter<br />PV array<br />Inverter<br /><ul><li> Bankable?
  37. 37. Reliable?
  38. 38. Warranties</li></li></ul><li>Site dependant components<br />Site<br />connection <br />to main<br />distribution board<br />FIT meter<br />PV array<br />Inverter<br />Mounting frame<br />Grid connection<br />
  39. 39. Commercial and agricultural roofs<br />Key considerations<br /><ul><li> Size
  40. 40. Aspect
  41. 41. Pitch
  42. 42. Shading
  43. 43. Structural strength
  44. 44. Wind loads
  45. 45. Fixing type
  46. 46. Roof material (asbestos)
  47. 47. Access (fragile roofs)
  48. 48. Caustic environment? </li></li></ul><li>Ground mounted systems<br />Site<br /><ul><li> Size
  49. 49. Aspect
  50. 50. Slope
  51. 51. Shading
  52. 52. Ground conditions
  53. 53. Wind loads
  54. 54. Land usage
  55. 55. Access</li></ul>Array design<br /><ul><li> Mutual shading (density)
  56. 56. Ground clearance
  57. 57. Maximum height (planning)
  58. 58. Speed of installation
  59. 59. Fixed / adjustable / tracking</li></li></ul><li>Grid connection<br />
  60. 60. Small systems<br /><ul><li> System <16A / phase
  61. 61. Type tested inverter to G83/1
  62. 62. Installed in accordance with G83/1</li></ul>Single installations <br /><ul><li> Install and commission system
  63. 63. Notify DNO within 30 days and </li></ul> provide commissioning info<br />Multiple installations <br /><ul><li> Discuss scheme with DNO
  64. 64. Install & commission as agreed</li></li></ul><li>Connection variations – larger systems <br />
  65. 65. DNO connection process<br />Project planning phase<br />Initial system design – ensuring compliance to standards<br />Information phase ( Information exchange with DNO) <br />System design, protection arrangements, peak and fault current, harmonics, earthing etc. Network issues<br />Design phase (Formal submission of design to DNO)<br />Where new infrastructure required >>> DNO prepares connection design and issues a connection offer<br />Construction phase <br /> Construction of plant. Installation of grid connection infrastructure (DNO and/or ICP)<br />Testing and commissioning phase <br />G59/2 commissioning (witnessed?). <br />
  66. 66. “to evaluate microgeneration products and installers against robust criteria, providing greater protection for consumers”<br />
  67. 67. MCS Mark<br />MCS mark owned by UK GovernmentMark licensed to scheme administrator (Gemserve)Mark sub-licensed to Certification bodiesCertification bodies issue mark to product suppliers & installersInstaller provides customer with MCS certificate for systemMCS certificate enables FIT payments<br />Scope: Up to 50kWp (relevant for larger schemes?)<br />
  68. 68. MCS – Key PV documents<br />Installer<br />MCS001 Installer certification scheme requirements<br />MCS3002 Rrequirements for contractors undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of solar photovoltaic (PV) microgeneration systems <br />Product<br />MCS005Product Certification Scheme Requirements: Solar PV<br />MCS011 Test and acceptance criteria<br />MCS010 Generic Factory Production Control (FPC) requirements.<br />
  69. 69. MIS3002<br />BS7671 Requirements for Electrical Installations<br />Photovoltaics in buildings - Guide to the installation of PV systems<br />
  70. 70. What MCS does NOT do …<br />Important to recognise exactly what MCS covers<br /><ul><li> MCS accreditation process does not particularly scrutinise H&S</li></ul>A recent photo from the UK press<br />... spot the scaffolding & PPE?<br />
  71. 71. Relevant experience …<br /><ul><li> MCS accreditation process does not particularly differentiate in terms of scale, complexity & experience</li></ul>… PV installations obviously vary!<br />
  72. 72. MCS scope up to 50kWp …. But client must evaluate if experience relevant<br />
  73. 73.<br />