Breedingswineessentials

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Breedingswineessentials

  1. 1. Breeding Swine Essentials Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  2. 2. Topics to Discuss <ul><li>The following topics will be discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Where to purchase pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Registration Papers </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities and Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition, Management and Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Fitting and Showing </li></ul><ul><li>Health Papers </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  3. 3. Selection <ul><li>Age of Gilts </li></ul><ul><li>Each show will have a specific range of birthdates that are eligible for show. </li></ul><ul><li>Check rules prior to show </li></ul><ul><li>Generally shown by age not weight </li></ul><ul><li>A higher growth rate is desirable </li></ul><ul><li>The bigger the better!! </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  4. 4. Selection <ul><li>Breed </li></ul><ul><li>Most shows have enough entries to show individually </li></ul><ul><li>Some shows are open to specific breeds only. </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  5. 5. Selection cont. <ul><li>Quality Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Desire fast-growing hogs with plenty of rib shape and capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Selection criteria include: muscle, structural correctness, style and balance, and growth potential </li></ul><ul><li>Important to select for soundness in breeding gilts </li></ul><ul><li>A trusting breeder is important </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  6. 6. Where to Purchase Pigs <ul><li>Private treaty is becoming more and popular over sales </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs will generally be between 40 and 75 lbs. when purchased. </li></ul><ul><li>Buying off the farm allows individual to see sows, visit about genetics, vaccination schedule, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>When going to farm be on time, alert the breed if you have been on any other farms, always wait for the breeder before stepping into the barn </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  7. 7. Validation <ul><li>Currently no validation for breeding gilts. </li></ul><ul><li>Registration papers are used at most shows </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  8. 8. Registration Papers <ul><li>Registration papers are required </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility of breeder to transfer papers to youth </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility of youth to verify they have received the correct paper for each gilt </li></ul><ul><li>Each show varies pertaining to registration papers, including transfer date </li></ul><ul><li>Read rules about registration papers!! </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  9. 9. Registration Papers <ul><li>In order to avoid disqualification, some things to double-check are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date of Birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ear Notch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex of Animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer Date </li></ul></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  10. 10. Facilities and Equipment <ul><li>At least 20 sq. ft. of spacer per pig </li></ul><ul><li>Barn should be well ventilated, well drained, and open to south or east </li></ul><ul><li>Shade is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Keep cool during summer and warm during winter </li></ul><ul><li>Can be kept on cement or dirt floors </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid slippery flooring, sharp edges, etc. </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  11. 11. Facilities and Equipment <ul><li>Feeders should be hung at a height which equals top of pigs’ shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Most market hogs are individually housed to monitor weight gain and feed consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh water is very important </li></ul><ul><li>Nipple waters or trough waters may be used </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  12. 12. Facilities and Equipment <ul><li>Other equipment needed includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show stick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pipe or whip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shovel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric clippers with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proper combs and cutters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syringes and needles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small portable feed trough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water bucket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable livestock scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat lamp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric fan </li></ul></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  13. 13. Nutrition, Management and Exercise <ul><li>No magic formula for champioins </li></ul><ul><li>The total feeding programs creates success this includes: feeding schedule, exercise program, careful observation </li></ul><ul><li>Five basic nutrients include: water, protein, carbohydrates and fats (energy), minerals and vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced commercially prepared ration should be prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Should be at least 16 to 20 percent </li></ul><ul><li>Do not constantly change rations </li></ul><ul><li>Do not make abrupt changes in feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs should consume around 4-8.5 lbs per day, split between two feedings </li></ul><ul><li>Protein requirements decrease as pig grows </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise builds up endurance, tones muscle, and requires exhibitor to work with animal </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  14. 14. Nutrition, Management and Exercise <ul><li>Should be at least 16 to 20 percent </li></ul><ul><li>Do not constantly change rations </li></ul><ul><li>Do not make abrupt changes in feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs should consume around 4-8.5 lbs per day, split between two feedings </li></ul><ul><li>Protein requirements decrease as pig grows </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise builds up endurance, tones muscle, and requires exhibitor to work with animal </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  15. 15. Fitting and Showing <ul><li>Skin care is very important for show preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Most market shows are water only </li></ul><ul><li>Hair care begins early on in the feeding period </li></ul><ul><li>Brush hogs twice a week </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful using oils on white hogs so they do not get sunburn </li></ul><ul><li>One weed prior to the show pigs should be clipped </li></ul><ul><li>Keep hair about ½ to ¾ inch in length </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done by using a #1 or #2 guard on clippers </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  16. 16. Health <ul><li>Key to a healthy pig program is development of preventative health program </li></ul><ul><li>Erysipelas, atrophic rhinitis, circovirus, leptospirorsis, mycoplasma are a few viruses pigs should be vaccinated for </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs should be dewormed monthly (rotate wormers with at least one rotation of Atguard or Safeguad) </li></ul><ul><li>Ivemectin controls external parasites like lice and mange </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  17. 17. Health <ul><li>Observe daily for infections or viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Follow all state and federal laws when administering drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Feed labels cannot be altered by a producer or veterinarian and must be used according to the label </li></ul><ul><li>Most livestock shows strictly prohibit the use of performance enhancing drugs </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  18. 18. Health cont. <ul><li>When administering drugs follow all directions on drug labels to Quality Assurance. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of drugs in manner unintended violates laws set by the Food and Drug Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Texas livestock shows have strict laws for illegal drug use and will disqualify animals if illegal drugs are used </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  19. 19. Fitting and Showing <ul><li>Skin care is very important for show preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Some shows are “water only”(only water may used on day of show) </li></ul><ul><li>Read rules carefully to learn more </li></ul><ul><li>Skin care begins long before show time </li></ul><ul><li>Training hair by washing and brushing is important </li></ul><ul><li>Never oil white pig and leave in sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>When clipping leave about ¾ inch of hair </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done by using a #1 or #2 guard on clippers </li></ul><ul><li>Showmanship clinics should be conducted to teach proper showmanship techniques </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  20. 20. Fitting and Showing cont. <ul><li>Training hair by washing and brushing is important </li></ul><ul><li>Never oil white pig and leave in sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>When clipping leave about ¾ inch of hair </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done by using a #1 or #2 guard on clippers </li></ul><ul><li>Showmanship clinics should be conducted to teach proper showmanship techniques </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  21. 21. Health Papers <ul><li>Most breeding shows will require health papers that have been issued from a veterinarian within the last 30 days prior to the show </li></ul><ul><li>Check with the show rules as to what is needed, as the requirements vary from state-to-state, and may change over time </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  22. 22. Health Papers <ul><li>The following is an example of what may be required: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brucellosis : All animals must be from a validated brucellosis free herd with the validation herd number and test date on certificate or be negative tested for brucellosis after (date 30 days prior), and test date written on the certificate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since all states are Stage 5 of the Pseudorabies (PRV) eradication program, no testing is required for this show. If the animals come from a Pseudorabies qualified herd, it is required that this number and the last test date appear on the health certificate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination against Leptospirosis (6-way) including bratislava and erysipelas. The date of vaccination MUST be listed on the health certificate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All health certificates must list the following statements: no raw garbage fed, herd is not under quarantine for any disease and uses no PRV vaccine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A premise ID number is required. </li></ul></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  23. 23. Additional questions to address with Exhibitors <ul><li>What are the goals of the 4-H member and family? </li></ul><ul><li>What shows or time of the year will you exhibit the project(s)? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you need assistance in locating and selecting your project? </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  24. 24. Additional Resources for Market Swine Pork Information Gateway ( http://tamu.porkgateway.org ) TAMU Animal Science website ( http://animalscience.tamul.edu ) Raising Show Pigs By Ricky Thompson Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  25. 25. Conclusions <ul><li>All aspects of the selection process should be understood. (classification, age and weight, quality consideration) </li></ul><ul><li>Agents should help youth locate pigs and know the proper etiquette when visiting farms. </li></ul><ul><li>All pigs should be properly validated for each show they will be attending. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper facilities should be available. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper diets and nutritional information about feeding goats should be identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Health is one of the most important aspects of raising breeding goats. </li></ul><ul><li>All rules should be followed in regards to fitting prior to show. </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development

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