Breedingheifer Essentials


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Breedingheifer Essentials

  1. 1. Breeding Heifer Essentials Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  2. 2. Topics to Discuss <ul><li>The following topics will be discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>General Information </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities and Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  3. 3. General Information <ul><li>Breeding Heifer Project last 1-2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals should set aside 1 – 3 hours per day. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to retain ownership or sell after showing. </li></ul><ul><li>Production skills are learned </li></ul><ul><li>Life skills are learned </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  4. 4. Selection <ul><li>Breeds </li></ul><ul><li>First step in buying heifer is determining what breed the individual would prefer </li></ul><ul><li>75 breeds that can be registered in U.S., not including cross-breeds(Star-5, Chi-Angus, Balancer, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding rules for show should play a part in selection </li></ul><ul><li>Individual should determine whether or not they want “hair breeds” (Shorthorn, Limousin, Brangus) or “slick breeds” (Santa Gertrudis, Brahman, Beefmaster, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Long hair breeds require more work </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  5. 5. Selection cont. <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Heifers born on any day of the year can be purchased. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into classes based on age. </li></ul><ul><li>Heifers can typically be shown until they are ~ 30 months of age as long as they are pregnant or have a calf by their side. </li></ul><ul><li>This rule may vary based on show. </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  6. 6. Selection cont. <ul><li>Quality Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>The following considerations should be taken when selecting a heifer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural correctness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth of body and capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feminity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall balance and eye appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look past fat and hair present and pay attention to muscle detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay close attention to structural correctness. </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  7. 7. Selection cont. <ul><li>Where to Purchase Heifers </li></ul><ul><li>Heifers can be purchased in a variety of ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auction sales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other sources heifers can be located: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show oriented magazines (The Showbox or Purple Circle) </li></ul></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  8. 8. Ownership Requirements <ul><li>All heifers must be registered in a breed association and have an original set of papers during the check-in at show. </li></ul><ul><li>Many shows have ownership deadline for the heifers to be registered in the name of the 4-H member. </li></ul><ul><li>Heifers must have a breed approved form of permanent individual identification(brand or tattoo) at time of show check-in. </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  9. 9. Facilities and Equipment <ul><li>Functional facilities must be present for project to be successful </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum space of 75 ft 2 of well ventilated and drained covered space per heifer recommended </li></ul><ul><li>An additional ¼ acre (100 ft. x 100 ft.) is recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure have adequate shade during the summer and consider installing fans for additional cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Access to clean, fresh water and feed daily </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities should be free of manure and feed refusal daily. </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  10. 10. Facilities and Equipment cont. <ul><li>Other equipment includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water buckets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed pans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brushes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water hose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trimming chute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric clippers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot air blower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rope halters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric fan </li></ul></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  11. 11. Nutrition <ul><li>No particular feed that should be fed </li></ul><ul><li>Heifers must have basic daily nutritional requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  12. 12. Nutrition cont. <ul><li>Balanced, commercially mixed feed contains 12-13% crude protein and contains 45-60% corn depending on animal </li></ul><ul><li>Heifer should gain 1.5 – 2.5% of body weight daily </li></ul><ul><li>Feedings should be separated (morning and evening) </li></ul><ul><li>Feed should be fresh and consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Make diet changes gradually </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a set daily feeding schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor heifer body conditions and adjust feed accordingly </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  13. 13. Health <ul><li>Keeping heifers healthy is very important! </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention is the key to a successful health program. </li></ul><ul><li>Administer vaccination program recommended by local veterinarian </li></ul><ul><li>Deworm heifers on arrival and at least twice a year afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor daily habits of heifer for sickness </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of sick animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressed eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droopy ears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labored breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in eating habits </li></ul></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  14. 14. Health cont. <ul><li>When administering drugs follow all directions on drug labels to assure Beef Quality Assurance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administer intramuscular injections in neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administer subcutaneous injections in front elbow pocket </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The use of drugs in manner unintended violates laws set by the Food and Drug Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Texas livestock shows have strict laws for illegal drug use and will disqualify animals if illegal drugs are used </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  15. 15. Management <ul><li>Success of project determined by effort put into it. </li></ul><ul><li>Daily care just as important as nutrition, selection and health. </li></ul><ul><li>Must pay attention to details </li></ul><ul><li>Daily grooming, washing, and practicing showmanship is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Hair and skin care are a competitive advantage that exhibitors work hard to make look good </li></ul><ul><li>Success Comes With Hard Work!!! </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  16. 16. Rules <ul><li>Exhibitors should refer to Exhibitor’s Handbook for all rules </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibitors should read handbook each year to check for new rules </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Health Regulations section is very important to read </li></ul><ul><li>Health papers are required by many major stock shows. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorance of Rules is NO EXCUSE!!! </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  17. 17. Additional questions to address with Exhibitors <ul><li>What are the goals of the 4-H member and family? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you understand that the project is a 1 to 2 year project? </li></ul><ul><li>What facilities are available? </li></ul><ul><li>Which shows will you be exhibiting the project? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you need assistance in locating and selecting your project? </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  18. 18. Additional Resources for Breeding Heifers Managing Beef Cattle For Show AS 1-2 Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  19. 19. Conclusions <ul><li>All aspects of the selection process should be understood. (breeds, age, quality, where to purchase) </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibitors and County Extension Agents must follow all rules and regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper facilities should be available. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper diets and nutritional information about feeding heifers should be identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Health is one of the most important aspects of raising breeding heifers. </li></ul><ul><li>Success is a direct reflection of the management practices that take place. </li></ul><ul><li>All rules must be followed. Ignorance is no excuse! </li></ul>Texas 4-H and Youth Development