INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY What is Biochemistry?Biochemistry -is the study of life on a molecular level.
Biochemistry can be divided into three areas of study Conformational-structure and three- dimensional arrangements of biomolecules. Metabolism–energy production and utilization Informational-language for communication inside and between cells
Biochemistry seeks to describe the structure, organization, and function of living organisms in molecular terms In order to understand the life on the molecular level, you mustfirst have a: •Knowledge of the chemical structures of the biological molecules •Understanding of the biological function of the molecules •Understanding of bioenergetics –the study of energy flow in cells
Biochemistry is a Research Discipline Applicable to Real World Medicine –Clinical Diagnose and monitor diseases * Scurvy, Phenylketonuria,Kwashiorkor, Diabetes, Cholera* Designer Drugs –New and Improved antibiotics –New and Improved chemotherapy agents
Protein Diseases Agriculture •Herbicides and Pesticides Transgenic crops Industry -Synthesis -Detoxification
CHAPTER 1- THE LIVING CELLThe cell -is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. - smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living, and is often called the building bricks of life .*ORIGIN OF THE CELL
History OF THE CELL: 1632 – 1723: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1665: Robert Hooke 1839: Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden 1855: Rudolph Virchow (omnis cellula ex cellula). 1953: Watson and Crick made their first announcement on the double-helix structure for DNA on February 28.
GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE CELL:1. Eukaryotic cell -with true nucleus -contain membrane-bound compartments in which specific metabolic activities take place.2. Prokaryotic cell - no defined-nucleus -simpler than the nucleus
Basis Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cellTypical bacteria, archaea protists, fungi, plants, animalsorganismsTypical size 1-10 µm 10-100 µm (sperm cells, apart from the tail, are smaller)Cytoplasmatic very few structures highly structured bystructure endomembranes and a cytoskeletonCell movement flagella made of flagella and cilia containing flagellin microtubulesMitochondria None one to several thousandBinary fission (simple division) Mitosis (fission or budding) Meiosis
BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELLOrganelles FUNCTIONSNucleus Control center; genetic informationMitochondria Produces ATP thru cellular respirationRibosomes Site for protein synthesisER SER-lipids synthesis; RER-CHON synthesisVacuoles Storage and ExcretionMembrane Regulation and TranportationCilia/Flagella MovementLysosomes Cellular digestion
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE LIVING CELLH, O, C and N make up 99+% of atoms in the human body ELEMENT PERCENTAGE Oxygen- 63 Hydrogen -25.2 Carbon- 9.5 Nitrogen -1.4 •Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen comprise over 99% of the mass in most cells •These elements are the backbone of biomoleculesbecause they are capable of forming strong covalent bonds *Chemical Reactions that occur inside the cell are the same that occur outside the cell*
Biological Macromolecules of the living cells4. Nucleic Acids-that store and transmit genetic information5. Proteins- Transportation; Storage; Defense mechanisms6. Polysaccharides-Insulation and Regulation of heat