BIOENERGETICS – Part 2HOW THE BODY CONVERTS FOOD TO ENERGYGeromil J. Lara, RMT, MSMT
GLUCONEOGENESIS• Production of glucose from non-  carbohydrate sources   – Lactate   – All amino acids except leucine and ...
CORI CYCLE
GLYCOGENESIS• Formation of glycogen from glucose• Occurs in the liver• Influenced by insulin  – Inhibits glycogen phosphor...
GLYCOGENOLYSIS• Breakdown of stored glycogen to form  glucose• Influenced generally by glucagon and  epinephrine in respon...
(2) CITRIC ACID CYCLE• Also known as the Kreb’s Cycle• Final stage of the breakdown of  carbohydrates, fats, and amino aci...
KETONES• Formed from beta-oxidation pathway of  fatty acid metabolism due to low level of  glucose (starvation and fasting...
(3) OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION• Is a series of reactions which couples the  oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to the  phosphoryla...
NUMBER OF ATP PRODUCED BY THECOMPLETE OXIDATION OF ONE MOLECULE            OF GLUCOSEGlycolysis  – Substrate-level Phospho...
CATABOLISM OF THE NITROGEN       OF AMINO ACIDS• Dietary proteins are hydrolyzed to amino  acids in digestion• Amino acids...
TRANSAMINATION• Amino acids transfer their amino group to  alpha-ketoglutarate
OXIDATIVE DEAMINATION• Oxidative deamination of glutamate
UREA CYCLE• Ammonia  is  converted  to urea
CATABOLISM OF HEME• Red Blood Cells  – 80 – 120 days life span  – Destroyed by the phagocytic cells  – Hemoglobin is metab...
NEXT ON BIOCHEMISTRYNUTRITION: AN INTRODUCTION
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
Biochem Metabolism II
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Biochem Metabolism II

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Biochem Metabolism II

  1. 1. BIOENERGETICS – Part 2HOW THE BODY CONVERTS FOOD TO ENERGYGeromil J. Lara, RMT, MSMT
  2. 2. GLUCONEOGENESIS• Production of glucose from non- carbohydrate sources – Lactate – All amino acids except leucine and lysine – Glycerol from fats • Amino acids and glycerol are used only under starvation conditions• Occurs primarily in the liver
  3. 3. CORI CYCLE
  4. 4. GLYCOGENESIS• Formation of glycogen from glucose• Occurs in the liver• Influenced by insulin – Inhibits glycogen phosphorylase – Stimulates glycogen synthase and glucokinase
  5. 5. GLYCOGENOLYSIS• Breakdown of stored glycogen to form glucose• Influenced generally by glucagon and epinephrine in response to low blood glucose levels• Glycogen phosphorylase is activated• Glycogen synthase is inhibited
  6. 6. (2) CITRIC ACID CYCLE• Also known as the Kreb’s Cycle• Final stage of the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids.• Series of enzymes involved
  7. 7. KETONES• Formed from beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acid metabolism due to low level of glucose (starvation and fasting)• Low glucose supply slows down citric acid cycle – No glycolysis – No PEP production – Greatly reduced oxaloacetate production • As a result, acetyl CoA builds up in the body
  8. 8. (3) OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION• Is a series of reactions which couples the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to the phosphorylation of ADP to generate ATP• NADH = used to produce 3 ATPs• FADH2 = used to produce 2 ATPs
  9. 9. NUMBER OF ATP PRODUCED BY THECOMPLETE OXIDATION OF ONE MOLECULE OF GLUCOSEGlycolysis – Substrate-level Phosphorylation 2 ATP – 2 NADH x 2 ATP/cytoplasmic NADH 4 ATPConversion of 2 pyruvate molecules to 2 acetyl CoA molecules – 2 NADH x 3 ATP/NADH 6 ATPCitric Acid Cycle – 2 GTP x 1 ATP/GTP 2 ATP – 6 NADH x 3 ATP/NADH 18 ATP – 2 FADH2 x 2 ATP/FADH2 4 ATP
  10. 10. CATABOLISM OF THE NITROGEN OF AMINO ACIDS• Dietary proteins are hydrolyzed to amino acids in digestion• Amino acids are primarily used to synthesize new proteins• Cannot be stored, so excess amino acids are catabolized for energy production in the liver 1. Transamination 2. Oxidative Deamination 3. Urea Cycle
  11. 11. TRANSAMINATION• Amino acids transfer their amino group to alpha-ketoglutarate
  12. 12. OXIDATIVE DEAMINATION• Oxidative deamination of glutamate
  13. 13. UREA CYCLE• Ammonia is converted to urea
  14. 14. CATABOLISM OF HEME• Red Blood Cells – 80 – 120 days life span – Destroyed by the phagocytic cells – Hemoglobin is metabolized • Globin is hydrolyzed to amino acids • Heme is oxidized to biliverdin and finally reduced to bilirubin • Bilirubin enters the liver • Iron is preserved in ferritin and reused
  15. 15. NEXT ON BIOCHEMISTRYNUTRITION: AN INTRODUCTION

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