Factors Affecting Safety Culture Amongst Employees in Fast Food Restaurant by Mr Ahmad Azan Ridzuan
COSH 2011 Presenter :AHMAD AZAN RIDZUAN
SCOPEDefinitionPrevious StudyTheory of Safety CultureObjectives of the StudyConceptual FrameworkResearch HypothesisData AnalysisSummary of Research FindingsResearch ImplicationRecommendation for Future Research
DEFINITIONSafety CultureThe term Safety Culture came into popular use after being mentionedin the summary report by the International Nuclear Safety AdvisoryGroup (INSAG) as one of the causes of the Chernobyl nuclear poweraccident in the Ukraine (IAEA, 1986).A safety culture is in turn the set of assumptions, and their associatedpractices, which permit beliefs about danger and safety to beconstructed (Pidgeon, 2001) .Primarily, it could also mean to do the right thing at the right time inresponse to normal and non-normal situations (Zhang et al, 2002).Employee job safety is the essential element to increase safety inworkplace, employee satisfaction and keep their business running.
Working Conditions Robbins (2001) advocates that working conditions will influence the level of safety, as employees are concerned with a comfortable physical work environment. In turn this will render a more positive level of safety. Arnold and Feldman (1996) shows that factors such as temperature, lighting, ventilation, hygiene, noise, working hours, and resources are all part of working conditions. The absence of such working conditions, amongst other things, can impact poorly on the worker’s mental and physical well-being (Baron and Greenberg, 2003)
Management systems Management systems play an important role for improvement of safety culture in the workplace. Firstly, top managers must be on board, must build trust, establish a steering committee and give appropriate training to the employee. When upper- level management is committed to safety, it provides adequate resources and consistently supports the development and implementation of safety activities (Eiff, 1999). The Confederation of British Industries (CBI) report defines management safety culture as the ideas and beliefs that all members share about risk, accidents and ill health.
Employee Behavior Behavior is a physical act or action, which may be deliberate or subconscious, infrequent, or habitual. “Behavior is the product of perception, self- regulation, and motivation” (Kaiser & Kaplan, 2006) Lee (1995) also proposes that behavior towards safety is one of the basic components of a safety culture. Employee behavior are one of the most important indices of safety culture and climate, as behavior are often framed as a result of all other contributory features of the working environment (Cox and Cox,1991).
PREVIOUS STUDYA study by L. Ostrom et al (1993), to assessing safety culture. A writtensurvey instrument was developed to examine the safety culture ofEG&G Idaho, Inc., a Department of Energy (DOE). The results from thesurvey pointed out both the strengths and weaknesses in the safetycultures of the organizations.A study by Linda S. Rowley (2009), examine the importance of topleadership practices in relationship to organizational safetyperformance.A study by J.M. Thomas et al (2010), examines the relationshipsbetween employee behaviors to organizational safety issues;perceptions of the physical working environment and evaluations ofworker involvement; and relates these to self-reported levels of safetybehavior.
THEORY OF SAFETY CULTURE Reciprocal Safety Culture Model. Cooper (2000) Simplified Safety Culture Model. Gordon et al. (2007)
Reciprocal Safety Culture Model Cooper (2000). PERSON Internal Safety Climate: Psychological Perceptual Audit Factors CONTEXT External ObservableENVIRONMENT/SITUATION FactorsSafety Management System: Objective Audit BEHAVIOR Safety Behavior: Behavior Sampling
Simplified Safety Culture Model Gordon et al. (2007) What is BELIEVED What is What is SAID DONE SAFETY OUTCOME
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDYThis study has 3 major objectives: To examine relationship between employee behavior and safety culture. To examine relationship between management system and safety culture. To examine relationship between working condition and safety culture.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT SAFETY SYSTEM CULTURE WORKING CONDITIONIndependent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV)
HYPOTHESISBased on the framework, it can behypothesized that:H1.H1. Working condition positively related tosafety culture in fast food restaurants.H2. Management system positively relatedto safety culture in fast food restaurants.H3. Employee behavior positively relatedto safety culture in fast food restaurants.
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDYResearch design: a cross-sectional methodData collection procedure: literature,pilot study & actual surveyMeasures: survey questionnaires (38items)
Population of Employee in Fast Food Restaurants Location of Fast Food Population Restaurant Jusco Maluri 20 Leisure Mall 18 Times Square 23 Sunway Pyramid 33 Subang Jaya 26 Total 120 Note: 92 usable questionnaires
DATA ANALYSISReliability Analysis Variable Cronbach’s Alpha Working condition 0.883 Management system 0.901 Employee behavior 0.842 Safety culture 0.889 Based on table, the value Cronbach’s Alpha for working condition is 0.883, for management system is 0.901, for employee behavior is 0.842 and for safety culture is 0.889. All research variables exceeded the acceptable standard of reliability analysis of 0.70. These statistical analyses confirmed that the measurement scales met the acceptable standards of reliability analyses.
Variable Mean Std. Deviation Working condition 4.0359 0.56986 Management 3.8652 0.63755 system Employee 3.9884 0.54472 behavior Safety culture 4.0902 0.58967Based on Table, the mean for working condition is 4.04, themean for management system is 3.87, the mean for employeebehavior is 3.99, and the mean for safety culture is 4.09.It shows the requirement of good working condition,management system and employee behavior that leads to goodsafety culture in the fast food restaurants.
Outcome of Testing Hypothesis Correlation Pearson correlation Working condition and safety culture 0.621 Management system and safety 0.736 culture Employee behavior and safety 0.888 culture Table shows that the results are all more than 0.60, and some results are higher than 0.80, so they are“Moderately High Correlation” or “High Correlation”. The process reveal that the independent variables significantly correlated with safety culture, therefore H1, H2 and H3 were supported.
Hypothesis 1: Working condition positivelyrelated to safety culture in fast food restaurants.Hypothesis 2: Management system positivelyrelated to safety culture in fast food restaurants.Hypothesis 3: Employee behavior positivelyrelated to safety culture in fast food restaurants.All hypothesis are accepted.
SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGSBased on the framework, it was hypothesized that: Working condition positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants. Management system positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants. Employee behavior positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants
continued… The study proposed a conceptual framework based on safety culture research literatures. The measurement scales used in this study has satisfactorily met the standards of reliability analyses. The outcomes of hypothesis testing confirmed that independent variable have relationship with dependant variable. Hence, these positive outcomes may lead to sustained and supported organizational strategies and goals.
RESEARCH IMPLICATION Theoretical Contribution- The existing theory much focuses on the working condition, management system, employee behavior and direct link to safety culture.
continued…Robustness of Research Methodology- Tests of the questionnaire data as well as factor and reliability analyses were performed to ensure the constructs are consistent internally.- Findings from this study will minimize errors in data collection and analysis, as well as increase reliable research findings.
continued… Practical Contribution- To ensure the working condition is comfortable and safe.- Management system must be clearly understand and disseminate to all employees.- Employee behavior must be change. Employee must understand and participate accordingly to the safety rules and procedures in the fast food restaurant.
continued…Recommendations to fast food restaurantmanagers:Create favorable work conditions for thecompany. Guide the staff to communicateeffectively, build a good interpersonalenvironment within the company, and creategood work conditions.Concern about the employees education andtraining on safety.
RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCHFor future research the following suggestions should be considered: Research instrument can be used to conduct research in other sector or organization and can make comparison. The research is needed to further investigate the potential relationships and effects these variables and other possible variables, such as role ambiguity, job level and co-work that contribute to safety culture. Conduct qualitative research to investigate further regarding the safety culture in the fast food restaurants.