OH&ES TRAINING CENTRE SBMN SYNERGY SDN BHD        (PSMB Training Provider Reg. No #1191) 7426, JALAN KUBANG KURUS, 24000 C...
BAKINI MHD NOR      MIM-CPT3M COMPETENT TRAINER SINCE 1997TRAINER ID # 01RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM TRAINED BY:- 3M MA...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE   EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL       WORKSHIFT AND EXTENDED WORKSHIF...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE        LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFT        Daily time-weig...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT           USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTCompliance with perm...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT           USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTCompliance with perm...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT           USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTCompliance with perm...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT           USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFT Compliance with per...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT            USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTUSECHH Regulations ...
ASSIGNED PROTECTION FACTOR (APF)                               *Workplace Exposure Concentration       APF needed =       ...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT           USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTStep 2 :-           ...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT           USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTStep 4 :-        Tot...
The validity of this calculation for the daily time-weighted exposurewill be based on the following considerations :-1. Th...
Continued ..2. Respirator selected must be based on   Assigned Protection Factor (APF)    >           Hazard Ratio   for t...
Continued ..3. Respirator facepiece and equipment must be free from defects to avoid   malfunction of the respirator.
Continued ..4. Correct selection of filtering media for negative air purifiying respirator.Beware!!!The use of incorrect c...
Continued ..5. Respirator user must passed the Qualitative Fit-Test or Quantitative Fit-Test   conducted by competent pers...
Continued ..6. Respirator User Seal Check (Fit Check) must be performed after donning the   respirator facepiece.  The mai...
Continued ..7. Prior doning, ensure that respirator user must be free from facial hair such as   stubble, moustache, beard...
Continued ..8. Appropriate chemical protective clothing including glove and other relevant PPE   must be don when chemical...
Continued ..9. RPE must be thoroughly clean, kept store so that contaminated it free from   chemical contamination.
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT             USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTCompliance with ...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT              USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTCompliance with...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT             USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT Compliance with...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT              USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTStep 2 :-      ...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT          USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTStep 4 :-        To...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT       USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTSelected Model : Brief...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT            USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT                 ...
ADJUSTMENT OF TLV/PEL/OEL FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT          USING BRIEF AND SCALA MODEL         EXTENDED WORKSHIFT          ...
ADJUSTMENT OF TLV/PEL/OEL FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT           USING BRIEF AND SCALA MODELChemical Exposed          : XyleneTL...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT         USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT                    ...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT          USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT55 ppm is the Daily...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT             USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTCompliance with ...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT              USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTCompliance with...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT              USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTCompliance with...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT              USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTStep 2 :-      ...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT          USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTStep 4 :-        To...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT         USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT34 ppm is the Daily ...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT      USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT        LIMITATIONS ON ...
Reference :-Department of Minerals andEnergy WesternAustralia, Discussion Paper: Unusual Workshift andOccupational Exposur...
DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT          USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT            LIMITAT...
Take Care and Good Luck
Determining Compliances With PEL Using Respirator for Normal Workshift & Extended Workshift by Mr Bakini Mohd Nor
Determining Compliances With PEL Using Respirator for Normal Workshift & Extended Workshift by Mr Bakini Mohd Nor
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Determining Compliances With PEL Using Respirator for Normal Workshift & Extended Workshift by Mr Bakini Mohd Nor

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Determining Compliances With PEL Using Respirator for Normal Workshift & Extended Workshift by Mr Bakini Mohd Nor

  1. 1. OH&ES TRAINING CENTRE SBMN SYNERGY SDN BHD (PSMB Training Provider Reg. No #1191) 7426, JALAN KUBANG KURUS, 24000 CUKAI, KEMAMAN, TERENGGANU. TEL : 09-8502490 / 91, 8597081 FAX : 09-8595324 / 8596819 EMAIL : sales@sbmnsynergy.com training@sbmnsynergy.com
  2. 2. BAKINI MHD NOR MIM-CPT3M COMPETENT TRAINER SINCE 1997TRAINER ID # 01RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM TRAINED BY:- 3M MALAYSIA SDN BHD- 3M OH&ES DIVISION, USA- COEH UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY, USA- AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION (AIHA), USA- MALAYSIAN INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION (MIHA)PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS:- MEMBER OF NIOSH MALAYSIA- FULL MEMBER OF MALAYSIAN INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION (MIHA)- INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION (ISRP), AMERICAS SECTION- MEMBER OF AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF GOVERNMENTAL INDUSTRIAL HYGIENISTS (ACGIH)- AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION (AIHA), USA
  3. 3. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFT AND EXTENDED WORKSHIFTObjectives: Ensure worker’s exposure to any substance is kept as low as reasonablypracticable and does not exceed the substances PEL. Determine the daily time-weighted exposure during the period when therespirator is worn and not worn. Taking into account the Assigned Protection Factor (APF) – the maindeterminant factor that decides which respirator to be selected and Total InwardFacial Leakage (TIL), when calculating the daily time-weighted exposure duringthe period when the respirator is worn and not worn. Apply the Brief and Scala Model - most conservative estimate, whenadjusting the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for working with extended workshift.
  4. 4. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFT Daily time-weighted exposure = (Cw tw + Cnwtnw + Cniltnw ) for periods during respirator 8-hour is worn and not worn (dose)is based on fundamental principles prescribed by :-Compliance with permissible exposure limit using respiratorUSECHH Regulations 2000: Regulation 8(1) For the purpose of determining whether the employer has complied within the permissible exposure limit, the degree of protection afforded by the respirator for the periods during which the respirator is worn shall be taken into account(2) The period referred to in subregulation (1) shall be averaged with the exposure level of the airborne concentration during the period when respirators are not worn to determine the employee’s daily time-weighted average exposure.
  5. 5. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTCompliance with permissible exposure limit using respiratorBy applying the formula : (Cw tw + Cnwtnw + Cniltnw )Daily time-weighted exposure =for periods during respirator 8-houris worn and not worn (Dose) (Cw tw + Cnwtnw + Cniltnw ) is based on TWA = C1T1 + C2T2 + ..+ CnTn (Dose) 8-hour Total Time ( 8-hour)Where Cw tw = exposure concentration, duration while wearing respirator Cnwtnw = exposure concentration, duration while not wearing respirator Cniltnw = no exposure concentration or zero exposure
  6. 6. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTCompliance with permissible exposure limit using respiratorExampleExposure : 350 ppm of Xylenefor 8-hr periodDon / Wear : Half facepiece respirator Type: Air Purifying Respirator (APR) Note : (APF = 10, Total Inward Facial Leakage : 10%)a. Time duration doning/ wearing 5 hours 3M 6000 series half facepiece respiratorb. Time duration not doning/ wearing 1 hour 3M 6000 series half facepiece respiratorc. Time duration not doning/ wearing 2 hours 3M 6000 series half facepiece respirator when do not expose to xylene (Lunch ,safety briefing and prayers time)
  7. 7. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTCompliance with permissible exposure limit using respiratorBy applying the formula :Daily time-weighted exposure = (Cw tw + Cnwtnw + Cniltnw )for periods during respirator 8-houris worn and not worn (Dose)Step 1 :- Cw tw = exposure concentration, duration while wearing respirator = 35 ppm x 5 hours = 175 ppm
  8. 8. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFT Compliance with permissible exposure limit using respirator Explaination: Inhalation of exposure = Total Inward Facial Leakage x Exposure for Xylene when respirator = 10% x 350 ppm Is worn = 35 ppm of Xylene APF = Co Total Inward Ci Types of Respirator Facial Leakage = 100% 10%Half Facepiece (Air 10% 10Purifying Respirator)Note:-Total Inward Facial Leakage of 10% is the maximum leakage for a given type ofrespirator allowed by NIOSH,USA. APF is also known as Degree of Protection.
  9. 9. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTUSECHH Regulations 2000: Regulation 8 states that:(3) For the purpose of this regulation, “degree of protection” means the ratio of the airborne concentration of the contaminant outside the respirator to the concentration of the contaminant inside the facepiece of the respirator. Airborne Concentration of the Workplace ExposureDegree of Contaminants Outside the Respirator ConcentrationProtection = = = Concentration of the Contaminant Total Inward Inside the Respirator Facepiece Leakage (TIL) or Exposure LimitDegree of Protection = Assigned Protection Factor ( APF )“The effectiveness (degree of protection) of a respirator determined by its protection factor(PR). In the selection of respirators, the assigned protection factors are used.”- “Guidelines on the use of Personal Protective Equipment Against Chemicals Hazards” 2005. ( Page 11 )
  10. 10. ASSIGNED PROTECTION FACTOR (APF) *Workplace Exposure Concentration APF needed = Total Inward Leakage (TIL) or Exposure Limit By adopting the Right APF, the leakage or Total Inward Leakage (TIL) can be reduced below the Exposure Limit* 8-hr TWA or exposure within 15-minute TWA* “Employers must identify and evaluate the respiratory hazard(s) in the workplace. Thisevaluation must include a reasonable estimate of employee exposures to respiratoryhazard (s) and an identification of the contaminant’s chemical state and physical form”- “Guidelines On the Use of Personal Protective Equipment Against Chemicals Hazards” 2005. (Page 24)
  11. 11. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTStep 2 :- Cnwtnw = exposure concentration, duration while not wearing respirator Exposure : 350 ppm of Xylene without wearing respirator (100% exposure) = (350 ppm x 1 hour) = 350 ppmStep 3 :- Cniltnw = rest period without exposure and not wearing respirator = zero exposure x 2 hours = 0 ppm
  12. 12. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR NORMAL WORKSHIFTStep 4 :- Total (Cw tw + Cnwtnw + Cniltnw ) divide by 8-hour (duration of exposure) = 175 ppm + 350 ppm + 0 ppm 8-hour = 66 ppm of Xylene (Dose) 66 ppm of Xylene is below the PEL of Xylene which is 100 ppm. This is in compliance with the PEL Limits Using Respirators USECHH Regulations 2000 : Regulation 8. Able to avoid occupational diseases.
  13. 13. The validity of this calculation for the daily time-weighted exposurewill be based on the following considerations :-1. The Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) must be approved by Director General of DOSH and tested according to international recognized standards such as ANSI, NIOSH (USA), AS,NZS, JIS and others.
  14. 14. Continued ..2. Respirator selected must be based on Assigned Protection Factor (APF) > Hazard Ratio for the selected respirator [ Exposure 8-hr TWA PEL ] *Workplace Exposure Concentration APF needed = Total Inward Leakage (TIL) By adopting the Right APF, the leakage or Total Inward Leakage (TIL) can be reduced below the Exposure Limit* 8-hr TWA or exposure within 15-minute TWA* “Employers must identify and evaluate the respiratory hazard(s) in the workplace. Thisevaluation must include a reasonable estimate of employee exposures to respiratoryhazard (s) and an identification of the contaminant’s chemical state and physical form”- “Guidelines On the Use of Personal Protective Equipment Against Chemicals Hazards” 2005. (Page 24)
  15. 15. Continued ..3. Respirator facepiece and equipment must be free from defects to avoid malfunction of the respirator.
  16. 16. Continued ..4. Correct selection of filtering media for negative air purifiying respirator.Beware!!!The use of incorrect cartridge orincorrect filtering gives workers a falsesense of security and in addition maycause occupational diseases.
  17. 17. Continued ..5. Respirator user must passed the Qualitative Fit-Test or Quantitative Fit-Test conducted by competent person trained by respirator manufacturer. Respirator Fit Test must be conducted at least once a year recommended by most respirator manufacturers.
  18. 18. Continued ..6. Respirator User Seal Check (Fit Check) must be performed after donning the respirator facepiece. The main objective of User Seal Check is to ensure proper fitting of tight fitting facepiece and minimize respirator faceseal leakages.
  19. 19. Continued ..7. Prior doning, ensure that respirator user must be free from facial hair such as stubble, moustache, beard, and long side burns, that might affect the sealing surface of the respirator. Respirator user must also ensure that other PPE such as Goggle, Safety Spectacles , or other PPE should not interfere with the face- to-facepiece seal or valve function.
  20. 20. Continued ..8. Appropriate chemical protective clothing including glove and other relevant PPE must be don when chemical can be absorbed through skin. Respirator Chemical Resistant glove Chemical Chemical Protective Resistant Boot Clothing
  21. 21. Continued ..9. RPE must be thoroughly clean, kept store so that contaminated it free from chemical contamination.
  22. 22. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTCompliance with permissible exposure limit using respiratorExampleExposure : 350 ppm of XyleneDon / Wear : Half facepiece respirator Type: Air Purifying Respirator (APR) Note : (APF = 10, Total Inward Facial Leakage : 10%)No. of hours worked : 12 hours per shifta. Time duration doning/ wearing 9 hours 3M 6000 series half facepiece respiratorb. Time duration not doning/ wearing 1 hour 3M 6000 series half facepiece respiratorc. Time duration not doning/ wearing 2 hours 3M 6000 series half facepiece respirator when do not expose to Xylene (Lunch ,safety briefing and prayers time)
  23. 23. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTCompliance with permissible exposure limit using respiratorBy applying the formula :Daily time-weighted exposure = (Cw tw + Cnwtnw + Cniltnw )for periods during respirator 12-houris worn and not worn (Dose)Step 1 :- Cw tw = exposure concentration, duration while wearing respirator = 35 ppm x 9 hours = 315 ppm
  24. 24. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT Compliance with permissible exposure limit using respirator Explaination: Inhalation of exposure = Total Inward Facial Leakage x Exposure for Xylene when respirator = 10% x 350 ppm Is worn = 35 ppm of Xylene APF = Co Total Inward Ci Types of Respirator Facial Leakage = 100% 10%Half Facepiece (Air 10% 10Purifying Respirator)Note:-Total Inward Facial Leakage of 10% is the maximum leakage for a given type ofrespirator allowed by NIOSH,USA. APF is also known as Degree of Protection.
  25. 25. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTStep 2 :- Cnwtnw = exposure concentration, duration while not wearing respirator Exposure : 350 ppm of Xylene without wearing respirator (100% exposure) = (350 ppm x 1 hour) = 350 ppmStep 3 :- Cniltnw = rest period without exposure and not wearing respirator = zero exposure x 2 hours = 0 ppm
  26. 26. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTStep 4 :- Total (Cw tw + Cnwtnw + Cniltnw ) divide by 12-hour (duration of exposure) = 315 ppm + 350 ppm + 0 ppm 12-hour = 55 ppm of Xylene (Dose) The normal PEL for Xylene 100 ppm is no longer valid for extended workshift. Need to be adjusted using Brief and Scala model.
  27. 27. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTSelected Model : Brief and ScalaBrief and Scala model is the simplest and mostconservative model. “Conservative” means results in thegreatest reduction of the exposure limit.Brief and Scala compensates for unusual workschedules by reducing the permissible concentration inproportion to both the increase in exposure time and thereduction in recovery time.
  28. 28. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT BRIEF AND SCALA MODELThis model, originally derived within the petroleum industry, reduces the 8-hourOEL/PEL proportionally for both increased exposure and reduced recovery time.The suggested approach is set out below.Daily Adjustments of Occupational Exposure Limits : 8 xDaily Reduction Factor = { h ( 24 – h 16 )}Where h = hours worked per dayAdjusted Exposure Limit = 8 hr TLV/PEL/OEL x Daily Reduction Factor { 8 h ( 2416h )} –
  29. 29. ADJUSTMENT OF TLV/PEL/OEL FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT USING BRIEF AND SCALA MODEL EXTENDED WORKSHIFT Work Duration ( h ) Daily Reduction Factor (Hours Worked Per Day) 10 hours 0.7 12 hours 0.5 Adjusted PEL = PEL x Daily Reduction FactorExplaination on Derivation of Reduction FactorA) Extended workshift = 10 hours worked per day Reduction Factor = (8/10) x (24 – 10) / 16) = 0.7 (Reduction Factor)B) Extended Workshift = 12 hours worked per day Reduction Factor = (8/12) x (24 – 12) / 16) = 0.5 (Reduction Factor)
  30. 30. ADJUSTMENT OF TLV/PEL/OEL FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT USING BRIEF AND SCALA MODELChemical Exposed : XyleneTLV / PEL / OEL : 100 ppmFormula for Brief & Scala : 8 x (24-h) x PEL 16 x h Work Duration ( h ) 10 hours 12 hours (Hours Worked Per Day) Rest Period 14 hours 12 hours (Recovery Time) Daily Reduction Factor 0.7 0.5 Adjusted TLV/PEL/OEL 70 ppm 50 ppm ( ppm )Note :-•↑ Work Duration ↓ Recovery Time ↓ Adjusted TLV/PEL/OEL•Brief and Scala Model is the most conservative estimate.
  31. 31. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT BRIEF AND SCALA MODELAdjusted Exposure Limit = 8 x (24 – h) x PELfor Xylene for 12 hours 16 x hexposurewhere h = hours worked per day = 8 x (24 – 12) x 100 ppm 16 x 12 = 50 ppm
  32. 32. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT55 ppm is the Daily Time-Weighted > 50 ppm adjust PEL for Xylene usingAverage for 12 hours exposure Brief & Scale Model for 12 hours work period.When Daily TWA for 12-hr exposure exceeded the adjusted PEL, Xylene maybe elevated in the blood which may lead to occupational disease.Recommendations :-First recommendationSelect respirator with next higher APF which Full Facepiece (APR) with APF of 50. APF = *50 * Assigned Protection Factors for the Revised Respiratory Protection Standard ; Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor ; OSHA 3352-02, 2009
  33. 33. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTCompliance with permissible exposure limit using respiratorExampleExposure : 350 ppm of Xylenefor 12-hr periodDon / Wear : Full facepiece respirator Type: Air Purifying Respirator (APR) Note : (APF = 50, Total Inward Facial Leakage : 2%)No. of hours worked : 12 hours per shifta. Time duration doning/ wearing 9 hours 3M 6000 series half facepiece respiratorb. Time duration not doning/ wearing 1 hour 3M 6000 series half facepiece respiratorc. Time duration not doning/ wearing 2 hours 3M 6000 series half facepiece respirator when do not expose to xylene (Lunch ,safety briefing and prayers time)
  34. 34. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTCompliance with permissible exposure limit using respiratorBy applying the formula :Daily time-weighted exposure = (Cw tw + Cnwtnw + Cniltnw )for periods during respirator 12-houris worn and not worn (Dose)Step 1 :- Cw tw = exposure concentration, duration while wearing respirator = 7 ppm x 9 hours = 63 ppm
  35. 35. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTCompliance with permissible exposure limit using respiratorExplaination:Inhalation of exposure = Total Inward Facial Leakage x Exposurefor Xylene when respirator = 2% x 350 ppmIs worn = 7 ppm of Xylene APF = Co Total Inward Ci Types of Respirator Facial Leakage = 100% 2%Half Facepiece (Air 2% *50Purifying Respirator)Note:-Total Inward Facial Leakage of 2% is the maximum leakage for a given type of respiratorallowed by NIOSH,USA. APF is also known as Degree of Protection.* Assigned Protection Factors for the Revised Respiratory Protection Standard ; Occupational Safety andHealth Administration U.S. Department of Labor ; OSHA 3352-02, 2009
  36. 36. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTStep 2 :- Cnwtnw = exposure concentration, duration while not wearing respirator Exposure without wearing respirator (100% exposure) : 350 ppm of Xylene = (350 ppm x 1 hour) = 350 ppmStep 3 :- Cniltnw = rest period without exposure and not wearing respirator = zero exposure x 2 hours = 0 ppm
  37. 37. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFTStep 4 :- Total (Cw tw + Cnwtnw + Cniltnw ) divide by 12-hour (duration of exposure) = 63 ppm + 350 ppm + 0 ppm 12-hour = 34 ppm of Xylene (Dose) The normal PEL for Xylene 100 ppm is no longer valid for extended workshift.
  38. 38. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT34 ppm is the Daily Time-Weighted < 50 ppm adjusted PEL for Xylene usingAverage 12 hours exposure Brief & Scala Model for 12 hoursusing Full Facepiece (APR) work period.Occupational Disease can be avoided.Second recommendation:Half Facepiece APF can be selected provided the duration of exposure isreduced. Implement job rotation
  39. 39. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT LIMITATIONS ON BRIEF AND SCALE MODELNot applicable to justify very high exposures for shortdurationsNot appropriate for many of the metals and mineraldust.However, recommended standards for extendedworkshift operation, please refer to :-“Recommended Exposure Reduction Factors forWestern Australian Mining Industry”.
  40. 40. Reference :-Department of Minerals andEnergy WesternAustralia, Discussion Paper: Unusual Workshift andOccupational ExposureStandards. JOostehorf, 1983. DocumentNo. ZME263AA.
  41. 41. DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH PERMISSIBIE EXPOSURE LIMIT USING RESPIRATOR FOR EXTENDED WORKSHIFT LIMITATIONS ON BRIEF AND SCALE MODELExampleExposure to silica dust for extended workshift for 192 hours per month.Health effect of silica is Silicosis. Typical respiratory disease. ThresholdLimit Value for Silica is 0.025 mg/m3TLV Silica (R) Exposure Reduction Factor 170/xTLV/BEI x for more than working hours2011 ACGIH Booklet > 170 hours /month0.025 mg/m3 x 170[(R) means respirable] 192= 0.022 mg/m3Adjusted TLV for Silica Working hours = 0.022 mg/m3 of Silicagreater than 170 hours per month
  42. 42. Take Care and Good Luck

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