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WATER SHORTAGE ITS CAUSES, IMPACTS AND REMEDIAL MEASURES IN PAKISTAN

with two thirds of the earths surface covered by water, it is evidently clear that water is one of the most important elements responsible for life on earth. It is not only vital for sustenance of life but equally essential for the socioeconomic development. The global fresh water shortage and food security issues related to teeming billions of population necessitated the shifting of fresh water from agriculture to other more pressing uses. The country is facing the worst ever crises of water shortage for last many years, as water available for any given use has become increasingly scarce.

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WATER SHORTAGE ITS
CAUSES, IMPACTS AND
REMEDIAL MEASURES
IN PAKISTAN
BY
FARHAN HUSSAIN WAGAN
1
ABSTRACT
with two thirds of the earths surface covered by
water, it is evidently clear that water is one of the
most important elements responsible for life on
earth. It is not only vital for sustenance of life but
equally essential for the socioeconomic
development. The global fresh water shortage and
food security issues related to teeming billions of
population necessitated the shifting of fresh water
from agriculture to other more pressing uses. The
country is facing the worst ever crises of water
shortage for last many years, as water available for
any given use has become increasingly scarce.
2
IMPORTANCE
 Agriculture is important sector in the development
of country, taking broader perspective on
contribution of agriculture to gross domestic
production and including associated support
services, the agriculture actually accounts the major
portion of total economy.
 70% of the population depends directly upon
agriculture.
 Food and fibre is the basic need of our country.
 It makes possible in foreign exchange earning and
job employment.
3
 Improvement in agriculture productivity is must for
food security, at present from 80 Mha geographical
Area, 29.6 Mha is suitable for agriculture and from
that 13.3 Mha is canal irrigated and 3.5 is rain fed.
 Agriculture acts as an industry and it is gaining
recognition for its importance in combating wide
spread rural poverty and acts as stabilizing factor in
the national economy. It is clear from the above
facts that it becomes indispensable to manage
water resources and agriculture properly.
4
MATERIALS
 Very less downpour, the hydrological cycle
determines the set of processes that maintain the
flow of water through the system. The hydrological
cycle depends upon evaporation, due to high
contamination of wet lands, oceans, rivers the
process is affected badly. Cutting of large area of
jungle according to UN report in Pakistan from 7000
to 9000 hectares jungle is removed yearly and now
it is only 5% instead of 25% of total land.
5
IN-SUFFICIENT WATER STORAGES
 Canada ________ 694 MAF
 U.S.A. ________ 1420 MAF
 China ________ 2280 MAF
 India ________ 245 MAF
 Pakistan ________ 13.20 MAF due to silting up
of reservoirs.
 Warsak ________ 0.0495 MAF
 Rawal ________ 0.0475 MAF
 Mangla ________ 5.6000 MAF
 Tarbella ________ 10.2000 MAF
 Khan pur ________ 0.0590 MAF
 Tanda ________ 0.0788 MAF
 Hub ________ 0.0924 MAF
16.1272 MAF 6

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WATER SHORTAGE ITS CAUSES, IMPACTS AND REMEDIAL MEASURES IN PAKISTAN

  • 1. WATER SHORTAGE ITS CAUSES, IMPACTS AND REMEDIAL MEASURES IN PAKISTAN BY FARHAN HUSSAIN WAGAN 1
  • 2. ABSTRACT with two thirds of the earths surface covered by water, it is evidently clear that water is one of the most important elements responsible for life on earth. It is not only vital for sustenance of life but equally essential for the socioeconomic development. The global fresh water shortage and food security issues related to teeming billions of population necessitated the shifting of fresh water from agriculture to other more pressing uses. The country is facing the worst ever crises of water shortage for last many years, as water available for any given use has become increasingly scarce. 2
  • 3. IMPORTANCE  Agriculture is important sector in the development of country, taking broader perspective on contribution of agriculture to gross domestic production and including associated support services, the agriculture actually accounts the major portion of total economy.  70% of the population depends directly upon agriculture.  Food and fibre is the basic need of our country.  It makes possible in foreign exchange earning and job employment. 3
  • 4.  Improvement in agriculture productivity is must for food security, at present from 80 Mha geographical Area, 29.6 Mha is suitable for agriculture and from that 13.3 Mha is canal irrigated and 3.5 is rain fed.  Agriculture acts as an industry and it is gaining recognition for its importance in combating wide spread rural poverty and acts as stabilizing factor in the national economy. It is clear from the above facts that it becomes indispensable to manage water resources and agriculture properly. 4
  • 5. MATERIALS  Very less downpour, the hydrological cycle determines the set of processes that maintain the flow of water through the system. The hydrological cycle depends upon evaporation, due to high contamination of wet lands, oceans, rivers the process is affected badly. Cutting of large area of jungle according to UN report in Pakistan from 7000 to 9000 hectares jungle is removed yearly and now it is only 5% instead of 25% of total land. 5
  • 6. IN-SUFFICIENT WATER STORAGES  Canada ________ 694 MAF  U.S.A. ________ 1420 MAF  China ________ 2280 MAF  India ________ 245 MAF  Pakistan ________ 13.20 MAF due to silting up of reservoirs.  Warsak ________ 0.0495 MAF  Rawal ________ 0.0475 MAF  Mangla ________ 5.6000 MAF  Tarbella ________ 10.2000 MAF  Khan pur ________ 0.0590 MAF  Tanda ________ 0.0788 MAF  Hub ________ 0.0924 MAF 16.1272 MAF 6
  • 7. INDUS WATER TREATY Soon after 1947, the dispute of water distribution arose between india and pakistan. The treaty was signed through World bank in 1960. According to this treaty all waters of eastern rivers (Ravi-Beas and Sutlej) shall be un-restricted use of india. Total water sold 24 MAF, irrigating some area of 8 MA of land. The IWT took place in 62 million pounds. 7
  • 8. TOTAL AVAILABLE SURFACE WATER AND LOSSES IN PAKISTAN 142 MAF from all surface sources 50 MAF losses River and Sea 92MAF 29 MAF from canals 63 MAF 30 MAF addition from tube wells 93 MAF 37 MAF losses from W.Cs 56 MAF 14 MAF losses from lands 42 MAF Net uses 8
  • 9. IMPACTS OF WATER SHORTAGE  Shortage in cropped lands (out of 80 Mha, 29 Mha land is cultivable but only 17 Mha is hardly canal irrigated yet), therefore import of food grains put additional stress on economy.  Hydro Power. Pakistan has an estimated potential of 40,000 MW of hydro power in the upper Indus region; we have tapped only 13%.at present Pakistan has a power generation capacity of 19246 MW. Out of which only 30% is from hydel and nuclear where as 70% is from thermal. WAPDA has projected a power requirement of 75149 MW by year 2025, which can only be achieved by constructing additional storage dams. 9
  • 10.  Effects of urbanization / Industries. Water shortage in turn is also affecting:-  Availability of water for urban use.  Industrial use.  Flow downstream Kotri. Ground Water  Surface water has put tremendous pressure on ground water. Over drawing of ground water by users to compensate the shortage. In turn reduced recharcging owing to less percolation. This has result rising of saline water lens nearer to the ground surface. 10
  • 11. REMEDIAL MEASURES 1. Increase in water storage reservoirs. 2. Preparation of effective water policies. 3. Planning and preparation of water budget. 4. Management for harvesting seepage as well runoff. 5. Proper use of irrigation water. 6. Re-use of waste water for irrigation. 11
  • 12. EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT The water resources development is embedded in the socio-economic environment. The effective development depends upon:  Development policies be prepared by the state.  population growth.  Economic frame work, considering the agriculture as industry.  Availability water resources and effective harvesting methods of runoff.  Water wastage through entire system, percolation, evaporation and methods of irrigation.  Crop patronage, seasons, duration and effective rainfall. 12
  • 13.  Food and fibre demand and future requirement, considering the growth rate of population. More specific identification of issues will help in preparing various models for quality & quantity studies. 13
  • 14. RECOMMENDATIONS  Food and fibre is the pressing need of every one, there fore proper management of water resources is necessary.  Statistics of yearly water budget will help in effective planning of water resources.  A one century old irrigation system is now posing the serious problem of water wastage through seepage, it requires proper rehabilitation at required level.  The water users be awared properly about the importance, availability and effective use of water through social mobilization. 14
  • 15.  Institutional management, effective planning and wise use of water is the requirement of time.  Furrow as method of cultivation and trickle as method of irrigation be implemented effectively.  Water rights, rules and policies be framed to control wicked problems like tampering of modules, water theft and pilferage etc.  Instead of land tax, now Tax be fixed on water quantity 15